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Microsoftofficeexcel2007top100simplifiedtipsandtricks 100127223522-phpapp01 (1)

Microsoftofficeexcel2007top100simplifiedtipsandtricks 100127223522-phpapp01 (1)



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    Microsoftofficeexcel2007top100simplifiedtipsandtricks 100127223522-phpapp01 (1) Microsoftofficeexcel2007top100simplifiedtipsandtricks 100127223522-phpapp01 (1) Document Transcript

    • by Denise Etheridge01_126745 ffirs.qxp 6/5/07 6:58 PM Page i
    • 02_126745 ftoc.qxp 6/5/07 6:59 PM Page 1
    • by Denise Etheridge01_126745 ffirs.qxp 6/5/07 6:58 PM Page i
    • U.S. SalesContact Wiley at(800) 762-2974 orfax (317) 572-4002.LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THEPUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONSOR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY ORCOMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK ANDSPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDINGWITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR APARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATEDOR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THEADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BESUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITHTHE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOTENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHERPROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE ISREQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONALPERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NORTHE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISINGHEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION ORWEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATIONAND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATIONDOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHERENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION ORWEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAYMAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THATINTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVECHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORKWAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ.FOR PURPOSES OF ILLUSTRATING THE CONCEPTS ANDTECHNIQUES DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOK, THE AUTHOR HASCREATED VARIOUS NAMES, COMPANY NAMES, MAILING,E-MAIL AND INTERNET ADDRESSES, PHONE AND FAXNUMBERS AND SIMILAR INFORMATION, ALL OF WHICHARE FICTITIOUS. ANY RESEMBLANCE OF THESE FICTITIOUSNAMES, ADDRESSES, PHONE AND FAX NUMBERS ANDSIMILAR INFORMATION TO ANY ACTUAL PERSON, COMPANYAND/OR ORGANIZATION IS UNINTENTIONAL AND PURELYCOINCIDENTAL.Excel®2007: Top 100Simplified®Tips & TricksPublished byWiley Publishing, Inc.111 River StreetHoboken, NJ 07030-5774Published simultaneously in CanadaCopyright © 2007 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis,IndianaLibrary of Congress Control Number: 2007926010ISBN: 978-0-470-12674-5Manufactured in the United States of America10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning orotherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 ofthe 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the priorwritten permission of the Publisher, or authorization throughpayment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the CopyrightClearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923,978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600. Requests to the Publisherfor permission should be addressed to the Legal Department,Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis,IN 46256, 317-572-3447, fax 317-572-4355, online:www.wiley.com/go/permissions.Trademark AcknowledgmentsWiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, Visual, the Visual logo,Simplified, Read Less - Learn More, and related trade dress aretrademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.and/or its affiliates. Microsoft and Excel are registered trademarksof Microsoft Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries. Allother trademarks are the property of their respective owners.Wiley Publishing, Inc. is not associated with any product orvendor mentioned in this book.Contact UsFor general information on our other products and servicescontact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at800-762-2974, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax317-572-4002.For technical support please visit www.wiley.com/techsupport.01_126745 ffirs.qxp 6/5/07 6:58 PM Page ii
    • “I have to praise you and your company on thefine products you turn out. I have twelve Visualbooks in my house. They were instrumental inhelping me pass a difficult computer course.Thank you for creating books that are easy tofollow. Keep turning out those quality books.”Gordon Justin (Brielle, NJ)“What fantastic teaching books you haveproduced! Congratulations to you and your staff.You deserve the Nobel prize in Education. Thanksfor helping me understand computers.”Bruno Tonon (Melbourne, Australia)“A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words! If yourlearning method is by observing or hands-ontraining, this is the book for you!”Lorri Pegan-Durastante (Wickliffe, OH)“Over time, I have bought a number of your‘Read Less - Learn More’ books. For me, they areTHE way to learn anything easily. I learn easiestusing your method of teaching.”José A. Mazón (Cuba, NY)“You’ve got a fan for life!! Thanks so much!!”Kevin P. Quinn (Oakland, CA)“I have several books from the Visual series andhave always found them to be valuableresources.”Stephen P. Miller (Ballston Spa, NY)“I have several of your Visual books and they arethe best I have ever used.”Stanley Clark (Crawfordville, FL)“Like a lot of other people, I understand thingsbest when I see them visually. Your books reallymake learning easy and life more fun.”John T. Frey (Cadillac, MI)“I have quite a few of your Visual books and havebeen very pleased with all of them. I love the waythe lessons are presented!”Mary Jane Newman (Yorba Linda, CA)“Thank you, thank you, thank you...for making itso easy for me to break into this high-tech world.”Gay O’Donnell (Calgary, Alberta,Canada)“I write to extend my thanks and appreciation foryour books. They are clear, easy to follow, andstraight to the point. Keep up the good work! Ibought several of your books and they are justright! No regrets! I will always buy your booksbecause they are the best.”Seward Kollie (Dakar, Senegal)“I would like to take this time to thank you andyour company for producing great and easy-to-learn products. I bought two of your books from alocal bookstore, and it was the best investmentI’ve ever made! Thank you for thinking of usordinary people.”Jeff Eastman (West Des Moines, IA)“Compliments to the chef!! Your books areextraordinary! Or, simply put, extra-ordinary,meaning way above the rest! THANKYOUTHANKYOU THANKYOU! I buy them for friends,family, and colleagues.”Christine J. Manfrin (Castle Rock, CO)PRAISE FOR VISUAL BOOKS01_126745 ffirs.qxp 6/5/07 6:58 PM Page iii
    • CREDITSABOUT THE AUTHORProject EditorSarah HellertAcquisitions EditorJody LefevereCopy EditorKim HeuselTechnical EditorSuzanne Borys, PhDJames Floyd KellyEditorial ManagerRobyn SieskyBusiness ManagerAmy KniesEditorial AssistantLaura SiniseManufacturingAllan ConleyLinda CookPaul GilchristJennifer GuynnBook DesignKathie RickardProduction CoordinatorErin SmithLayoutCarrie A. FosterJennifer MayberryHeather PopeAmanda SpagnuoloScreen ArtistJill A. ProllProofreaderBroccoli Information ManagementQuality ControlCynthia FieldsJessica KramerCharles SpencerIndexerInfodex Indexing Services, Inc.Wiley Bicentennial LogoRichard J. PacificoSpecial HelpMalinda McCainBarbara MooreChristine WilliamsVice President and ExecutiveGroup PublisherRichard SwadleyVice President and PublisherBarry PruettComposition DirectorDebbie StaileyDenise Etheridge is a certified public accountant as well asthe president and founder of Baycon Group, Inc. She publishesWeb sites, provides consulting services on accounting-relatedsoftware, and authors computer-related books. You can visitwww.baycongroup.com to view her online tutorials.This book is dedicated to my mother, Catherine Austin Etheridge01_126745 ffirs.qxp 6/5/07 6:58 PM Page iv
    • HOW TO USE THIS BOOKExcel 2007: Top 100 Simplified®Tips & Tricks includes 100 tasks that reveal cool secrets, teach timesaving tricks, andexplain great tips guaranteed to make you more productive with Excel. The easy-to-use layout lets you workthrough all the tasks from beginning to end or jump in at random.Who is this book for?You already know Excel basics. Now you’d like to go beyond, with shortcuts, tricks, and tips that let you worksmarter and faster. And because you learn more easily when someone shows you how, this is the book for you.Conventions Used In This Book1 StepsThis book uses step-by-stepinstructions to guide you easilythrough each task. Numberedcallouts on every screen shot showyou exactly how to perform eachtask, step by step.2 TipsPractical tips provide insights tosave you time and trouble, cautionyou about hazards to avoid, andreveal how to do things in Excel2007 that you never thoughtpossible!3 Task NumbersTask numbers from 1 to 100indicate which lesson you areworking on.4 Difficulty LevelsFor quick reference, the symbolsbelow mark the difficulty level ofeach task.33442211Demonstrates a new spin on acommon taskIntroduces a new skill or a newtaskCombines multiple skills requiringin-depth knowledgeRequires extensive skill and mayinvolve other technologies01_126745 ffirs.qxp 6/5/07 6:58 PM Page v
    • Table of ContentsWork with Formulas and Functions#10 Enter Formulas Using a Variety of Methods 24#11 Name Cells and Ranges 26#12 Define a Constant 28#13 Create Formulas That Include Names 30#14 Calculate with the Function Wizard 32#15 Figure Out Loan Terms 34#16 Determine the Internal Rate of Return 36#17 Determine the Nth Largest Value 38#18 Create a Conditional Formula 40#19 Calculate a Conditional Sum 42#20 Add a Calculator 44#21 Find Products and Square Roots 46#22 Perform Time Calculations 48#23 Perform Date Calculations 502viBoost Your Efficiency#1 Validate with a Validation List 4#2 Validate with Data Entry Rules 6#3 Extend a Series with AutoFill 8#4 Insert Symbols or Special Characters 10#5 Hide Rows by Grouping and Outlining 12#6 Find and Replace Formats 14#7 Add Comments to Your Worksheet 16#8 Let Excel Read Back Your Data 18#9 Create Your Own Sort or AutoFill 20102_126745 ftoc.qxp 6/5/07 6:59 PM Page vi
