Encouraging International
Research-Practice Collaboration
Charles Wankel, Ph.D.
Professor of Management

St. John’s Univer...
THE BIRTHPLACE OF
INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION

In medieval Europe Irish
monks carried their learning
far and wide over the...
The Moors shared learning
Emerging from the dark age, Europe benefited by
receiving through the Moors learning in mathemat...
International Collaboration’s Importance

International collaboration in research
and teaching accelerated in importance
i...
The content of international
collaboration.
International collaboration occurs when scholars in
different countries work t...
INTERSECTORAL COLLABORATION
Academics have international collaborations
involving groups in other sectors such as industry...
Phases of collaboration
Phases of collaboration:
Mulling over focal topics to address
Researching streams of research
(Who...
Norms of International Collaboration
The legitimacy of international research
collaborations is a function of academe’s no...
FEWER BUT BETTER
One measure of the extent and success of
International collaboration is the number of joint
publications ...
CITATION OUTCOME
Conflicting Evidence - Leiumu and Korichevea
(2013) found international co-authored articles
weren’t cite...
Different strokes for different folks
Sometimes, there might be a divergence of
motivations for doing international collab...
Managing Stakeholder Expectations
Organizations in
international collaborations
must cope with the
incompatibilities of th...
Clarifying the rules, budget, timeframes
and responsibilities
One function of stakeholders of international
collaborations...
EU spurs to international collaboration
Funding of scholarship in the EU is increasingly
dependent of the level and intens...
International Mobility:
Erasmus Mundus
The Erasmus Mundus program intends to prepare
European and non-European participant...
Budgets: ours and theirs
In the current time of budgetary austerity in many
places, teaching and research are seen as like...
Power Dynamics
In international education projects, the
lead institution often dominates such
matters as communication mod...
Institutional Politics as a Hurdle
Within a university, politics
and predilections of
executives can result in
collaborati...
What time is it in the World?
Virtual global teams –
Virtual global teams can
operate synchronous and
asynchronously.
Sync...
Weathered and Experienced vs.
Chipper and Rearing to Go
A great predictor of propensity to enter into
international collab...
Eeny, meeny, miny, moe
Selection of international collaborators is often
influenced by the history, cultural and linguisti...
RE-RE-SPECT-SPECT
Respect for local cultures and communication practices
can impact the success of international collabora...
Networking Venues
Among the ways to internationalize faculty is
supporting their attendance at international
conferences, ...
LINKEDIN TO FIND
COLLABORATORS
IN ADVANCED SEARCH for example:
POSITION: PROFESSOR MANAGEMENT
NEAR: CHINA
KEYWORDS: INNOVA...
CREATE YOUR NETWORK
USING LINKED IN, BEFORE GOING TO VIENNA FOR
A CONFERENCE I ADDED 60 SOCIAL MEDIA
EXPERTS AS LINKEDIN C...
Transnational Education Hurdles
Four challenges to transnational education are:
arriving at common goals and expectations ...
Reading the Tea Leaves
Effective intercultural communication depends on
accurate translation of linguistic meaning and
gra...
INFERRING MEANING
Achieving mutual understanding can be difficult
because only a proportion of meaning can ever be
conveye...
COMMUNICATIONAL DIVERGENCE
When people have different preferences for
directness/indirectness and/or willingness to
disclo...
COMMUNICATION OF EMOTION
Sometimes, collaborators might hide misgivings in
their heart, leading to outbursts of
anger, com...
Contextual Influences on
Communication
It is hard to pick up contextual factors necessary to
understand communications, es...
LANGUAGE
One Chinese educator commenting on a BritishChinese collaborations said: “I think we should
show consideration fo...
Hitching your wagon to a fast track
foreign colleague
This can be a Naas Road (N7) to high quality results
in internationa...
SOME ARE COLLABORATION TARGETS OF
MANY
Well-known world-class foreign researchers foreign
are more likely to be invited in...
If you want to get something done, give it
to someone who is busy
Multiple Collaborations – It is possible to join
multipl...
SECRET OF SUCCESS IS NO SECRET
A secret of success to be at the center of global
innovation networks is for a university t...
Partnering with legitimate groups
International collaboration initiatives can be legitimated
by associated communities of ...
Less traveled path value
Though, colleagues in
less represented nations
are more gung-ho and
doing studies with them
can p...
Large-scale internationalization
In Brazil, the Science Without Borders program was
initiated to reverse the insulation of...
Doctoral Internationalization Consortia
The Doctoral Internationalization Consortia are a series of consortia in the
funct...
only 20 countries
International collaboration with China in higher
education was investigated across three levels
(collabo...
CHINA AND USA
The countries collaborating the most with China as
indicated by the number of co-authored papers in
2010: 42...
OTHERS JUMP OVER GREAT WALL TOO!
Other countries with significant Chinese
collaborations were:
Australia, Canada, Germany,...
