Visual Dictionary Materials, Methods, and Equipment I By: HVAC
Air Barrier Paper
Also called “housewrap.”
A polyolefin sheet material that is permiable to water vapor but not to liquid water or air.
Allows water vapor to escape, but also keeps house cooler in the summer by preventing conduction of solar heat through the roofing and roof sheathing. It prevents excess heat build up in the summer and also it lowers energy cost.
A hydraulic excavating machine consisting of a tractor having an attached hinged boom, with a bucket with movable jaws on the end of the boom.
Backhoe 21 ½’’ Bucket Width
A temporary frame built just outside the corner of an excavation to carry marks that lie on the surface planes of the basement that will be built in the excavation.
Centering - Temporary form work for an arch, dome, or vault.
Brick Arches Cont… Gothic Arch Segmental Arch Keystone Arch with a Keystone
Running Bond- Courses consist of all stretchers
English Bond- One course of headers, followed by one course of stretchers, followed by another course of stretchers
Common Bond- One course of headers followed by multiple courses of stretchers
Flemish Bond- Courses alternate between headers and stretchers
English Garden Wall- One course alternates between headers and stretchers
Stretchers Running Bond- Courses consist of all Stretchers
Brick Bonds Cont… Soldiers Rowlocks Header Flemish Bond- Courses alternate between headers and stretchers.
Brick Bonds Continued…
Monk Bond- Courses alternate between two stretchers and one header
Stack Bond- All stretchers, vertical and horizontal joints line up. This is the weakest type of bond.
Brick Bonds Cont… Shiner
Brick Sizes Utility Brick Dimensions: 3 5/8’’ x 3 5/8’’ x 11 5/8’’ Standard Brick Dimensions: 3 5/8’’ x 2 ¼’’ x 8’’
A tractor with a large, shovel-like blade on the front, for pushing or moving earth, debris, etc...
Cladding Stone- Coursed Ashlar Wood Boards
Cladding Cont… Brick Wood Shakes- A shingle split from a block of wood. Wood Shingles- A shingle sawn From a block of wood
Cladding Cont… EIFS
International Building Code-For Emergency Escapes
Max sill height above the floor = 44 inches
Minimum Net Opening size of 5.7 square feet
Minimum Net Width= 20 inches
Minimum Net Height= 24 inches
My Egress Window:
Width= 31 inches
Height= 30 Inches
Net Opening= 6.46 Square Feet
Sill Height= 21 ½ inches
Code Requirements Cont…
International Building Code
Requirements for Stairs:
Minimum 10’’ treads
Maximum 7 ¾’’ risers
My Stair Dimensions:
Riser= 7 ½’’
Tread= 10 ½’’
MEETS CODE 7 ½’’ > 7’’ 10 ½’’ > 10’’
Control Joint- An intentional, linear discontinuity in a structure or component, designed to form a plane of weakness where cracking can occur in response to various forces so as to minimize or eliminate cracking elsewhere in the structure.
Isolation Joint- A joint, suck as an expansion joint, between two adjacent concrete slabs that are not in contact.
Isolation Joint- The column is being isolated from the slab. Failed Control Joint
Concrete Masonry Unit
AKA - CMU, Concrete Blocks
A block of hardened concrete, with or without hollow cores, designed to be laid in the same manner as a brick or stone. One course of CMU equals three courses of brick.
Decorative Concrete Masonry Units Ribbed Split Face Block Split Block
Flush Door- A door with smooth, planar surfaces
Panel Door- A wood door in which one or more thin panels are held by stiles and rails
Transom- A small window directly above a door
Sidelight- A tall, narrow window alongside a door
Transom Sidelight Flush Door
Doors Cont… 3 Panel Door Top Rail Panel Stile Lock Rail Bottom Rail
Transformer- An electrical device that changes the voltage of alternating current
Service Head- The assembly by which electricity is conducted from outdoor lines to the meter base
Meter- Allows operator to monitor voltage of each electrical phase
Service Panel- Where the operator can turn the electrical power on and off
Duplex Receptacle- Outlet with two receptacles which are used to provide individual plug in points for power distribution.
1. Transformer 2. Service Head 3. Meter
4. Service Panel 5. Duplex Receptacle
Framing Elements 1. Anchor Bolt 2. Sill Plate Anchor Bolt- A bolt embedded in concrete For the purpose of fastening a building Frame to a concrete or masonry foundation. Sill Plate- The strip of wood that lies immediately on top of a concrete or masonry foundation in wood frame construction.
Framing Elements Cont… 3. Floor Joist A horizontal, structural framing member that supports floor loads.
Framing Elements Cont… 4. Subflooring Subflooring- A rough floor over which a finished floor, flooring material, or carpet is laid. 5. Sole Plate Sole Plate- The horizontal piece of dimension lumber at the bottom of the studs in a wall in a light frame building. Under the Top Plate
Framing Elements Cont… 6. Stud Stud- One of an array of small, Parallel wall framing members Top Plate- The horizontal member at the top of a stud wall 7. Top Plate
Framing Elements Cont… 8. Ceiling Joist Ceiling Joist- One of a series of Parallel framing members used to Supports ceiling loads and supported In turn by larger beams, girders, Or bearing walls. 9. Rafter Rafter- A framing member that runs up and down the slope of a steep roof.