    • Manipulate Records#36 Enter Data with a Form 82#37 Filter Duplicate Records 84#38 Perform Simple Sorts and Filters 86#39 Perform Complex Sorts 88#40 Sort by Cell Color, Font Color, or Icon 90#41 Perform Complex Filters 92#42 Filter by Multiple Criteria 94#43 Subtotal Sorted Data 96#44 Chart Filtered Data Easily 98#45 Count Filtered Records 100#46 Look Up Information in Your Worksheet 102#47 Define Data as a Table 104#48 Modify a Table Style 106Copy, Format, and More#24 Check Your Formulas for Errors 54#25 Trace Precedents and Dependents 56#26 Change Text to Numbers 58#27 Convert a Row to a Column 60#28 Copy with the Office Clipboard 62#29 Adjust Column Widths with Paste Special 64#30 Specify How to Paste with Paste Special 66#31 Create Your Own Style 68#32 Copy Styles to Another Workbook 70#33 Conditionally Format Your Worksheet 72#34 Track Changes While Editing 76#35 Consolidate Worksheets 7834vii02_126745 ftoc.qxp 6/5/07 6:59 PM Page vii
    • Table of ContentsviiiExplore the Patterns in Your Data#49 Create a PivotTable 110#50 Modify PivotTable Data and Layout 114#51 Compute PivotTable Sub and Grand Totals 116#52 Create a PivotTable Calculated Field 118#53 Hide Rows or Columns in a PivotTable 120#54 Sort a PivotTable 121#55 Create a PivotChart 122#56 Describe Data with Statistics 124#57 Find the Correlation between Variables 126#58 Explore Outcomes with What-If Analysis 128#59 Optimize a Result with Goal Seek 130Create Charts#60 Create a Chart That Has Visual Appeal 134#61 Add Chart Details 136#62 Change the Chart Type 140#63 Add a Trendline 142#64 Add and Remove Chart Data 144#65 Add Error Bars 146#66 Create a Histogram 148#67 Create a Combination Chart 1506502_126745 ftoc.qxp 6/5/07 6:59 PM Page viii
    • ixPresent Worksheets#68 Format Numbers, Dates, and Times 154#69 Apply Formats to Cells 158#70 Fill with a Gradient 162#71 Format Quickly with Format Painter 164#72 Insert Shapes into Your Worksheet 166#73 Insert Text Boxes into Your Worksheet 168#74 Insert Photographs into Your Worksheet 170#75 Arrange the Graphics in Your Worksheet 172#76 Insert a Background Image 174#77 Take a Picture of Your Worksheet 1767Protect, Save, and Print#78 Protect Your Worksheet 180#79 Save a Workbook as a Template 182#80 Choose a Format When Saving a Workbook 184#81 Print Multiple Areas of a Workbook 186#82 Print Multiple Worksheets from a Workbook 188802_126745 ftoc.qxp 6/5/07 6:59 PM Page ix
    • xTable of ContentsxExtend Excel#83 Paste Link into Word or PowerPoint 192#84 Embed a Worksheet 194#85 Create a Link from an Excel Workbook 196#86 Query a Web Site 198#87 Copy a Word Table into Excel 200#88 Import a Text File into Excel 202#89 Import an Access Database into Excel 206#90 Query an Access Database 208#91 Reuse a Saved Query 212#92 Import an Excel Worksheet into Access 214#93 Using Excel with Mail Merge 2189Customize Excel#94 Add Features by Installing Add-Ins 222#95 Customize the Quick Access Toolbar 224#96 Work with Multiple Windows 226#97 Save Time by Creating a Custom View 227#98 Create a Custom Number Format 228#99 Automate Your Worksheet with Macros 230#100 Add a Button to Run a Macro 2321002_126745 ftoc.qxp 6/5/07 6:59 PM Page x
    • 02_126745 ftoc.qxp 6/5/07 6:59 PM Page 1
    • Boost Your EfficiencyYou can use Microsoft Excel 2007 to workwith numbers. In fact, wherever you usenumbers — doing taxes, running a smallbusiness, maintaining a budget, or anythingelse — Excel can help make your work easier,quicker, and more accurate.Excel 2007 provides you with many ways toenter, present, explore, and analyze data. Thischapter focuses on ways in which you canboost your efficiency when using Excel. Youlearn how to use the Excel AutoFill feature, togroup and outline, to check the accuracy ofyour data and more.The AutoFill feature enables you to fill a row orcolumn quickly with a series of values,numbers, dates, or times generated from oneor more values you have entered. This chapterwill show you how to use the AutoFills thatcome standard with Excel and how to createyour own AutoFills.You can use grouping and outlining to hideparts of your worksheet, enabling you to focusin on the data in which you are interested,thereby making data analysis easier. Thischapter steps you through the process ofgrouping and outlining.Sometimes you may want to double-check theaccuracy of your data. One of the final tasks inthis chapter teaches you how you can increasethe accuracy of your data entry by lettingExcel read back your data to you.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 2
    • Validate with a Validation List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Validate with Data Entry Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Extend a Series with AutoFill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Insert Symbols or Special Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Hide Rows by Grouping and Outlining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Find and Replace Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Add Comments to Your Worksheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Let Excel Read Back Your Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Create Your Own Sort or AutoFill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2003_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 3
    • 1 Click in the cell in which youwant to create a validation list.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Data Validation in the DataTools group.l The Data Validation dialog boxappears.4 Click the Settings tab.5 Click here and then select List.6 Click and drag to select the validentries, or type = followed bythe range name.7 Click OK.Validate with aVALIDATION LISTExcel enables you to restrict the values a user canenter in a cell. By restricting values, you ensure thatyour worksheet entries are valid and that calculationsbased on them thereby are valid as well. Duringdata entry, a validation list forces anyone using yourworksheet to select a value from a drop-down menurather than typing it and potentially typing the wronginformation. In this way, validation lists save timeand reduce errors.To create a validation list, type the values you wantto include into adjacent cells in a column or row. Youmay want to name the range. See Task #11 to learnhow to name ranges. After you type your values, usethe Data Validation dialog box to assign values to yourvalidation list. Then copy and paste your validation listinto the appropriate cells by using the Paste SpecialValidation option.You may want to place your validation list in an out-of-the-way place on your worksheet or on a separateworksheet.2233556666 447711l Excel creates a validation list inthe cell you selected.403_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 4
    • PASTE YOUR VALIDATION LIST1 Click in the cell thatcontains your validationlist.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click the Copy button inthe Clipboard group.4 Select the cells in whichyou want to place thevalidation list.5 Click Paste in theClipboard group.A menu appears.6 Click Paste Special.33441155227788665l The Paste Special dialog box appears.7 Click Validation ( changes to ).8 Click OK.Excel places the validation list in the cellsyou selected.l When users make an entry into the cell,they must pick from the list.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyDid You Know?Validation lists can consist of numbers,names of regions, employees, products,and so on.Remove It!To remove a validation list, click in any cell that contains thevalidation list you want to remove, click the Home tab, andthen click Find and Select in the Editing group. A menu appears.Click Go To Special. The Go To Special dialog box appears. ClickData validation, click Same, and then click OK. The Go ToSpecial dialog box closes. Click the Data tab and then clickData Validation in the Data Tools group. A menu appears. ClickData Validation. The Data Validation dialog box appears. ClickClear All and then click OK.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 5
    • 1 Click in the cell in which youwant to create a data entry rule.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Data Validation in the DataTools group.l The Data Validation Dialog boxappears.4 Click the Settings tab.5 Click here and select a validationcriterion.6 Click here and select a validationcriterion.7 Type the criteria or click anddrag to select the cells with thecriteria you want to use.Validate withDATA ENTRY RULESYou can use data entry rules to ensure that dataentered has the correct format, and you can restrictthe data entered to whole numbers, decimals, dates,times, or a specific text length. You can also specifywhether the values need to be between, notbetween, equal to, not equal to, greater than, lessthan, greater than or equal to, or less than or equalto the values you specify.As with all data validation, you can create an inputmessage that appears when the user enters the cell,as well as an error alert that displays if the usermakes an incorrect entry. Error alerts can stop theuser, provide a warning, or just provide information.After you create your data entry rule, copy and pasteit into the appropriate cells by using the Paste SpecialValidation option. See Task #1 under Paste YourValidation List to learn how to copy and pasteyour data entry rule.335566772211990044888 Click the Input Message tab.9 Type a title for your message.0 Type an input message.603_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 6
    • ! Click the Error Alert tab.@ Click here and select astyle.Choose Stop if you wantto stop the entry ofinvalid data.Choose Warning if youwant to display awarning to the user, butnot prevent entry.Choose Informationto provide informationto the user.# Type a title.$ Type an error message.% Click OK.!!##$$@@%%7Excel creates the data entry rule.l When you click in the cell, Excel displaysyour input message.l When you enter invalid data, Exceldisplays your error alert.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyImportant!After you create your data entryrules, use the steps outlined inTask #1 under Paste YourValidation List to place your dataentry rules in the cells in whichyou want them.Did You Know?If you use cells to specify yourvalidation criteria in Step 7,you can change the criteria asneeded without changing thevalidation rule.Did You Know?When you make an incorrect entry,the Stop Error Alert style displaysthe error message you enteredand prevents you from making anentry that does not meet yourcriteria. The Warning Alert styleand the Information Alert styleallow you to enter data that doesnot meet your criteria.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 7