Scope of international involvement
In many countries, a few elite research institutions
are involved in the preponderance ...
GLOBAL GRADUATES
Some universities aspire to develop “global
graduates” through internationalizing their
curriculum with s...
BORN GLOBAL STUDENTS & FACULTY
In some countries, a new academic culture is
emerging, such as in Korea, China, and Taiwan....
SOME LOOK NEXT DOOR

Regional collaboration is great between the US and
Canada and in the post-Lisbon Strategy of 2000
Eur...
CONNECT FROM HOME
Some government and foundation grant programs
aim at providing networks to people in developing
countrie...
SOME NATIONS HAVE A FOCAL HUB OR
HUBS FOR INTERNATIONAL
COLLABORATION

In some countries, such as
Uganda, there are key re...
SOME LACK HUB SOMETIMES
DISSIPATING THE RESEARCH CULTURE
In Kenya, in contrast to Uganda’s hub
university, there are multi...
GROWING NETWORK
Back in 2008, Leysdesdorff and Wagner fear 14
nations would come to monopolize the
international collabora...
40-50 NATIONS ARE INTERNATIONAL
COLLABORATION CORE
International co-authoring has been dominated by
certain European natio...
Main international collaboration nations:
See Ireland top center!
CHINA IS 1ST PARTNER OF USA
International collaboration can make it seem that
the US is a part of Europe, though in fact C...
A view of international collaboration
intensity
FRANCOPHONE NETWORK
Despite the nearly global use of English as the
language of research publication, the Francophone
coun...
INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION AS BAIT
Doctoral students find universities with
international collaborations more visible and...
INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION IS
EXCITING
It is more exciting to work with people with
different viewpoints.

Toral, Sergio ...
ENLIGHTENMENT FROM AFAR
There is a higher probability of learning new
notions and approaches in international
collaboratio...
DIVERSITY AND QUALITY
Studies of group creativity confirm that it is
diversity rather than conformity that leads to
higher...
HECK, 7 YEAR OLDS PLAY WITH KIDS
AROUND THE WORLD
Innovation in information and communication
technologies have eliminated...
FOR TEACHERS/STUDENTS ENRICHING
Cross-cultural learning experience for students and
faculty can be very enriching.

Suarez...
QUALITY MAY NOT BE DESIRED
Equality is not necessarily desired – Sending email
to a Chinese international collaborator can...
CHOICE AS REQUEST FOR EVERYTHING
In Chinese international educational exchanges
non-Chinese students might like a large di...
SUGGESTIONS SEEN AS VEILED ORDERS
Intercultural communication – One Chinese scholar
reported that the team at his institut...
Na zdrowie
Though a teetotaller at the time, as a visiting
professor in Poland I was pressured by my
colleagues at the Uni...
GETTING YOURS DUCKS IN ROW
Achieving legitimization of international
collaborations can be challenging since different
sta...
BEEN THERE, DONE THAT
Different universities have different abilities to
address insipient problems in international
colla...
LEARNING FROM INTERNATIONAL
COLLABORATION
Benefit of International Collaboration: Learning –
International collaborations ...
KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGES,
INNOVATIVENESS
International research collaborations foster mutual
learning through network of knowle...
POST 9/11 TRAVEL BUREAUCRACY
A barrier to international collaboration – scholars
in some nations are frustrated with trave...
FOREIGN COMMITTEE MEMBERS
Foreign examiners on PhD committees - In
Sweden, 43% of examiners are from abroad, most
commonly...
VALUE OF UNDESIRABLE FOREIGN
LOCALES
Unfavorable Times and Places – I was able to receive
a several thousand dollar a day ...
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Charles Wankel - IAM 2013 - Encouraging International Research-Proactice Collaboration

  1. 1. Encouraging International Research-Practice Collaboration Charles Wankel, Ph.D. Professor of Management St. John’s University, New York Irish Academy of Management Waterford September 4, 2013
  2. 2. THE BIRTHPLACE OF INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION In medieval Europe Irish monks carried their learning far and wide over the continent thus founding international collaboration in education. Karl W. Deutsch, Medieval Unity and the Economic Conditions for an International Civilization, The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political, Vol. 10, No. 1 (Feb., 1944), pp. 18-35
  3. 3. The Moors shared learning Emerging from the dark age, Europe benefited by receiving through the Moors learning in mathematics and other areas from the Islamic world. Yasuhara, Yoshihito. “Journey to an International Collaboration on the Origins of Higher Learning.” History of Education 42, no. 3 (2013, May): 299-305.
  4. 4. International Collaboration’s Importance International collaboration in research and teaching accelerated in importance in many nations in the 1980s as an important issue that a nation’s higher educational institutions must grapple with. Yasuhara, Yoshihito. “Journey to an International Collaboration on the Origins of Higher Learning.” History of Education 42, no. 3 (2013, May): 299-305.
