Special Considerations for Teaching Listening and Speaking Group 3 Jeanne KrauseJonathan KunzCarmela LemonHyeJeoung Kim
Student Interviews/Role playing Set up a time to personally interview students about their previous formal instruction experiences Role play “What if……?” scenarios that examine how we might communicate wants, needs, or address them in the classroom
Use Technology to demonstrate what an active learning classroom full of students should look like……
All of these examples are indirect ways of showing students what is acceptable and the varied ways of communicating in a community of learners without telling them directly.
What environment allows for an attitude of active learning to take place? Allow for an environment of rich language to be heard and spoken by the teacher and peers Give students many authentic opportunities to communicate and show the benefits of using such language Openly discuss the personal, educational, and vocational benefits of the language they are pursuing as a reminder of purpose Allow for a balanced amount of classroom participation that is unbiased by using tools to call upon students randomly so no one student dominates the discourse When students do use their learned language skills, be mindful to give positive, yet instructional feedback
Inclusivity Students who feel included are more apt to speak out Use multicultural texts
Enjoy the likenesses and celebrate the diversity Students are more apt to speak out and/or listen to each other when they feel a “part of”
American Classrooms No longer a melting pot; now a giant buffet table to which each student brings a tasty story to tell Some will like what you bring; others will not
Overview for the above section Students who feel included are more willing to speak out Students who feel safe in their learning environment are more willing to listen and respond Students are naturally curious about different cultures, so let each culture be represented Encourage students to collaborate and learn together in a safe, positive environment.
Why teaching pronunciation is a special consideration? Pronunciation is an integral part of ESL/EFL in that it affects learners’ communicative competence and performance. In spite of the role of pronunciation in Language Learning, it’s been overlooked by teachers, the curriculum/syllabus designers. We as teachers need to ascertain a level or variety and the aspects of ESL pronunciation that has close connection with other areas (listening, learners’ reading and spelling).
4 Specific Considerations in Teaching Pronunciation The absence or exclusion of ESL/EFL pronunciation from the curriculum, syllabus and classroom activities The lack of materials which have pronunciation components and lessons or pronunciation tips Teachers do not have formal and adequate training in English phonetics and phonology as well as ESL/EFL pronunciation teaching. The lack of useful strategies or techniques for teaching ESL/EFL pronunciation
What should be taught in a pronunciation class?
The level, variety or accent of ESL pronunciation
As English become international language, the goal of learning pronunciation is not to get native-speaker like accents but to develop intelligible, communicable pronunciation.
The aspects, components or features of ESL pronunciation
ESL/EFL pronunciation teaching should cover both the segmentals and the suprasegmentals as well as the training of the speech organs.
Teaching approaches in pronunciation Bottom-up approach starts the articulation of individual sounds or phonemes and works up towards stress, rhythm, tone and intonation (segmentals -> suprasegmentals) Top-down or research approach begins with patterns of intonation and bring s separate sounds or phonemes into sharper focus. This is more effective in teaching ESL pronunciation (suprasegmentals -> segmentals)
5 Tips for teaching pronunciation in classroom Utilization of known sounds Teachers help learners compare the sounds of the target language with those of learners mother tongue. Communication activities Teachers design communicative tasks affording to learners’ linguistic level in order to practice particular sounds that learners don’t use when they speak mother tongue.
Written versions of oral presentations Teachers give strategies for analyzing the written materials of learners’ oral presentation. Tutorial sessions and self-study Teachers make tutorial sessions to give learners a diagnostic analysis of each learner’s spoken English and design individualized program for each learner. Computer-assisted language learning Teachers exploit CALL to help learners become more autonomous. Learners can study at his/her own pace and Teachers can monitor learners’ weak point and strong point in ESL pronunciation with making learners build profiles.
Colloquialisms, Idioms, & Slang Whazzup? How’s it going? Sup, Dawg? As taken from the Supplementary readings, these colloquialism are not meant to dumb down speaking, however are not used in what is known as Formal Speaking. According to “Making Sense of English: An Introduction to American Slang, Colloquialisms and Idioms” by Shelley Motz, many international students master the English language. However, they have trouble understanding some conversations.
The reason is (ESL) or English as a Second Language. According to the article, “ESL classes cannot adequately prepare these students for the everyday use of slangs, idioms, and colloquialisms.”
Slang What is Slang? According to the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, slang is “very informal usage in vocabulary and idiom that is characteristically more metaphorical, playful, elliptical, vivid and ephemeral than ordinary language”.
Idioms An idiom is an expression “whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent elements…or from the general grammatical rules of a language”. As Mark Algren, Language Specialist at the Applied English Center of the University of Kansas, observed sports idioms are among the most common in everyday speech in the US. What are some of the sports idioms you are likely to hear? What do they mean?
Examples of Idioms Drop the ball: make an error or mistake Get your feet wet: start a new project cautiously Know the score: know the facts about something in particular Out in left field: offbeat or unusual Team player: someone who works well with others to achieve a goal
Colloquialism What is a Colloquialism? A colloquialism is “characteristic of or appropriate to ordinary or familiar conversation rather than formal speech or writing”. Colloquialisms often reflect regional characteristics; a phrase that is commonly understood in the South, for example, may not be recognized in other parts of the US.
Helping Students According to the article, it’s recommended that students, especially international students keep a vocabulary log. This would be essential and beneficial for students to write down certain phrases or words they don’t quite understand. Also keep track of how many times they hear the expressions used in order to understand what conditions they are used.
Final Considerations… “Respect the language of one’s students, and they will appreciate yours as well”