    • 1 Type the initial value for theseries you want to create.2 Select the cell or cells.3 Click the Fill handle.Extend a series withAUTOFILLAutoFill gives you a way to ensure accurate dataentry when a particular data series has an intrinsicorder: days of the week, months of the year, numericincrements of two, and so on.To use AutoFill, start by typing one or more valuesfrom which you will generate other values. Select thecell or cells you want to extend. Selecting two ormore cells determines the step size, or increment, bywhich you want to jump in each cell. With the cellsselected, click the Fill handle in the lower-right cornerand drag. When you release the mouse button, Excelfills the cells with values.After filling the cells, Excel provides a menu button.Click the button to open a menu that enables you tochange the fill. You can copy the initial value; fill theseries one day at a time; or extend it by weekdays,months, or years, depending on the type of fill youcreate.5511446622 334 Drag the desired number of cellsand release the mouse.l Excel fills the cells with a series.l The AutoFill Options buttonappears.5 Click the button.A menu appears.6 Click Copy Cells ( changesto ).803_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 8
    • l Excel changes the seriesto a copy of the originalcell.7 Type a pattern ofentries.8 Repeat Steps 2 to 4.779l Excel fills the cell with the pattern.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyDid You Know?When you release the mouse button after creating a series, the AutoFill Optionsbutton ( ) appears. Click the button to view a menu of options. If you want tofill with the days of the week, you can click Fill Days or Fill Weekdays to fill withMonday through Friday ( changes to ). You can also click the Fill FormattingOnly option ( changes to ) to change the formatting of the cell withoutchanging the contents. Click the Fill Without Formatting option ( changes to )to change the contents of the filled cells without changing the formatting. You canextend a series in any direction: up, down, left, or right.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 9
    • ADD A SYMBOL1 Click in the cell in which youwant to insert a symbol.2 Click the Insert tab.3 Click Symbol in the Text group.InsertSYMBOLS OR SPECIALCHARACTERSIn Excel, you are not restricted to the standardnumerals, letters, and punctuation marks on yourkeyboard. You can also select from hundreds of specialcharacters, such as foreign letters and currencycharacters such as the Euro (€). Each font has adifferent set of special characters. A smaller set ofstandard characters, called symbols, is alwaysavailable as well; they include dashes, hyphens, andquotation marks.Symbols and special characters serve many uses inExcel. Many financial applications, for example, callfor currency symbols. Symbols and special charactersare useful in column and row heads as part of thetext describing column and row content, for example,Net sales in €.Using symbols and special characters in the same cellwith a value such as a number, date, or time usuallyprevents the value from being used in a formula. Ifyou need to use a symbol in a cell used in a formula,use a number format. If you need to create a customnumber format, see Task #98.11556622334477l The Symbol dialog box appears.4 Click here and then select a font.5 Click the Symbol you want.6 Click Insert.l The character appears in the cell.7 Click Close.The Symbol dialog box closes.1003_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 10
    • ADD A SPECIAL CHARACTER1 Click in the cell in whichyou want to insert aspecial character.2 Click the Insert tab.3 Click Symbol in the Textgroup.1155662233447711l The Symbol dialog box appears.4 Click the Special Characters tab.5 Locate the character you want and click it.6 Click Insert.l The character appears in the cell.7 Click Close.The Symbol dialog box closes.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyDid You Know?In Excel, entries are numbers, dates, times, letters,or special characters. You can only use numbers,dates, and times in numeric calculations. Exceltreats letters and special characters as blanks orzeroes in calculations. To have a currency symbolappear with a value, as in $400, and use the cellvalue in a calculation, you must apply a currency,accounting, or custom format.Did You Know?Excel fonts are based on Unicode, a set of 40,000characters enabling the display of characters fromapproximately 80 languages, including right-to-leftalphabets such as Hebrew. To use a language otherthan English, attach an appropriate keyboard anduse the Control Panel to set the Regional andLanguage options.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 11
    • ADD A GROUP1 Click and drag to select the rowsor columns to hide.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Group in the Outline group.You can also select the rows orcolumns and then pressShift+Alt+Right Arrow.Hide rows byGROUPING AND OUTLININGYou can use the Excel grouping and outlining featureto hide sets of columns and/or rows. For example,you can hide the details relating to weekly salesso you can compare monthly sales. Your outlinescan include up to eight levels of detail.Outlining a set of rows or columns creates a clickablebutton on the far left or top of your worksheet. Thebutton displays either a minus sign or a plus sign,depending on what is displayed in the worksheet.Click the minus sign to hide rows or columns, andthe plus sign to display them again. Adjacent to thebutton is a solid line that indicates, by its length, theapproximate number of rows or columns Excel hashidden.Outlining was designed for use with structuredinformation such as lists but can be used withany worksheet. When you outline a PivotTable,outlining has the same effect as it does in any otherworksheet.3355442211l The Group dialog box appears.4 Click to select either the Rows orthe Columns option ( changesto ).Click Rows if you want to grouprows.Click Columns if you want togroup columns.5 Click OK.1203_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 12
    • l Excel creates a new leftor top margin with aminus sign.6 To hide the rows, clickthe minus sign.The rows disappear, anda plus sign replaces theminus sign.114422336613l To display the rows again, click the plussign.REMOVE A GROUP1 Click the Data tab.2 Click Ungroup.l The Ungroup dialog box appears.3 Click to select either the Rows or theColumns option ( changes to ).Click Rows if you want to ungroup rows.Click Columns if you want to ungroupcolumns.4 Click OK.Excel removes the group.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyDid You Know?You can nest outlines; that is, you can place onegroup of outlined rows or columns inside another.For example, within each year, you can group eachmonth, and within each month, you can groupeach week.Did You Know?You can also hide rows and columns by clickingand dragging the lines that separate the columnletters or the row numbers. Also, if you click anddrag over column letters or row numbers and thenright-click, a menu appears. Click Hide to hidethe column or row or Unhide to display hiddencolumns or rows.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 13
    • 1 Click the Home tab.2 Click Find & Select in the Editinggroup.A menu appears.3 Click Replace.Alternatively, you can pressCtrl+H to open the Find andReplace dialog box.FIND AND REPLACEformatsCells can contain numbers, text, comments, formats,and formulas. With Excel, you can search for anyof these elements to view them, replace them, orperform some other action. You may, for example,find and replace values to correct mistakes, or perhapsyou need to return to a value to add a comment orapply formatting.The Excel Find and Replace dialog box is available onthe Home tab in the Editing group or by pressingCtrl+H. The Find feature is part of Find and Replaceand is available on the Home tab in the Editing groupor by pressing Ctrl+F.To find and replace formats, specify what you areseeking and with what you want to replace the itemyou are seeking. Click the Options button in the Findand Replace dialog box to specify additional details.Use the Within drop-down menu to indicate whetherto search the current worksheet or the currentworkbook. Click the Formatting button to restrictyour search to characters formatted in a certain way,such as bold or percentages.1122555533l The Find and Replace dialog boxappears.4 Click Options if your dialog boxdoes not look like the one shownhere.Note: The Options button allowsyou to toggle between the shortand long form of the dialog box.5 Click here and select ChooseFormat from Cell.1403_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 14
    • The Find and Replacedialog box disappears.6 Click in a cell that hasthe format you want toreplace.This example selectsgreen fills.l The Find and Replacedialog box reappears.l A preview of the formatyou selected appears.7 Click here and selectChoose Format from cell.The Find and Replacedialog box disappears.7777!!00668899158 Click in a cell that has the format you want touse as a replacement.This example selects a cell with no fill.The Find and Replace dialog box reappears.l A preview of the format you selected appears.9 Click Replace All.l Excel replaces the formats.Excel replaces all of the green fills with plain fills.0 Click OK.! Click Close.l You can click Replace to make one change ata time.l If you want to find instead of replace formats,click Find All or Find Next to highlight cells inthe worksheet but not replace formats.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyImportant!Before you start a new Findand/or Replace, make sure youclear all formats by clicking thedown arrow next to the twoFormat buttons and then clickingClear Find Format and ClearReplace Format.Did You Know?In the Find and Replace dialogbox, clicking a Format buttonopens the Find Format or ReplaceFormat dialog box. You can usethese dialog boxes to specify theNumber, Alignment, Font, Border,Fill, or Protection you want tofind and/or replace.Did You Know?When searching for text or values,type the text or value you arelooking for in the Find What field.Type the text or value you wantto replace it with in the ReplaceWith field.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 15
    • ADD A COMMENT1 Click in the cell to which youwant to add a comment.2 Click the Review tab.3 Click New Comment in theComments group.ADD COMMENTSto your worksheetA comment is a bit of descriptive text that enablesyou to document your work when you add text orcreate a formula. If someone else maintains yourworksheet, or others use it in a workgroup, yourcomments can provide useful information. You canenter comments in any cell you want to document orotherwise annotate.Comments in Excel do not appear until you choose toview them. Excel associates comments withindividual cells and indicates their presence with atiny red triangle in the cell’s upper-right corner. Viewan individual comment by clicking in the cell orpassing your cursor over it. View all comments in aworksheet by clicking the Review tab and thenclicking Show All Comments.When you track your changes, Excel automaticallygenerates a comment every time you copy or changea cell. The comment records what changes in thecell, who makes the change, and the time and dateof the change. To learn more about tracking changes,see Task #34.44221133l A comment box appears.l A tiny red triangle appears in theupper-right corner of the cell.4 Type your comment.Note: To apply bold and otherformatting effects, select the text,right-click, click Format Comment,and then make changes asappropriate.5 Click outside the comment boxwhen you finish.The comment box disappears.Move the cursor over the cell todisplay your comment again.1603_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 16