  5. 5. The content of international collaboration. International collaboration occurs when scholars in different countries work together sharing resources including information and funding. Terreberry, Shirley. “The Evolution of Organizational Environments.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 12 (1968): 590-613. *
  6. 6. INTERSECTORAL COLLABORATION Academics have international collaborations involving groups in other sectors such as industry and government. Glänzel, Wolfgang, and Andras Schubert. “Analysing Scientific Networks through Co-Authorship.” in Handbook of Quantitative Science and Technological Research, eds. Henk F. Moed, Wolfgang Glänzel, and Ulrich Schmoch (Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004), 257-276.
  7. 7. Phases of collaboration Phases of collaboration: Mulling over focal topics to address Researching streams of research (Who are extending this work?) Suggesting, Agreeing, Planning and Preparing an international research project Doing it Evaluating it. Celebrating outcomes and benefits Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda, Joy Hammel, Liliana Mayo, Stephanie Inwald, and Supriya Sen. “Innovation in Global Collaborations: From Student Placement to Mutually Beneficial Exchanges.” Occupational Therapy International 20, no. 2 (2013, June): 94-101. Spencer-Oatey, Helen. “Maximizing the Benefits of International Education Collaborations: Managing Interaction Process.” Journal of Studies in International Education 17, no. 3 (2012, July): 244-261.
  8. 8. Norms of International Collaboration The legitimacy of international research collaborations is a function of academe’s norms of integrity, impartiality and collegiality. Oleksiyenk, Anatoly. “Organizational Legitimacy of International Research Collaborations: Crossing Boundaries in the Middle East.” Minerva 51, no. 1 (2013, March): 49-69.
  9. 9. FEWER BUT BETTER One measure of the extent and success of International collaboration is the number of joint publications generated. However, research has found that those engaged in domestic rather than international collaborations ended up with more publications. Though, the quality of the publications from international collaborations was higher. Katz, J. Sylvan, and Ben R. Martin. “What is Research Collaboration?” Research Policy 26, no. 1 (1997): 1-18.
  10. 10. CITATION OUTCOME Conflicting Evidence - Leiumu and Korichevea (2013) found international co-authored articles weren’t cited more than domestically co-authored papers in the field of ecology. Tang, Li. “Does ‘birds of a feather flock together’ matter – Evidence from a longitudinal study on US-China Scientific Collaboration.” Journal of Informetrics 7, no. 2 (2013): 330-344.
  11. 11. Different strokes for different folks Sometimes, there might be a divergence of motivations for doing international collaboration. One individual or institution might be focused on financial benefits and another on educational benefits and a third on research benefits. Of course, sometimes these are intertwined. For example, in the UK where institutional funding is associated with research productivity. Dunn, Lee, and Michelle Wallace. “Intercultural Communities of Practice.” in Teaching in Transnational Higher Education, ed. Lee Dunn and Michelle Wallace (London: Routledge, 2008), 249-259.
  12. 12. Managing Stakeholder Expectations Organizations in international collaborations must cope with the incompatibilities of the expectations of local and global stakeholders. Also, the expectations of particular stakeholders are sometimes dynamic and changing over the course of the project. Oleksiyenk, Anatoly. “Organizational Legitimacy of International Research Collaborations: Crossing Boundaries in the Middle East.” Minerva 51, no. 1 (2013, March): 49-69.
  13. 13. Clarifying the rules, budget, timeframes and responsibilities One function of stakeholders of international collaborations (grant givers etc.) is to help define the rules, budget, timeframes and accountability norms. Ryan, Christine, and Peter Walsh. “Collaboration of Public Sector Agencies: Reporting and Accountability Challenges.” International Journal of Public Sector Management 17, no. 7 (2004): 621-631. Jongbloed, Ben, Jürgen Enders, and Carlo Salerno. “Higher Education and its Communities: Interconnections, Interdependencies and a Research Agenda.” Higher Education 56, no. 3 (2008): 303-324.
  14. 14. EU spurs to international collaboration Funding of scholarship in the EU is increasingly dependent of the level and intensity of international collaboration. Though, sometimes EU structures seem to channel researchers towards other EU researchers rather than the world. Toral, Sergio Luis. “External Collaboration Patterns of Research Institutions Using Shared Publications in the Web of Science.” Program – Electronic Library and Information Systems 47, no. 2 (2013): 170-187.
  15. 15. International Mobility: Erasmus Mundus The Erasmus Mundus program intends to prepare European and non-European participants for life in a global, knowledge-leveraging society by supporting the international mobility of both scholars and students. Šiška, Jan. “From Vision to Reality: Managing Tensions in the Development and Implementation of an International Collaborative Partnership Programme for Institutional Change and Sustainable Development in Inclusive Education.” International Journal of Inclusive Education 17, no. 4 (2013, April): 336-348.
