Electoral Systems
-Basic forms and impact on inclusiveness and
stability of the democratic institutions
in a ministerial f...
Electoral Systems, p2
The parliament in a “parliamentary system” is much
more powerful than in the presidential form of
go...
Electoral Systems, p3
This is also acknowledged by the request in
the FAB that the electoral system “shall allow
democrati...
Electoral Systems, p4
However, in order to provide the parliament
with the opportunity of mustering stable
majorities for ...
Electoral Systems, p5
So – let us have a view on the basic options for
a democratic electoral system (one person,
one vote...
Electoral Systems, p6
• Option 1: All members of the parliament are elected in one-seat local
constituencies (districts) b...
Electoral Systems, p7
• Option 2: Mixed system direct election and party list, separated. Part of the
members (i.e. 50%) a...
Electoral Systems, p8
Option 3
Party A (blue) wins 45% of the votes = 18 seats, Party B (green)
35% = 14 seats, Party C (p...
Electoral Systems, p9
Option 4: All members of the regional parliament are elected through party lists of
genuinely princi...
Electoral Systems, p10
• Option 4: The election of the members of the parliament takes place in multi-seat constituencies
...
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Electoral systems: Impacts on stability and inclusiveness of democratic institutions in a ministerial form of government

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Options on electoral systems for the Bangsamoro: Basic forms and impact on inclusiveness and stability of the democratic institutions in a ministerial form of government

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Electoral systems: Impacts on stability and inclusiveness of democratic institutions in a ministerial form of government

  1. 1. Electoral Systems -Basic forms and impact on inclusiveness and stability of the democratic institutions in a ministerial form of government – Presented by Dr. Peter Koeppinger, Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung International Expert on Government Systems
  2. 2. Electoral Systems, p2 The parliament in a “parliamentary system” is much more powerful than in the presidential form of government because it elects the head of government and controls the performance of the administration. For an electoral system “suitable to a ministerial form of government” (parliamentary system) it is therefore even more important than in a presidential system that it provides all relevant groups of citizens with the opportunity, to have their representatives elected into the parliament.
  3. 3. Electoral Systems, p3 This is also acknowledged by the request in the FAB that the electoral system “shall allow democratic participation”. The electoral system has to avoid situations in which only the majority of the citizens in the whole area or in its divided constituencies have a real chance of getting their representatives elected.
  4. 4. Electoral Systems, p4 However, in order to provide the parliament with the opportunity of mustering stable majorities for the election and continuous support of a stable government the electoral system has also to avoid outcomes with a high fractionalization of the parliament into numerous small groups.
  5. 5. Electoral Systems, p5 So – let us have a view on the basic options for a democratic electoral system (one person, one vote):
  6. 6. Electoral Systems, p6 • Option 1: All members of the parliament are elected in one-seat local constituencies (districts) by simple majority. In this example you see 40 members of a regional parliament elected each one in his separate constituency. The election process is simple: each voter has one vote. Advantage: The constituencies are small, the voters know the candidates. Risk: Will the winners from the different constituencies work together in the parliament? What binds them together? Can genuine political parties play a role – or is it just about representation of local issues?
  7. 7. Electoral Systems, p7 • Option 2: Mixed system direct election and party list, separated. Part of the members (i.e. 50%) are elected in local districts, the other part through party lists of genuinely principled political parties for the whole country/region. Each voter has two votes: one for the representative of his local district, one for a party list. List 1, 20 per- sons List 2, 20 per- sons List 3, 20 per- sons 20 directly elected district representatives 20 representatives from party lists elected in accordance to their percentage of votes
  8. 8. Electoral Systems, p8 Option 3 Party A (blue) wins 45% of the votes = 18 seats, Party B (green) 35% = 14 seats, Party C (pink) 20 % = 8 seats Party A with 18 seats, 15 Winners in Districts, 3 top From its Party list Party B with 14 seats, 4 winners in Districts, 10 Top from its Party list Party C With 8 Seats, 1 Winner From District, 7 Top from Its party list Mixed system direct elections and proportional elections combined, each voter has two votes, one in His district, one for a party list
  9. 9. Electoral Systems, p9 Option 4: All members of the regional parliament are elected through party lists of genuinely principled political parties for the whole country/region. Simple electoral process: Each voter has one vote. Advantage: genuinely principled political parties will play a strong role. Disadvantages: Representation of regions/provinces not sure, no direct accountability to electorate. 40 representatives of party lists elected according their percentage of votes List 1, 40 persons List 2, 40 persons List 3, 40 persons List 4, 40 persons List 5, 40 persons
  10. 10. Electoral Systems, p10 • Option 4: The election of the members of the parliament takes place in multi-seat constituencies within the existing provinces through provincial party lists under genuinely principled political parties in a proportional way. Simple electoral process: Each voter has one vote. Advantages: Gives parties a strong role in the provinces, where they are strong. Elected representatives are accountable to citizens in their respective provinces. 40 members of parliament are elected from provincial party lists according to their percentage of votes in the respective provinces. Province A 6 representatives Province B 4 representatives Province C 9 representatives Province D 11 representatives Province F 5 representatives Province E 5 representat.

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