    • 6 Click Edit Comment inthe Comments groupto edit a comment.7 Click Delete in theComments group todelete a comment.7788669917DISPLAY ALL COMMENTS8 Click Show All Comments in theComments group.l You can now see all the comments in theworksheet.To close the comment boxes, click ShowAll Comments again.9 To cycle through comments click Previousor Next in the Comments group.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyDid You Know?To set the name that displays when you enter acomment, click the Office button, and then click ExcelOptions. The Excel Options dialog box appears. ClickPopular and then type the name you want to appearin the comment box in the User Name field.Did You Know?When a comment gets in the way of anothercomment or blocks data, you can move it. Positionyour cursor over the comment box border until thearrow turns into a four-sided arrow. Click and dragthe comment to a better location and then releasethe mouse button. Your comment remains in thisposition until you display all comments again.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 17
    • READ CELLS1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want Excel to read.2 Click either the Speak byColumns or the Speak by Rowsbutton.l Click Speak by Columns if youwant Excel to read down thecolumns.l Click Speak by Rows if you wantExcel to read across the rows.Let ExcelREAD BACK YOUR DATAIf you have a large amount of data to enter, especiallynumbers, you may want to check the accuracy ofyour data entry by having the data read back to youwhile you match it against a printed list. Excel canread back your data. All you have to do is specify thedata you want to read, click a button, and Excelbegins reading. You can choose to have Excel readacross the first row and then move to the next row,or down the first column and then move to the nextcolumn. You can also have Excel read data as youenter it.However, before Excel can read your data, you mustadd the following buttons to the Quick Accesstoolbar: Speak Cells, Speak Cells — Stop SpeakingCells, Speak Cells by Columns, Speak Cells by Rows,and Speak Cells on Enter. To learn how to addbuttons to the Quick Access toolbar, see Task #95.You can find the buttons needed for this task in theCommands Not in the Ribbon section.11333 Click the Speak Cells button.Excel reads the cells.l To stop the reading of cells, clickthe Speak Cells — Stop SpeakingCells button.1803_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 18
    • SPEAK CELLS ON ENTER4 Click the Speak onEnter button.Excel says, “Cells willnow be spoken onEnter.”5 Enter data into yourworksheet.Excel reads the data asyou enter it.554466196 Click the Speak on Enter button again.Excel says, “Turn off Speak on Enter.”Excel stops reading the data as you enter it.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyImportant!To have Excel read your worksheet, you must havespeakers attached to your computer and you mustset the Speech, Sound, and Audio Devices optionin the Control Panel properly. Click the Startbutton, Settings, and then Control Panel to checkthese device settings.Did You Know?You can also check the accuracy of your data entryby performing a spell check. Just click the Reviewtab, Proofing, and then Spelling. If your worksheethas errors, the Spelling dialog box appears andoffers suggestions for the correct spelling. You canaccept one of the suggestions or click one of theother dialog box options.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 19
    • 1 Click and drag to select the cellswith which you want to createyour custom list.2 Click the Office button.A menu appears.3 Click Excel Options.Create your ownSORT OR AUTOFILLIn Excel, you can sort your data alphabetically, bydays of the week, or by months of the year. SeeChapter 4 to learn more about sorting your data. Youcan also automatically fill cells with the days of theweek or months of the year by using Excel’s AutoFillfeature. See Task # 3 to learn more about AutoFill.If you have a data series you use often, you cancreate your own custom list and use it to fill cellsautomatically or to sort a list. For example, youcollect data by region and you always list the datain the following order: North East, South East, NorthCentral, South Central, North West, and South West.You can create a custom list that enables you toAutoFill and sort based on your list.Use the Custom List dialog box to create your customlist. You can type your list into the Custom List dialogbox or import your list from cells in your worksheet.You access your custom list the same way you wouldany other custom list or AutoFill.2244551133The Excel Options dialog boxappears.4 Click Popular.5 Click the Edit Custom Listsbutton.2003_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 20
    • l The Custom Lists dialogbox appears.l The range you selected inStep 1 appears here.You can click and drag ortype the range in theImport list from cells field.l Alternatively, you cantype your list here andthen click Add.6 Click Import.667721l Your list appears as a custom list.7 Click OK.Your list is ready to use.Chapter 1: Boost Your EfficiencyDid You Know?To create an AutoFill using your custom list, type thefirst item in your list. Click and drag the fill handlelocated in the lower-right corner of the cell. Excelfills the cells with your custom list. If Excel does notfill the cells with your custom list, click the AutoFillOptions button ( ) that appears and then clickFill Series ( changes to ).Did You Know?To sort using the custom list you created, click anddrag to select the items you want to sort. Click theData tab and then click Sort in the Sort & FilterGroup. The Sort dialog box appears. In the Orderfield, click Custom List. The Custom List dialog boxappears. Click your list and then click OK. Fordetailed instructions, see Chapter 4.03_126745 ch01.qxp 6/5/07 7:00 PM Page 21
    • Work with Formulasand FunctionsExcel provides you with tools for storingnumbers and other kinds of information.However, the real power of Excel comes frommanipulating all this information. You can useformulas and functions to calculate in Excel.The more than 300 functions built into Excelenable you to perform tasks of every kind,from adding numbers to calculating theinternal rate of return for an investment. Youcan think of a function as a black box. You putyour information into the box, and out comethe results you want. You do not need to knowany obscure algorithms to use functions.Each bit of information you provide is calledan argument. Excel’s Function Wizard providesguidance for every argument for every function.A formula consists of an equal sign, one ormore functions, their arguments, operatorssuch as the division and multiplication symbols,and any other values required to get yourresults.Many Excel functions do special-purposefinancial, statistical, engineering, andmathematical calculations. The FunctionWizard arranges functions in categories foreasy access. The Payment (PMT) function in theFinancial category, for example, enables you todetermine an optimal loan payment for a givenprincipal, interest rate, and length of loan.This chapter introduces useful techniques formaking formulas and functions even easier,including the Function Wizard and the Excelcalculator. You can also find tips for workingmore efficiently with functions by naming cells,creating constants, and documenting yourwork. Finally, you can find tips for functionssuch as IF and special-purpose functions suchas PMT and Internal Rate of Return (IRR).04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 22
    • Enter Formulas Using a Variety of Methods . . . . . . . . . . . 24Name Cells and Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Define a Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28Create Formulas That Include Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Calculate with the Function Wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32Figure Out Loan Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34Determine the Internal Rate of Return . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36Determine the Nth Largest Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38Create a Conditional Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Calculate a Conditional Sum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Add a Calculator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44Find Products and Square Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Perform Time Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48Perform Date Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5004_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 23
    • CALCULATE WITH AN OPERATOR1 Type =.2 Click in the cell with the numberyou want to use in yourcalculation, or type the firstnumber.3 Type an operator, such as plus(+), minus (–), multiply (*), ordivide (/).4 Click in the cell with the numberyou want to use in yourcalculation, or type the nextnumber.5 Repeat Steps 2 to 4, if necessary.6 Press Enter.l The result appears in the currentcell.CALCULATE BY USING A FUNCTION ANDCELL ADDRESSES1 Type the numbers you want tocalculate into adjacent cells.2 In another cell, type = followedby the first few letters of thefunction.A list of options appears.3 Double-click the option youwant to use.4 Click and drag to select thenumbers you want to calculate.5 Click Check.ENTER FORMULASusing a variety of methodsIn Excel, you can carry out calculations such assimple arithmetic in three ways. One method is touse the plus (+), minus (–), multiplication (*), anddivision (/) signs. Start by typing an equal sign andthe values to be added, subtracted, multiplied, ordivided, each separated by an operator; for example,=25 + 31. Press Enter, and Excel does the math anddisplays the answer in the same cell. You can alsotype an equal sign, click in a cell that contains thevalue you want to perform an operation on, and thentype the operator.A second method involves functions. Functionsperform calculations on your information and makethe results available to you. To use a function, typean equal sign followed by the function; for example,=SUM(). Place the numbers you want to add insidethe parentheses, separating them with commas. Ifthe numbers are on the worksheet, click the cells.A third method is to use Excel’s AutoSum feature,which offers a point-and-click interface for severalfunctions, including SUM, AVERAGE, and COUNT.115522 4444 22 3311 332404_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 24