  16. 16. Budgets: ours and theirs In the current time of budgetary austerity in many places, teaching and research are seen as likely targets for snatching resources. While in other places higher education is still richly funded. Developing approaches that accommodate both situations can be difficult but necessary. That is, partnering with well-funded and less-funded colleagues. Colleagues from Botswana can get USAID grants to present at the Academy of Management, though only biennially. Spencer-Oatey, Helen. “Maximizing the Benefits of International Education Collaborations: Managing Interaction Process.” Journal of Studies in International Education 17, no. 3 (2012, July): 244-261.
  17. 17. Power Dynamics In international education projects, the lead institution often dominates such matters as communication modalities. That is, a structure, a hierarchy might seem to “emerge” for researchers from the more resource laden institution and nation yet seem to be more “imposed” for researchers from the less resource laden institution/nation. Leask, Betty. “Transnational Education and Intercultural Learning: Reconstructing the Offshore Teaching Team to Enhance Internationalisation.” Paper presented at the Australian Universities Quality Forum, “Quality in a Time of Change,” Adelaide, Australia, July 2004.
  18. 18. Institutional Politics as a Hurdle Within a university, politics and predilections of executives can result in collaborations with particular nations, institutions, or through particular faculty members being more supported with resources and approvals than others. Oleksiyenk, Anatoly. “Organizational Legitimacy of International Research Collaborations: Crossing Boundaries in the Middle East.” Minerva 51, no. 1 (2013, March): 49-69.
  19. 19. What time is it in the World? Virtual global teams – Virtual global teams can operate synchronous and asynchronously. Synchronous meetings can be problematic given time differences and differences in the robustness of technologies. However, mirror-image timeframes can enable “overnight” turnarounds of work by partners. Mortensen, Mark. “Constructing the Team: The Antecedents and Effects of Membership Model Divergence” (working paper, INSEAD, European Campus, Fontainebleau, France, 2013).
  20. 20. Weathered and Experienced vs. Chipper and Rearing to Go A great predictor of propensity to enter into international collaborations is having already done an international collaboration. They’ve already paid the start-up cost of learning each other’s languages, approaches, and methodologies. Cummings, Jonathon N., and Sara Kiesler. “Who Collaborates Successfully?: Prior Experience Reduces Collaboration Barriers in Distributed Interdisciplinary Research.” Paper presented at the ACM 2008 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, San Diego, CA, November 2008.
  21. 21. Eeny, meeny, miny, moe Selection of international collaborators is often influenced by the history, cultural and linguistic proximity of potential partner nations. Beaver, D. “Reflections on Scientific Collaborations (and its Study): Past, Present and Prospective.” Scientometrics 52, no. 3 (2001): 365-377.
  22. 22. RE-RE-SPECT-SPECT Respect for local cultures and communication practices can impact the success of international collaborations. Be prepared as the boy scouts say. An administrator from my university at a dinner given by our Lithuanian colleagues asked what that interesting vegetable on her plate was. She turned red and spastically choked when she found out it was lard she had been relishing. In English, phrases like “Be prepared” don’t have the same impact as in nations with declined nouns where the imperative case of it is more emphatic: “You be prepared!!!!” Munoz, Jaimie Phillip. “Culturally Responsive Caring in Occupational Therapy.” Occupational Therapy International 14, (2007): 256-280.
  23. 23. Networking Venues Among the ways to internationalize faculty is supporting their attendance at international conferences, enabling sabbaticals at foreign universities. Spencer-Oatey, Helen. “Maximizing the Benefits of International Education Collaborations: Managing Interaction Process.” Journal of Studies in International Education 17, no. 3 (2012, July): 244-261.
  24. 24. LINKEDIN TO FIND COLLABORATORS IN ADVANCED SEARCH for example: POSITION: PROFESSOR MANAGEMENT NEAR: CHINA KEYWORDS: INNOVATION RELATIONSHIP: GROUP MEMBERS, 1st Connections INDUSTRY: HIGHER EDUCATION
  25. 25. CREATE YOUR NETWORK USING LINKED IN, BEFORE GOING TO VIENNA FOR A CONFERENCE I ADDED 60 SOCIAL MEDIA EXPERTS AS LINKEDIN CONNECTIONS. I THEN ARRANGED A MEET-UP WITH THEM AT A VIENNESE CAFÉ. THEY WERE AMAZED THAT SOMEONE FROM NEW YORK COULD BRING THEM ALL TOGETHER WHEN THEY DID NOT KNOW EACH OTHER. THE POINT IS: YOU CAN CREATE YOUR NET WORK JUST IN TIME BEFORE YOU GO SOMEWHERE.