Framing Elements Cont… 10. Roof Decking Roof Decking- The structural surface Roofing materials are attached. 11. Sheathing Sheathing- The rough covering applied to the outside of the roof, wall, or floor framing of a light frame structure.
Framing Elements Cont… Stringer- The sloping wood or steel member That supports the treads of a stair. 12. Stringer
An interior facing panel consisting of gypsum core sandwiched between paper faces; also called drywall or plasterboard
A device that utilizes a refrigeration cycle either to heat or cool a building by passing air or water over either the condensing coils or evaporating coils, respectively.
Compressor/Evaporator- The exterior component of a heat pump in which a fan moves air across coils containing refrigerant.
Air Handling Unit- Sends cool refrigerant to a coil in the supply duct that cools the circulated air; a heating coil is used in the process where heat is needed.
Heat Pump Continued…
Advantage- Rapid Response Time
Disadvantage- Relatively Noisy
Air Handling Unit
Purpose: Creates a thermal envelope around the conditioned (heated and/or cooled) spaces in a house.
Batt/Blanket Insulation Rigid Board Loose Fill Foam Insulation
A beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door opening.
A substance used to join masonry units, consisting of cementious material, fine aggregates, and water.
Extruded Mortar Joint Raked Mortar Joint Not Tooled or Troweled Tooled
Oriented Strand Board (OSB)
A building component composed of long strands of wood fiber oriented in specific directions and bonded together under pressure. OSB is a nonveneered product.
Process : Long strands of wood particles are compressed and glued into three to five layers. The grain of the two outside layers should be facing in the same direction, while the interior layers should have the grain running perpendicular to each other.
Lavatory - A washbowl or basin, especially one permanently installed with running water. Drained with a land of half inch pipe.
Water Closet - An enclosed room or compartment containing a toilet bowl fitted with a mechanism for flushing.
Plumbing Vent- Vents provide for relief of sewer gases, admission of oxygen for aerobic sewage digestion, and maintenance of the trap water seals which prevent sewer gases from entering the building.
Lavatory Typical Drain Pipe: 1 ½’’ Water Closet
Plumbing Cont… Vent Through Roof
A wood panel composed of an odd number of wood veneers bonded together under pressure.
Veneer - A thin layer, sheet, or facing.
Process: rotary sliced, clipped into sheets, dried, then glued together with the grain of the two outside panels running in the same direction and the grain of the interior panels running perpendicular to each other.
A reflective foil placed adjacent to an airspace in a roof or wall assemblies as a deferent to the passage of infrared energy.
Steel reinforced bars used in concrete or masonry.
Bars are ribbed for the purpose of better adhesion to concrete.
½’’ diameter #4 Rebar
Steep Roof Drainage
Gutter - A channel that collects the rainwater and snowfall at the eave of the roof
Downspout - Vertical pipe for conducting water from roof to a lower level
Splashblock - A small precast block of concrete used to divert water at the bottom of a downspout. Helps prevent Erosion.
Gutter Downspout Splashblock
Steep Roof Materials
Underlayment - A layer of waterproofing material such as building felt between roof sheathing and the roofing. It is used to protect the building from precipitation before the roof is applied.
Shingle - A small unit of water resistant material nailed in overlapping fashion with many other such units to render a wall of sloping roof watertight.
Preformed Metal Roof - Small sheets of preformed metal installed by ingenious methods of joining to maintain water tightness at the seams.
Clay Tile Roof Underlayment
Steep Roof Materials Cont… Metal Shingles Preformed Metal Roof
Steep Roof Shapes Gambrel Mansard Hip Gabble
Steep Roof Terms
Ridge - Level of intersection of two roof planes on a gable roof.
Valley - A trough formed by the intersection of two roof planes.
Eave - Horizontal edge at the low edge of a sloping roof.
Rake - Sloping edge of a steep roof
Fascia - The exposed vertical face of an eave
Soffit - Undersurface of a horizontal element of a building such as a roof overhang.
Steep Roof Terms Cont… Eave Rake Fascia
Steep Roof Terms Cont… Soffit Roof with no Fascia
Stone Random Rubble Coursed Ashlar Coursed Rubble Random Ashlar
A layer of material intended to obstruct the passage of water vapor through a building assembly.
Is placed on the inside of insulation!
Protects the foundation wall from the moisture in the earth.
A small opening in masonry walls whose purpose is to permit drainage of water that accumulates inside a building component or assembly.
Welded Wire Fabric
A grid of steel rods welded together used to reinforce a concrete slab
Windows Double Hung- Has two moving sashes that slide up and down. Sliding- Slides on two tracks on the top and bottom of the window. Outswinging Casement- It is hinged along the side of the window.