    • l The result appears inthe cell.CALCULATE BY USING AUTOSUM1 In adjacent cells, typenumbers.2 Click the cell in whichyou want the result.3 Click the Formulas tab.11 2244334 Click here and select an option.l This example uses SUM.l Excel places =sum() in the cell, with thecell address for numbers you may wantto add.5 To accept the cell addresses chosen byExcel, press Enter.To select other addresses, click and dragthem and then press Enter.The result appears in the cell selected inStep 2.25Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?You can click the chevron ( ) atthe end of the formula bar toexpand and collapse the bar.Expanding the formula bar letsyou enter longer formulas.Did You Know?When you click and drag overmultiple cells, Excel automaticallyplaces the average, a numbercount, and the sum of the valueson the status bar, at the bottomof the screen.Did You Know?You can add buttons for equal,plus, minus, divide, and multiplyto the Quick Access toolbar. Youcan use these buttons to enterformulas quickly. To learn how toadd buttons to the Quick Accesstoolbar, see Task #95.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 25
    • NAME A RANGE OF CELLS1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to name.Alternatively, click in a cell with avalue to create a named cell.2 Click the Formulas tab.3 Click Define Name.NameCELLS AND RANGESIn Excel, you can name individual cells and groups ofcells, called ranges. A cell named Tax or a rangenamed Northern_Region is easier to remember thanthe corresponding cell address. You can use namedcells and ranges directly in formulas to refer to thevalues contained in them. When you move a namedrange to a new location, Excel automatically updatesany formulas that refer to the named range.When you name a range, you determine the scope ofthe name by telling Excel whether it applies to thecurrent worksheet or the entire workbook. You canname several ranges at once by using Excel’s Createfrom Selection option. You can use the NameManager to delete named ranges.Excel range names must be fewer than 255 characters.The first character must be a letter. You cannot usespaces or symbols except for the period andunderscore. It is best to create short, memorablenames. To learn how to use a named range, seeTask #13.221144553366l The New Name dialog boxappears.4 Type a name for the range.5 Click here and then select thescope of the range.l The range you selected in Step 1appears here.6 Click OK.Excel creates a named range.l The defined name is nowavailable when you click Use inFormula.2604_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 26
    • CREATE NAMED RANGES FROMA SELECTION1 Click and drag to selectthe cells you want toinclude in the namedrange.Include the headings;they become the rangenames.2 Click the Formulas tab.3 Click Create fromSelection.l The Create Names fromSelection dialog boxappears.226677443311 55884 Click the location of the range names( changes to ).5 Click OK.l The defined names are now availablewhen you click Use in Formula.l You click here to move to a named range.6 Click Name Manager.l All the range names appear in the NameManager.7 Click a name.8 Click Delete.Excel deletes the named range.27Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?If you click the Edit button in theName Manager dialog box, youcan change the range name or thecell address to which a namedrange refers.Did You Know?When you click the down arrowon the left side of the formula bar,a list of named ranges appears.Refer to Step 5 under CreateNamed Ranges from a Selection.If you click one of the namedranges, you move to the cells itdefines.Did You Know?When creating a formula, if youclick and drag to select a groupof cells that have a range name,Excel automatically uses the rangename instead of the cell address.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 27
    • DEFINE A CONSTANT1 Click the Formulas tab.2 Click Define Name.Define aCONSTANTUse a constant whenever you want to use the samevalue in different cells and/or formulas. Withconstants, you can refer to a value, whether it issimple or consists of many digits, by simply usingthe constant’s name.You can use constants in many applications. Forexample, sales tax rate is a familiar constant that,when multiplied by the subtotal on an invoice, resultsin the tax owed. Likewise, income tax rates are theconstants used to calculate tax liabilities. Althoughtax rates change from time to time, they tend toremain constant within a tax period.To create a constant in Excel, you need to type itsvalue in the New Name dialog box, the same dialogbox you use to name ranges as shown in Task #11.When you define a constant, you determine thescope of the constant by telling Excel whether itapplies to the current worksheet or the entireworkbook. To use the constant in any formula in thesame workbook, simply use the name you defined.112233445566The New Name dialog boxappears.3 Type a name for the constant.4 Click here and select the scope ofthe constant.5 Type an equal sign (=) followedby the constant’s value.6 Click OK.You can now use the constant.2804_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 28
    • DISPLAY A CONSTANT1 Click in a cell.2 Type an equal signfollowed by the firstletter or letters of theconstant’s name.A menu appears.Note: If you do not knowthe constant’s name,click the Formulas taband then Use in Formula.When the menu appears,click the name and thenpress Enter.3 Double-click the name ofthe constant.22 11334 Press Enter.l The constant’s value appears in the cell.Note: To use named constants and rangesin formulas, see Task #13.29Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?You can use Excel’s name manager to rename, edit, or delete named ranges and constant values.On the Formulas tab, click Name Manager. The Name Manager dialog box appears. Double-click thename you want to edit. The Edit Name dialog box appears. Make the changes you want and thenclick OK. To delete a constant, click the name in the Name Manager dialog box and then clickDelete. If you want to create a new constant, click New in the Name Manager dialog box. The NewName dialog box appears; you can make your entries. In addition to formulas, you can also entertext as a constant value. Simply type the text into the Refers To field.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 29
    • USE A CONSTANT OR RANGE NAME IN AFORMULA1 Place your cursor in the cell inwhich you want to create yourformula.2 Type the name of the constantor range.As you type, a list of possiblevalues appears. Double-click avalue to place it in the formula.3 Press Enter.CREATE FORMULASthat include namesConstructing formulas can be complicated, especiallywhen you use several functions in the same formulaor when multiple arguments are required in a singlefunction. Using named constants and named rangescan make creating formulas and using functionseasier by enabling you to use terms you have createdthat clearly identify a value or range of values. Anargument is information you provide to the functionso the function can do its work. A named constant isa name you create that refers to a single, frequentlyused value; see Task #12. A named range is a nameyou assign to a group of related cells; see Task #11.To insert a name into a function or use it in aformula or as a function’s argument, you must typeit, access it by using Use in Formula on the Formulastab, or select it from the Function Auto-complete list.2211l The cell displays the result.3004_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 30
    • USE A CONSTANT OR RANGENAME IN A FORMULANote: Use this technique ifyou forget the name of aconstant or range.1 Begin typing yourformula.2 Click the Formulas tab.3 Click Use in Formula.A menu appears.4 Click the constant orrange name you wantto use.If necessary, continuetyping your formula andpress Enter when youfinish.113322445 Press Enter.l Excel feeds the selected constant or rangename into the formula, which thendisplays a result based on it.31Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?To create several named constants at the same time,create two adjacent columns, one listing names andthe other listing the values — for example, state namesand state sales tax rates. Select both columns. Clickthe Formulas tab and then click Create from Selection.The Create Names from Selection dialog box appears.Click a check box to indicate which column or row touse for the name. Click OK. Click Name Manager tosee the constants listed in the Name Manager dialogbox. Use the same procedure to create named ranges.Did You Know?Naming a formula enables you to reuse it by merelytyping its name. To create a named formula, click inthe cell that contains the formula, click Formulas, andthen click Define Name. The New Name dialog boxappears. Type a name for the formula in the Namesfield, define its scope, and then click OK.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 31
    • 1 Type your data into theworksheet.Note: This example shows theROUND function, which takes twoarguments, one indicating thenumber to be rounded and theother indicating the number ofdigits to which it is to be rounded.2 Click in the cell in which youwant the result to appear.Calculate withTHE FUNCTION WIZARDExcel’s Function Wizard simplifies the use offunctions. You can take advantage of the wizard forevery one of Excel’s functions, from the sum (SUM)function to the most complex statistical, mathematical,financial, and engineering function. One simple butuseful function, ROUND, rounds off values to thenumber of places you choose.You can access the Function Wizard in two ways. Oneway involves selecting a cell where the result is toappear and then clicking the Insert Function buttonand using the Insert Function dialog box to select afunction. Another way, which is a bit quicker, makessense when you know the name of your function.Start by selecting a cell for the result. Type an equalsign (=) and the beginning of the function name. Inthe list of functions that appears, double-click thefunction you want and then click the Insert Functionbutton.Both methods bring up the Function Arguments box,where you type the values you want in your calculationor click in the cells containing the values.22443355113 Click the Insert Function button.l The Insert Function dialog boxappears.4 Click here and select All to list allthe functions.5 Double-click the function youwant to use.3204_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 32
    • l The Function Argumentsdialog box appears.6 Click in the cell(s) ortype the valuesrequested in each field.l For this example, click inthe cell containing thevalue you entered inStep 1.l Type the number ofdecimal places to whichyou want to round. Anegative number refersto decimal places to theleft of the decimal point.7 Click OK.77l The result appears in the cell.33Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?If you do not know which function you want touse, type a question in the Search for a Functionfield in the Insert Function dialog box. For help withthe function itself, click Help on This Function in theFunction Arguments dialog box.Caution!Do not confuse the ROUND function with numberformatting. ROUND works by evaluating a number in anargument and rounding it to the number of digits youspecify in the second field of the Function Argumentsdialog box. When you format numbers, you simplify theappearance of the number in the worksheet, makingthe number easier to read. The underlying number isnot changed.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 33