  26. 26. Transnational Education Hurdles Four challenges to transnational education are: arriving at common goals and expectations and negotiating relationships; achieving effective communications among institutions, educators, staff, and students; designing and delivering curriculum and assessment for “localized (yet) international” content and teaching approaches; and supporting transnational students. Dunn, Lee, and Michelle Wallace. “Intercultural Communities of Practice.” in Teaching in Transnational Higher Education, eds. Lee Dunn and Michelle Wallace (London: Routledge, 2008), 249-259. [p. 249]
  27. 27. Reading the Tea Leaves Effective intercultural communication depends on accurate translation of linguistic meaning and grasping the pragmatic meaning, deriving from background assumptions, implicit messages, etc. Spencer-Oatey, Helen. “Maximizing the Benefits of International Education Collaborations: Managing Interaction Process.” Journal of Studies in International Education 17, no. 3 (2012, July): 244-261. [p. 252]
  28. 28. INFERRING MEANING Achieving mutual understanding can be difficult because only a proportion of meaning can ever be conveyed explicitly. Much has to be left for the participants to work out, and in intercultural interaction, this can be particularly problematic because people may focus on different clues when inferring meaning and/or they may arrive at different meanings from the same clues. • DIRECT QUOTER FROM: P. 247 OF Spencer-Oatey, H., Işık-Güler, H., & Stadler, S. “Intercultural communication.” In The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Analysis, eds. Michael Handford and ames Paul Gee (London: Routledge, 2011), 572-586.
  29. 29. COMMUNICATIONAL DIVERGENCE When people have different preferences for directness/indirectness and/or willingness to disclose opinions, each party can find it difficult both to interpret and to accept. Dunn, Lee, and Michelle Wallace. “Intercultural Communities of Practice.” in Teaching in Transnational Higher Education, ed. Lee Dunn and Michelle Wallace (London: Routledge, 2008), 249-259.
  30. 30. COMMUNICATION OF EMOTION Sometimes, collaborators might hide misgivings in their heart, leading to outbursts of anger, complaints, or stony silence and withdrawal, as found in the case of Chinese collaborators with UK researchers. Spencer-Oatey, Helen. “Maximizing the Benefits of International Education Collaborations: Managing Interaction Process.” Journal of Studies in International Education 17, no. 3 (2012, July): 244-261.
  31. 31. Contextual Influences on Communication It is hard to pick up contextual factors necessary to understand communications, especially remotely. A solution to this is the inclusion of bilingual, culturallyaware individuals. Such people can describe and explain a range of issues, including the educational context, pedagogic beliefs and practices, management procedures, and the local ways of working and interacting, as was well best ways of handling such matters. Spencer-Oatey, Helen. “Maximizing the Benefits of International Education Collaborations: Managing Interaction Process.” Journal of Studies in International Education 17, no. 3 (2012, July): 244-261. [pp. 252-253]
  32. 32. LANGUAGE One Chinese educator commenting on a BritishChinese collaborations said: “I think we should show consideration for each other in terms of language. China is now developing very fast; they should know some Chinese to communicate with us… We have learned a lot of English, it’s their turn to learn some basic Chinese, as it is two-way communication. I find it weird that they don’t know even a word of Chinese”. Spencer-Oatey, Helen. “Maximizing the Benefits of International Education Collaborations: Managing Interaction Process.” Journal of Studies in International Education 17, no. 3 (2012, July): 244-261. [p 251]
  33. 33. Hitching your wagon to a fast track foreign colleague This can be a Naas Road (N7) to high quality results in international collaborations.
  34. 34. SOME ARE COLLABORATION TARGETS OF MANY Well-known world-class foreign researchers foreign are more likely to be invited into collaborations by virtue of being on the radar of colleagues in other nations. Of course, these might well be people who get things done. Schmoch, Ulrich, and Torben Schubert. “Are International Co-Publications an Indicator for Quality of Scientific Research?” Scientometrics 74, no. 3 (2008): 485-503. Kronegger, Luka, Franc Mali, Anuška Ferligoj, and Patrick Doreian. “Collaboration Structures in Slovenian Scientific Communities.” Scientometrics 90, (2012): 631-647.
  35. 35. If you want to get something done, give it to someone who is busy Multiple Collaborations – It is possible to join multiple international collaborations at the same time. There might be synergies or these might dissipate the effort available for any of them. Mortensen, Mark. “Constructing the Team: The Antecedents and Effects of Membership Model Divergence” (working paper, INSEAD, European Campus, Fontainebleau, France, 2013).
  36. 36. SECRET OF SUCCESS IS NO SECRET A secret of success to be at the center of global innovation networks is for a university to have top scholars with great networks. Toral, Sergio Luis. “External Collaboration Patterns of Research Institutions Using Shared Publications in the Web of Science.” Program – Electronic Library and Information Systems 47, no. 2 (2013): 170-187.
  37. 37. Partnering with legitimate groups International collaboration initiatives can be legitimated by associated communities of interest, such as local practitioners, sponsoring organizations, disciplinary networks, and global agencies. MacQueen, Graeme, and Joanna Santa-Barbara. “Peace Building Through Health Initiatives.” British Medical Journal, no. 321 (2000): 293-296. Markle, William H., Melanie A. Fisher, and Raymond Smego, Jr. Understanding Global Health (New York: McGraw-Hill Medical, 2007).
