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Burmese History

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  • 1. Hyohyun Lee TSEA: Period 1 March 15, 2010 1 Burma Poster Research Ancient History [Early History] 1. The first identifiable civilsation is Pyu a) Pyu: - arrived in Burma in the 1st century BC - Established city kingdoms at Binnaka, Mongamo, Sri Ksetra, Peikthanomyo, and Halingyi - known as a humane & peaceful people (far from war) - Theravada Buddhism - Not a kingdom – the most powerful city = Sri Ksetra (largest) 2. Mon - The 6th century Mon kingdom in Thailand extended its frontiers. - shifted further west deeper into present day Burma - Indian culture + Theravada Buddhism - founded kingdoms in lower Burma (Thaton Kingdom) 3. Pagan (1044-1287) a) Capital (Pagan) located on the Irrawaddy River b) Burma’s golden age c) 13,000 temples were built d) Anawrahta (ruled 1044-1077) - United the kingdom and introduced Theravada Buddhism - defeat the Mon kingdom of Thaton in 1057 e) broke up in 1287 Capital was overrun by soldiers from Kubilai Khan’s Mongol empire 4. Small kingdoms - after fall of Pagan, the kingdom was broken up into several small kingdoms a) Ava (1364-1555) - under repeated Shan raids - In 1527, fell to a confederation of Shan States led by Mohnyin, which ruled much of Upper Burma from Ava until 1555 b) Hanthawaddy Pegu (1287-1539) - founded in Martaban - capital shifted to Pegu in 1369 - under Queen Shin Sawbu and her successor King Dhammazedi -> golden age - flourish of Mon language and culture / Theravada Buddhism ↓Pagan Kingdom
  • 2. Hyohyun Lee TSEA: Period 1 March 15, 2010 2 c) Shan States (1287-1557) - Shans (came down with the Mongols) dominate much of northern to eastern of Burma - The most powerful Shan states = Mohnyin & Mogaung - Mohnyin constantly raided Ava’s territory throughout 15th and early 16th centuries d) Arakan (1287-1784) e) Toungoo (1531-1752) - broke away from the Ava kingdom - After the conquest of Ava by the Monhyin Shans in 1527, many fled to Toungoo - European traders – Burma as an important trading center - Tabinshwehti moved his capital to Pegu due to its strategic position for commerce - King Bayinnaung founded the largest empire in Burmese history / conquered Ava (1555), Shan States (1557), Lan Na (Chiang Mai, 1558), Ayutthaya (1564, 1569) f) Konbaung Dynasty (1752-1885) - second largest Burmese empire ↓SEA in 1540 →Toungoo Kingdom