    • 1 Type the principal (the presentvalue), interest rate, and numberof periods.2 Click in the cell in which youwant the result to appear.3 Click the Insert Function button.Figure outLOAN TERMSYou can use Excel’s Payment (PMT) function whenbuying a house or car. This function enables you tocompare loan terms and make an objective decisionbased on factors such as the amount of the monthlypayment.You can calculate loan payments in many ways whenusing Excel, but using the PMT function may be thesimplest because you merely enter the argumentsinto the Function Wizard. To make your job eveneasier, enter your argument values into yourworksheet before launching the wizard. Then byclicking in a cell, you can enter the value of the cellinto the wizard.The PMT function takes three required arguments. ForRATE, enter an annual interest rate such as 5 percentand then type .05 divided by 12 to calculate themonthly rate. For NPER, number of periods, enterthe number of loan periods for the loan you areseeking. For PV, present value, enter the amount ofthe loan. The monthly payment appears surroundedby parentheses, signifying that the number isnegative, or a cash outflow.1122443355l The Insert Function dialog boxappears.4 Click here and select Financial.5 Double-click PMT.3404_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 34
    • l The PMT FunctionArguments dialog boxappears.6 Click in the cell withthe interest rate.7 Divide the interest rateby the number ofperiods per year; forexample, type 12.8 Click in the cell withthe number of periods.9 Click in the cell withthe principal.0 Click OK.0066 778899l The result appears in the cell.Note: The result shows the amount of asingle loan payment.Note: You can repeat Steps 1 to 10 for othercombinations of the three variables.35Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?In a worksheet, you can create a loan calculatorshowing all the values at once. Place the labelsPrincipal, Interest, and Number of Months of a loanperiod in a column. Type their respective values intoadjacent cells to the right. Use references to thosecells in the Function Arguments dialog box for PMT.Did You Know?Excel’s Goal Seeking feature enables you to calculatepayments. With Goal Seeking, you can set up aproblem so you specify a goal, such as payments lessthan $1,100 per month, and have Excel vary a singlevalue to reach the goal. The limitation is that you canvary only one value at a time. See Task #59 for moreinformation.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 35
    • 1 Type the series of projected cashflows into a worksheet.2 Click in the cell in which theresult appears.3 Click the Insert Function button.Determine theINTERNAL RATE OF RETURNYou can use Excel’s Internal Rate of Return (IRR)function to calculate the rate of return on aninvestment. When using the IRR function, the cashflows do not have to be equal, but they must occur atregular intervals. As an example, you make a loan of$6,607 on January 1, year 1. You receive paymentsevery January 1 for four succeeding years. You canuse the IRR function to determine the interest rateyou receive on the loan.Your loan of $6,607 is a cash outflow, so you enter itas a negative number. Each payment is a cash inflow,so you enter them as positive numbers. When usingthe Internal Rate of Return function, you must enterat least one positive and one negative number.Optionally, you can provide, as the second argument,your best-guess estimate as to the rate of return.The default value, if you do not provide an estimate,is .10, representing a 10 percent rate of return. Yourestimate merely gives Excel a starting point at whichto calculate the IRR.112255443366l The Insert Function dialog boxappears.4 Type IRR.5 Click Go.6 Double-click IRR.3604_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 36
    • l The IRR FunctionArguments dialog boxappears.7 Click and drag thecash-flow valuesentered in Step 1 ortype the range.l Optionally, you canprovide an estimatedrate of return just to getExcel started.8 Click OK.8877l The cell with the formula displays theresults of the calculations as a percentwith no decimal places.Repeat Steps 1 to 8 for each set ofanticipated future cash flows.37Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?The IRR function is related to the Net Present Value(NPV) function, which calculates the net presentvalue of future cash flows. Whereas IRR returns apercentage — the rate of return on the initialinvestment — NPV returns the amount that mustbe invested to achieve the specified interest rate.Caution!Excel’s IRR function has strict assumptions. Cashflows must be regularly timed and take place at thesame point within the payment period. IRR mayperform less reliably for inconsistent payments, a mixof positive and negative flows, and variable interestrates.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 37
    • 1 Type the values from which youwant to identify the highestnumber, or second highest, orother value.2 Click in the cell in which youwant the results to appear.3 Click the Insert Function button.Determine theNTH LARGEST VALUESometimes you want to identify and characterizethe top values in a series, such as the RBIs of thetop three hitters in Major League Baseball or thepurchases, in a given period, for your five largestpurchasers.The LARGE function evaluates a series of numbersand determines the highest value, second highest, orNth highest in the series, with N being a value’s rankorder. LARGE takes two arguments: the range of cellsyou want to evaluate and the rank order of the valueyou are seeking, with 1 being the highest, 2 the nexthighest, and so on. The result of LARGE is the valueyou requested.Another way to determine the first, second, or Nthnumber in a series is to sort the numbers frombiggest to smallest and then simply read the results,as shown in Chapter 4. Sorting is less useful whenyou have a long list or when you want to use theresult in another function, such as summing the topfive values.1122443355l The Insert Function dialog boxappears.4 Click here and select Statistical.5 Double-click LARGE.3804_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 38
    • l The Function Argumentsdialog box appears forthe LARGE function.6 Click and drag to selectthe cells you want toevaluate, or type therange.7 Type a numberindicating what you areseeking: 1 for highest, 2for second highest, 3 forthird highest, and so on.8 Click OK.886677l The cell displays the value you requested.If K in Step 7 is greater than the numberof cells, a #NUM error appears in the cellinstead.39Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsApply It!To add the top three or other highest values in aseries, you can use LARGE three times in a formula:=LARGE(Sales,3) + LARGE(Sales,2) +LARGE(Sales,1), with Sales being the namedrange of sales values.Did You Know?Other useful functions work in a similar manner tothe LARGE function. SMALL evaluates a range ofvalues and returns a number. For example, if youenter 1 as the K value, it returns the lowest number,2 for next lowest, and so on. The MIN and MAXfunctions return the lowest and highest values in aseries, respectively. They take one argument: a rangeof cell values.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 39
    • 1 Type the data into theworksheet.2 Click in the cell in which youwant the results to appear.3 Click the Insert Function button.Create aCONDITIONAL FORMULAWith a conditional formula, you can performcalculations on numbers that meet a certaincondition. For example, you can find the highest scorefor a particular team from a list that consists ofseveral teams. The Team number is the condition andyou can set the formula so only the values for playerson a particular team are evaluated.A conditional formula uses at least two functions. Thefirst function, IF, defines the condition, or test, suchas players on Team 1. To create the condition, youuse comparison operators, such as greater than (>),greater than or equal to (>=), less than (<), lessthan or equal to (<= ), or equal to (=).The second function in a conditional formula performsa calculation on numbers that meet the condition.Excel carries out the IF function first and thencalculates the values that meet the condition definedin the IF function. Because two functions are involved,when you use the Function Wizard, one function, IF,is an argument of another function.1122443355l The Insert Function dialog boxappears.4 Click here and select All.5 Double-click the function onwhich you want to base yourconditional function.This example uses MAX, whichfinds the highest value in a list.4004_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 40
    • l The Function Argumentsdialog box appears.6 Type If(.7 Type the range or rangename for the series youwant to evaluate.8 Type a comparisonoperator, the condition,and then a comma.9 Type the range or rangename for the series thatyou want to calculate.0 Type ).0066778899! Press Ctrl+Shift+Enter.l The result appears in the cell with theformula.41Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsImportant!IF is an array function. It compares every numberin a series to a condition and keeps track of thenumbers meeting the condition. To create anarray function, press Ctrl+Shift+Enter instead ofpressing Enter or clicking OK to complete yourfunction. You must surround arrays with curlybraces ({ }). The braces are entered automaticallywhen you press Ctrl+Shift+Enter but notwhen you press Enter or click OK when usingthe Function Arguments dialog box.Did You Know?IF has an optional third argument. Use the thirdargument if you want to specify what happenswhen the condition is not met. For example, youcan use IF to test whether any sales valuesexceed 9,000, and then display True if suchvalues exist and False if they do not.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 41