  38. 38. Less traveled path value Though, colleagues in less represented nations are more gung-ho and doing studies with them can provide very publishable unique findings given the incredible array of emergence and development issues.
  39. 39. Large-scale internationalization In Brazil, the Science Without Borders program was initiated to reverse the insulation of its research communities from the world. It is a largescale, nationwide scholarship program that is primarily funded by the Brazilian federal government. The program seeks to strengthen and expand Brazilian education in the areas of technology, innovation and competitiveness by providing opportunities for international studying to undergraduate and graduate students and researchers. The program is a joint effort of the Brazilian Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Science and Technology, through their respective funding agencies: CAPES and CNPq. Overarching Goal: to qualify 100,000 Brazilian students and researchers in top universities worldwide through 2014.
  40. 40. Doctoral Internationalization Consortia The Doctoral Internationalization Consortia are a series of consortia in the functional areas of business sponsored by the Centers for International Business Education and Research at Duke University, Purdue University, University of California - Los Angeles, University of Michigan, University of Pennsylvania, University of Texas at Austin, and the University of Washington. The purpose of these consortia is to provide doctoral students in all functional areas of business an international perspective regarding the major issues and research questions that are related to their disciplines. The consortia will bring doctoral students together with prominent faculty whose traditional areas or research has not been international in scope, but who have recently internationalized their work. Students will attend talks conducted by faculty members as well as participate in group discussion sessions in which international research agendas are developed. http://www.foster.washington.edu/centers/gbc/P ages/doc_consortia.aspx
  41. 41. only 20 countries International collaboration with China in higher education was investigated across three levels (collaborating countries, institutions and individuals). 95% of international co-authored papers represent collaboration with only 20 countries. The US thumb was in 40% of all. In the case of Chinese collaborations, Chinese immigrant scientists are heavily represented in collaborations with scholars in China. (Model for Irish?) Wang, Xianwen, Shenmeng Xu, Zhi Wang, Lian Peng, and Chuanli Wang. “International Scientific Collaboration of China: Collaborating Countries, Institutions and Individuals.” Scientometrics 95, no. 3 (2013): 885-894. [p. 885]
  42. 42. CHINA AND USA The countries collaborating the most with China as indicated by the number of co-authored papers in 2010: 42% were with USA authors, 10% with Japanese authors, and 9% with UK co-authors. Wang, Xianwen, Shenmeng Xu, Zhi Wang, Lian Peng, and Chuanli Wang. “International Scientific Collaboration of China: Collaborating Countries, Institutions and Individuals.” Scientometrics 95, no. 3 (2013): 885-894.
  43. 43. OTHERS JUMP OVER GREAT WALL TOO! Other countries with significant Chinese collaborations were: Australia, Canada, Germany, Singapore, France, Sou th Korea, Sweden, The Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland, Russia, Spain, Belgi um, India, Denmark, New Zealand, and Norway. Wang, Xianwen, Shenmeng Xu, Zhi Wang, Lian Peng, and Chuanli Wang. “International Scientific Collaboration of China: Collaborating Countries, Institutions and Individuals.” Scientometrics 95, no. 3 (2013): 885-894. [p. 889]
  44. 44. Scope of international involvement In many countries, a few elite research institutions are involved in the preponderance of international collaboration, in contrast, the US has a wide swath of universities involved. Tang, Li, and Philip Shapira. “China-US Scientific Collaboration in Nanotechnology: Patterns and Dynamics.” Scientometrics 88, no. 1 (2011, July): 1-16.
  45. 45. GLOBAL GRADUATES Some universities aspire to develop “global graduates” through internationalizing their curriculum with students studying in other nations. As the University of Manchester says: Employers are increasingly seeking to recruit “global graduates” – graduates who see the world through a wider lens and who have both global knowledge and cultural agility. Spencer-Oatey, Helen. “Maximizing the Benefits of International Education Collaborations: Managing Interaction Process.” Journal of Studies in International Education 17, no. 3 (2012, July): 244-261. http://www.careers.manchester.ac.uk/students/findingwork/workexperience/globalgraduates/
  46. 46. BORN GLOBAL STUDENTS & FACULTY In some countries, a new academic culture is emerging, such as in Korea, China, and Taiwan. There, junior scholars are more collaborative internationally than their seniors because they now are pressured to publish papers more. Shin, Jung Cheol, Soo Jeung Lee, and Yangson Kim. “Research Collaboration Across Higher Education Systems: Maturity, Language Use, and Regional Differences.” Studies in Higher Education 38, no 3 (2013, April): 425-440.
  47. 47. SOME LOOK NEXT DOOR Regional collaboration is great between the US and Canada and in the post-Lisbon Strategy of 2000 Europe. It has not fully blossomed yet in East Asia yet. I notice the UK and Ulster colleagues here. Archibugi, Daniele, and Alberto Coco. “International Partnerships for Knowledge in Business and Academia: A Comparison Between Europe and the USA.” Technovation 24, no.7 (2004, July): 517-528.