    • 1 Create a list of values to sumconditionally.Note: Each value in the list istested to see whether it meets acondition. If it does, it is added toother values meeting the condition.2 Click in the cell in which youwant the results to appear.3 Click the Insert Function button.Calculate aCONDITIONAL SUMYou can use conditional sums to identify and suminvestments whose growth exceeds a certain rate. TheSUMIF function combines the SUM and IF functions intoone easy-to-use function.SUMIF() is simple, relative to a formula that usesboth SUM() and IF(). SUMIF() enables you to avoidcomplicated nesting and to use the Function Wizardwithout making one function an argument of theother. However, using two functions — SUM and IF —gives you more flexibility. For example, you can useIF to create multiple complex conditions.SUMIF takes three arguments: a range of numbers,the condition being applied to the numbers, and therange to which the condition applies. Values thatmeet the condition are added together. For example,you can create a function that evaluates a list todetermine the team a person is on and for allpersons on Team 1 it can add the scores. The thirdargument, the range to which the condition applies,is optional. If you exclude it, Excel sums the rangeyou specify in the first argument.1122443355l The Insert Function dialog boxappears.4 Click here and select All.5 Double-click SUMIF.4204_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 42
    • l The Function Argumentsdialog box for SUMIFappears.6 Type the range or rangename for the series youwant to evaluate.7 Type a comparisonoperator and acondition.8 Type the range or rangename for the series tobe summed if thecondition is met.9 Click OK.66778899l The result appears in the cell with theformula.43Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?The COUNTIF function works like SUMIF. Itcombines two functions, COUNT and IF, and takestwo arguments: a series of values and the conditionby which the values are tested. Whereas SUMIFsums the values, COUNTIF returns the number ofitems that passed the test.Did You Know?You can use the Conditional Sum Wizard, an Exceladd-in. The Conditional Sum Wizard has four self-explanatory steps. The last step diverges from theSUMIF Function Wizard in that both the conditionand the result can appear on your worksheet. Youcan thus display conditions and results side by sideto compare them. To learn how to install this add-in,see Task #94.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 43
    • ADD THE CALCULATOR1 Click here and then click MoreCommands.Add aCALCULATOROften you may want to do quick calculations withoutusing a formula or function. In Excel, you can place acalculator on the Quick Access toolbar so it is alwaysavailable. The Excel calculator is one of manycommands you can add to the Quick Access toolbar.You can use the calculator as you would any electroniccalculator. Click a number, choose an operator — suchas the plus key (+) to do addition — and then clickanother number. Press the equal sign key (=) to get aresult. Use MS to remember a value, MR to recall it,and MC to clear memory.Statistical and mathematical functions are availablein the calculator’s scientific view by clicking View andthen Scientific. In this view, you can cube a number,find its square root, compute its log, and more. Inboth standard and scientific views, you can transfera value from the calculator to Excel by displaying it,copying it, and pasting it into a cell.332244551122The Excel Options dialog boxappears.2 Click here and select CommandsNot in the Ribbon.3 Click Calculator.4 Click Add.l Excel adds the Calculator to thelist on the right.5 Click OK.4404_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 44
    • 6 Click the Calculatorbutton.l The calculator appears.22661133USE THE SCIENTIFIC MODE1 Click the Calculator button.2 Click View.3 Click Scientific.The calculator displays in scientific mode.45Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsApply It!To calculate an average, switch to the scientific viewand enter the first number to be averaged. Click theSta button to display the Statistics box. Click Dat.Back in the calculator, click another value to averageand click Dat. Keep entering data and clicking Datuntil you have entered all the values. Click Ave to findthe average.Did You Know?For complete instructions on using the Excelcalculator, open the calculator. On the calculator’smenu, click Help and then Help Topics. The Calculatordialog box appears. Click the Contents tab and thenCalculator. A list of topics appears. Click any topic tolearn more about the calculator.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 45
    • CALCULATE A PRODUCT1 Type the values you want tomultiply.2 Click in the cell in which youwant the result to appear.3 Type =product( in the cell.Note: Typing the function directlyinto a cell or into the formula barpreceded by an equal sign is analternative to choosing it from theFunction Wizard.4 Click the Insert Function button.l The Function Arguments dialogbox appears.5 Click the cell address of the firstvalue you want to multiply ortype the cell address.Optionally, you can type a valuedirectly into the Number1 field.6 Click the cell address of thesecond value you want tomultiply or type the cell address.Optionally, you can type thevalue directly into the Number2field.l The Function Arguments dialogbox displays the interim answer.7 Click OK.l The product appears in the cellyou clicked in Step 2.FindPRODUCTS AND SQUARE ROOTSMany Excel users are familiar with the basicoperations available by clicking the AutoSum button:addition, subtraction, minimum, maximum, andcount. Fewer are familiar with two other basicoperations available by using a mathematicalfunction. Using the PRODUCT function, you canmultiply two or more numbers, and using the SQRTfunction, you can find the square root of a number.Excel can calculate the square roots of positivenumbers only. If a negative number is the argument,as in SQRT(–1), Excel returns #NUM in the cell.You can compute a PRODUCT or SQRT by entering thevalues to be used in the function into the worksheet.If you do not want the values to appear in theworksheet, start by clicking in the cell where theresult is to appear and pressing an equal sign (=),typing the function name — PRODUCT or SQRT — andparentheses. Click the Insert Function button (fx) toenter your values for the formula.113366554422774604_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 46
    • CALCULATE A SQUARE ROOT1 Click in the cell inwhich you want theresult to appear.2 Type =SQRT( in theformula bar or in thecell in which you wantthe result to appear.As you begin to type,the Function Auto-complete list appears.Double-click an optionto select it.3 Click the Insert Functionbutton.2244335511l The Function Arguments dialog boxappears.4 Type the value for which you want thesquare root.Optionally, you can click in a cellcontaining the value.l The Function Arguments dialog boxdisplays the interim answer.5 Click OK.l The square root appears in the cell.47Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsApply It!Related to PRODUCT and SQRT is POWER. To findthe power of any number, such as 3 to the 9thpower, use the Power function.Did You Know?Each argument in PRODUCT can have more thanone value, for example, 2, 3, and 4. These valuescan be represented as an array, a series of numbersenclosed in curly braces: {2,3,4}. Each value in thearray is multiplied, so the product of {2,3,4} is 24.Arrays can be multiplied by each other. Each valuein the array has to be a number.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 47
    • FIND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEENTWO TIMES1 Type the first time in a cell.Note: If you do not include AM orPM, Excel defaults to a.m. If youwant p.m., you must type PM.2 Type the second time in a cell.3 Click in the cell in which youwant the results to appear.PerformTIME CALCULATIONSUsing Excel formulas and functions, you can performcalculations with dates and times. You can find, forexample, the number of hours worked between twotimes or the number of days between two dates. Dateand time functions convert every date and time into aserial value that can be added and subtracted andthen converted back into a recognizable date or time.Excel calculates a date’s serial value as the numberof days after January 1, 1900, so each date can berepresented by a whole number. Excel calculates atime’s serial value in units of 1/60th of a second.Every time can be represented as a serial valuebetween 0 and 1.A date and time, such as January 1, 2000, at noon,consists of the date to the left of the decimal and atime to the right. Take the example August 25, 2005,at 5:46 PM. The date and time serial value is38589.74028.Subtracting one date from another involves subtractingone serial value from another and then converting theresult back into a date or time.331144225577 664 Type an equal sign (=).5 Click in the cell with the latertime.6 Type a minus sign (–).7 Click in the cell with the earliertime.8 Press Enter.4804_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 48
    • l The result may appearas a serial value.113366442255CONVERT A SERIAL VALUE TO A TIME1 Click the Home tab.2 Click the Number group’s dialog boxlauncher.l The Format Cells dialog box appears.3 Click the Number tab.4 Click Time.5 Click a format type.The 13:30 format displays hours:minutes.6 Click OK.l The cell displays the number of hours andminutes between the two times.49Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?In subtracting times that crossmidnight, such as 11 p.m. to 2a.m., you need a programmingfunction called modulus, or MOD.The formula is =MOD(later time –earlier time, 1). Thanks to JohnWalkenbach’s Excel 2003 Bible(Wiley Publishing, 2003) forthis tip.Did You Know?If subtracting times or dates yieldsa negative time or date, this erroris reflected by a series of poundsigns (######).Did You Know?Showing a time or date in theGeneral format displays its serialvalue. Use a Time or Date formatto display a recognizable date ortime. To display a time inhour:minute format, right-click it,click Format Cell, click Time, andclick the 13:30 format.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 49
    • FIND NUMBER OF DAYS BETWEENTWO DATES1 Type the start date.2 Type the end date.l If you want the calculation toconsider holidays, type the datesof holidays between the startand end dates.3 Click the field in which you wantthe result to appear.4 Click the Insert Function button.PerformDATE CALCULATIONSOne special-purpose Date and Time function enablesyou to find the number of workdays between twodates. Like other Excel functions, Date and Timefunctions make use of the Function Wizard. As withall functions, the wizard works with data you typeinto the wizard, such as a specific date, and withdata you have typed into cells in your worksheet.To calculate the number of workdays between twodates, you use the NETWORKDAY function. Thefunction’s arguments include a start date, an enddate, and optionally, any intervening holidays thatautomatically reduce the number of workdaysbetween the two dates. Excel automatically deductsthe number of weekend dates.Excel can perform date arithmetic on any date afterJanuary 1, 1900. If you use dates before then,Excel treats them as text and does not performa calculation on them. Instead, it gives you a#VALUE! error.5511446622 33l The Insert Function dialog boxappears.5 Click here and select Date &Time.6 Double-click NETWORKDAYS.5004_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 50