  48. 48. CONNECT FROM HOME Some government and foundation grant programs aim at providing networks to people in developing countries while encouraging and supporting their remaining in their home countries. Paina, Ligia, Freddie Ssengooba, Douglas Waswa, James M. M’lmunya, and Sara Bennett. “How Does Investment in Research Training Affect the Development of Research Networks and Collaborations?” Health Research Policy and Systems 11, (2013, May).
  49. 49. SOME NATIONS HAVE A FOCAL HUB OR HUBS FOR INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION In some countries, such as Uganda, there are key research universities, such as Makerere University that act as hub for research and a focal point for interfacing with foreign programs. Paina, Ligia, Freddie Ssengooba, Douglas Waswa, James M. M’lmunya, and Sara Bennett. “How Does Investment in Research Training Affect the Development of Research Networks and Collaborations?” Health Research Policy and Systems 11, (2013, May).
  50. 50. SOME LACK HUB SOMETIMES DISSIPATING THE RESEARCH CULTURE In Kenya, in contrast to Uganda’s hub university, there are multiple research institutions scattered around the country. However, this has dissipated the research culture at particular campuses, such as the University of Nairobi, though. Paina, Ligia, Freddie Ssengooba, Douglas Waswa, James M. M’lmunya, and Sara Bennett. “How Does Investment in Research Training Affect the Development of Research Networks and Collaborations?” Health Research Policy and Systems 11, (2013, May).
  51. 51. GROWING NETWORK Back in 2008, Leysdesdorff and Wagner fear 14 nations would come to monopolize the international collaboration network. However, over the past 5 years this group has almost tripled to 40 nations. Leydesdorff, Loet, Caroline S. Wagner, Han-Woo Park, and Jonathan Adams. “International Collaboration in Science: The Global Map and the Network.” Information Science & Library Science 22, no. 1 (2013): 87-94.
  52. 52. 40-50 NATIONS ARE INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION CORE International co-authoring has been dominated by certain European nations and the USA. Between 40-50 nations are at the center of the international networks. Almost all nations are involved in some international collaborations. Leydesdorff, Loet, Caroline S. Wagner, Han-Woo Park, and Jonathan Adams. “International Collaboration in Science: The Global Map and the Network.” Information Science & Library Science 22, no. 1 (2013): 87-94.
  53. 53. Main international collaboration nations: See Ireland top center!
  54. 54. CHINA IS 1ST PARTNER OF USA International collaboration can make it seem that the US is a part of Europe, though in fact China is the first partner of the US in terms of international co-authorship. In 2011, China and the USA was represented by 12,450 publications while the USUK was only 11,337 publications. Leydesdorff, Loet, Caroline S. Wagner, Han-Woo Park, and Jonathan Adams. “International Collaboration in Science: The Global Map and the Network.” Information Science & Library Science 22, no. 1 (2013): 87-94.
  55. 55. A view of international collaboration intensity
  56. 56. FRANCOPHONE NETWORK Despite the nearly global use of English as the language of research publication, the Francophone countries in Africa still tend to collaborate with each other to a large extent. Adams, Jonathan, Christopher King, and Daniel Hook. Global Research Report: Africa (Leeds, UK: Evidence Thomson Reuters, 2010).
  57. 57. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION AS BAIT Doctoral students find universities with international collaborations more visible and are attracted to them. Toral, Sergio Luis. “External Collaboration Patterns of Research Institutions Using Shared Publications in the Web of Science.” Program – Electronic Library and Information Systems 47, no. 2 (2013): 170-187.
  58. 58. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION IS EXCITING It is more exciting to work with people with different viewpoints. Toral, Sergio Luis. “External Collaboration Patterns of Research Institutions Using Shared Publications in the Web of Science.” Program – Electronic Library and Information Systems 47, no. 2 (2013): 170-187.
  59. 59. ENLIGHTENMENT FROM AFAR There is a higher probability of learning new notions and approaches in international collaborations. Burt, Ronald S. Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992).
  60. 60. DIVERSITY AND QUALITY Studies of group creativity confirm that it is diversity rather than conformity that leads to higher quality results. De Dreu, Carsten K.W., and Michael A. West. “Minority Dissent and Team Innovation: The Importance of Participation in Decision Making.” Journal of Applied Psychology 86, no. 6 (2001): 1191-1201.
  61. 61. HECK, 7 YEAR OLDS PLAY WITH KIDS AROUND THE WORLD Innovation in information and communication technologies have eliminated many barriers to collaborations with far-flung people. Li, Jane, and Toni Robertson. “Physical Space and Information Space: Studies of Collaboration in distributed Multi-Disciplinary Medical Team Meetings.” Behavior and Information Technology 30, no. 4 (2011): 443-454.
  62. 62. FOR TEACHERS/STUDENTS ENRICHING Cross-cultural learning experience for students and faculty can be very enriching. Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda, Joy Hammel, Liliana Mayo, Stephanie Inwald, and Supriya Sen. “Innovation in Global Collaborations: From Student Placement to Mutually Beneficial Exchanges.” Occupational Therapy International 20, no. 2 (2013, June): 94-101
  63. 63. QUALITY MAY NOT BE DESIRED Equality is not necessarily desired – Sending email to a Chinese international collaborator can be considered offensive if that person holds a higher status in their institution and their project. Since some superiors dislike equality, on occasion it might be better to submit paper or oral form reports. Spencer-Oatey, Helen. “Maximizing the Benefits of International Education Collaborations: Managing Interaction Process.” Journal of Studies in International Education 17, no. 3 (2012, July): 244-261.
  64. 64. CHOICE AS REQUEST FOR EVERYTHING In Chinese international educational exchanges non-Chinese students might like a large diversity of bibliographic recommendations to select from among, while Chinese students are used to learning whatever is presented to them, might misinterpret such an array as an expectation that they would read them all and consequently feel stressed. Spencer-Oatey, Helen. “Maximizing the Benefits of International Education Collaborations: Managing Interaction Process.” Journal of Studies in International Education 17, no. 3 (2012, July): 244-261.
  65. 65. SUGGESTIONS SEEN AS VEILED ORDERS Intercultural communication – One Chinese scholar reported that the team at his institution were initially unclear whether suggestions by the UK project manager were commands or what the timeframe they were to acted upon. However, they came to recognize they could take time to mull it over and then express their opinions. It turned out not to be a major problem. Spencer-Oatey, Helen. “Maximizing the Benefits of International Education Collaborations: Managing Interaction Process.” Journal of Studies in International Education 17, no. 3 (2012, July): 244-261.
  66. 66. Na zdrowie Though a teetotaller at the time, as a visiting professor in Poland I was pressured by my colleagues at the University of Warsaw to drink. For example, not drinking to someone’s health was an insult, though it seemed most toasts were na zdrowie. The point is to decide when to fold.
  67. 67. GETTING YOURS DUCKS IN ROW Achieving legitimization of international collaborations can be challenging since different stakeholders can have different notions of what is desirable or appropriate. Perrow, Charles. Organizational Analysis: A Sociological View (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1970). Ashforth, Blake E., and Barrie W. Gibbs. “The Double-Edge of Organizational Legitimation.” Organization Science 1, no. 2 (1990): 177-194.
  68. 68. BEEN THERE, DONE THAT Different universities have different abilities to address insipient problems in international collaborations. Generally, ones that are more established, complex, and with high interactive capacities are most skilled. Dowling, John, and Jeffrey Pfeffer. “Organizational Legitimacy: Social Values and Organizational Behavior.” The Pacific Sociological Review 18, no. 1 (1975): 122-136. Pfeffer, Jeffrey, and Gerald Salancik. The External Control of Organization: A Resource Dependence Perspective. (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003).
  69. 69. LEARNING FROM INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION Benefit of International Collaboration: Learning – International collaborations can be platforms for learning about: - foreign cultures - new topics - how to run such projects.
  70. 70. KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGES, INNOVATIVENESS International research collaborations foster mutual learning through network of knowledge exchanges. Participants are more innovative after figuring out how to make international collaboration work. Breschi, Stefano, and Francesco Lissoni. “Knowledge Spillovers and Local Innovation System: A Critical Survey.” Industrial and Corporate Change 10, no. 4 (2001): 975-1005.Hoekman, Jarno, Koen Frenken, and Frank Van Oort. “The Geography of Collaborative Knowledge Production in Europe.” Annals of Regional Science 43, no.3 (2009): 721-738.
  71. 71. POST 9/11 TRAVEL BUREAUCRACY A barrier to international collaboration – scholars in some nations are frustrated with travel restrictions and the time required to obtain visas. Oldham, Geoffrey. “International Scientific Collaboration: A Quick Guide.” SciDevNet, 2005, www.scidev.net/en/policy-briefs/international-scientific-collaboration-aquick-gui.html Bradley, Megan. “On the Agenda: North-South Research Partnerships and Agenda-Setting Process.” Development in Practice 18, no. 6 (2008): 673-685.
  72. 72. FOREIGN COMMITTEE MEMBERS Foreign examiners on PhD committees - In Sweden, 43% of examiners are from abroad, most commonly the USA and UK. The figure for Denmark is 39%. However, this does not seem to stimulate an increase international collaboration after a dissertation defense. Breimer, Lars H. “Swedish Biomedical PhD Examination: An International Forum and a Proposed Procedure for Europe.” Scientometrics 96, no. 1 (2013, July): 315322. [p. 315]
  73. 73. VALUE OF UNDESIRABLE FOREIGN LOCALES Unfavorable Times and Places – I was able to receive a several thousand dollar a day teaching contract from Columbia’s Business School in Siberia in January. To a certain extent other candidates were daunted by the minus 37 degrees Celsius temperature.

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