    • l The FunctionArguments dialogbox appears.7 Click in the cellcontaining the startdate or type the celladdress.8 Click in the cellcontaining the enddate or type the celladdress.l Optionally, click anddrag the range ofholidays or type therange.9 Click OK.997788l The cell with the formula displays the networkdays between the two dates.51Chapter 2: Work with Formulas and FunctionsDid You Know?In Excel you can enter the currentdate simply by clicking in the cellin which you want the date toappear and pressing the Ctrl andsemicolon keys at the same time.Did You Know?There are more than 15 ways youcan format a date, includingAugust 1, 1956; Aug 1, 1956;01-Aug-56, Wednesday, August,1956, 8/1; and 8/1/56.Did You Know?When calculating NETWORKDAYS,if your start date is later than yourend date, Excel returns a negativenumber.04_126745 ch02.qxp 6/5/07 7:02 PM Page 51
    • Copy, Format, and MoreIf you have used Word, you know that copyingtext for use in another document or applicationenables you to reuse material and minimizeretyping and errors. Basic copying in Excel issimilar: Select the value and then click the Copybutton in the Ribbon. In the new location, clickin the cell where you want to place the valueand then click Paste. But copying can be bothmore involved and more powerful in Excelbecause so many elements can occupy a cell:values, functions, formulas, formats, styles, andmore. You can copy any of these elementsbetween cells, worksheets, workbooks, andeven applications. You can copy one value at atime, such as a specific number or specific bit oftext, or many consecutively arranged values atthe same time, such as a range.Excel makes use of the copy features built intoWindows as well as those built into Office2007. You can store as many as 24 differentitems on the Office Clipboard for pasting intoExcel and other Office applications.In this chapter, you learn to use the OfficeClipboard. You also learn to transpose a rowinto a column, to copy styles from oneworksheet to another, to copy formulas fromone cell to another, to change text to numbers,and much more. If you share your workbookswith others, you may want to use the tip onkeeping track of the changes.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:03 PM Page 52
    • Check Your Formulas for Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54Trace Precedents and Dependents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Change Text to Numbers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58Convert a Row to a Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60Copy with the Office Clipboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62Adjust Column Widths with Paste Special. . . . . . . . . . . . . 64Specify How to Paste with Paste Special. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66Create Your Own Style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68Copy Styles to Another Workbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70Conditionally Format Your Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72Track Changes While Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76Consolidate Worksheets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7805_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 53
    • 1 Click in the cell that contains theformula you want to check.2 Click the Formulas tab.3 Click Evaluate Formulas in theFormula Auditing group.CHECK YOUR FORMULASfor errorsWhen you create formulas, you can nest a formulawithin another formula. Because there are so manyintermediate steps when you nest formulas,determining the accuracy of your results may bedifficult. You can use the Evaluate Formula dialog boxto check the result of intermediate calculations todetermine if your result is correct.When you open the Evaluate Formula dialog box, yousee your formula. The Evaluate Formula dialog boxsteps you through the calculation one expression ata time so you can see how Excel evaluates eachargument. Click the Evaluate button to begin theprocess. Excel underlines individual expressions. Youcan click the Evaluate button again to see the resultsof an expression. The results of expressions appearin italics.If you base the reference on another formula, youcan click the Step In button to display the formula.Click the Step Out button to return to the reference.After you step through the entire formula, Exceldisplays the result and a Restart button. Click theRestart button to evaluate your expression again.22441133l The Evaluate Formula dialog boxappears.4 Click Evaluate.l Excel begins evaluating theformula.5405_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 54
    • 5 Continue clickingEvaluate to revieweach expression.l Click Step In to reviewthe results of anexpression.l Click Step Out to returnto the expression.5566l When Excel reaches the end of theformula, it displays the results.l Click Restart to evaluate the formulaagain.6 Click Close to close the dialog box.55Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?The maximum number of functions you can nestwithin a function is 64.Did You Know?The #### error occurs when a cell is not wideenough or when you use a negative date or time.The #DIV/0 error occurs when you try to divide byzero. The #N/A error occurs when a value is notavailable to your function. The #VALUE error occurswhen you use the wrong type of argument oroperand.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 55
    • TRACE PRECEDENTS1 Click in the cell containing theformula for which you want totrace precedents.l If the cell has an error, an Errorbutton displays next to theformula.2 Click the Formulas tab.3 Click Trace Precedents in theFormula Auditing group.TRACEprecedents and dependentsWhen you create a formula, Excel evaluates all thevalues in the formula and returns the result. If Excelcannot calculate the formula, it displays an error inthe formula’s cell. You can use the Excel tracefeatures to help you locate your error.You can view a graphical representation of the cellsa formula refers to by clicking in the cell and thenclicking Trace Precedents in the Formula Auditinggroup on the Formulas tab. This option draws bluearrows to each cell referenced by your formula. Byselecting this option, you can identify the exact cellsused by your formula.If you want to find out which formulas use a specificcell, you can view a graphical representation byclicking in the cell and then clicking TraceDependents in the Formula Auditing group on theFormulas tab. This option draws blue arrows to eachcell that contains a formula that uses the active cellas an argument. If you perform this function beforedeleting a value, you can determine if your deletionaffects a formula in your worksheet.2244113355l Excel draws arrows between thecells on which the formula isbased and the formula’s cell.4 Make the appropriatemodifications to correct the errorin the formula.5 Click Remove Arrows.Excel removes the arrows.Note: Click the down arrow next toRemove Arrows to choose RemoveArrow, Remove Precedent Arrows,or Remove Dependent Arrows.5605_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 56
    • TRACE DEPENDENTS1 Click in the cell forwhich you want totrace dependants.2 Click the Formulas tab.3 Click Trace Dependents.22113344l Excel draws arrows between the formula’scell and the dependent cells.4 Click Remove Arrows.Excel removes the arrows.Note: Click the down arrow next to RemoveArrows to choose Remove Arrow, RemovePrecedent Arrows, or Remove DependentArrows.57Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?When working with large or complicated worksheets, where the result of the formula isdependent on the results of another formula in another cell, you may want to monitor cellvalues. To do so, you can use the Watch Window. To add a cell to the Watch Window, clickWatch Window on the Formulas tab in the Formula Auditing group. The Watch Windowappears at the bottom of your screen. Click the Add Watch button. The Add Watch dialogbox appears. Click and drag to select the cells you want to watch and then click Add. Youcan now monitor the cells you have added to the Watch Window.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 57
    • Note: The left-aligned numbersin this task are really text. In Excel,the default position for numbers isthe right side of the cell.l You cannot calculate the average;Excel displays a #DIV/0! error.ChangeTEXT TO NUMBERSYou can use formulas to perform complex calculationsquickly and accurately on numbers, dates, or times.Sometimes, however, your numbers look like numbersbut are, in fact, text — mere characters. If a numberis left-aligned in a cell, it is probably text; truenumbers, by default, are right-aligned.In Excel, text and numbers are different data types.You should use numbers, but not text, in mathematicalformulas and functions. Trying to include text in amathematical calculation results in an error.You can address the problem in several ways. Youcan use the Format Cells dialog box to reformat thetext cells to numbers, but this method does notalways work. A more reliable technique is to multiplyeach numeral by 1 to convert the data type from textto a number.The numbers-as-text problem often occurs when youimport data from another application — for example,an external database such as Access. Chapter 9covers importing data in detail.1122331 Type 1 into any neighboring cell.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click the Copy button.5805_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 58
    • 4 Click and drag toselect the cells youwant to convert.5 Right-click the selectedcells.A contextual menuappears.6 Click Paste Special.4477886655l The Paste Special dialog box appears.7 Click Multiply ( changes to ).8 Click OK.l The numbers now appear on the rightside of their cells, and you can use themin mathematical formulas.59Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?Excel can convert text-based numbers to actual numbers. Click the Office button and then click ExcelOptions. The Excel Options dialog box appears. Click Formulas. In the Error Checking Rules section,select Numbers Formatted as Text or Preceded by an Apostrophe ( changes to ). Excel flagscells containing text by placing a green flag in the upper-left corner. Click the menu buttonappearing alongside any cells with this error. Click Convert to Number. If Excel is able to convertthe text to a number, the numbers will right-align. This method does not always work.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 59
    • 1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to transpose.Note: Make sure a series of blankcells is available to accommodatethe copied data.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click the Copy button.CONVERT A ROWto a columnWhen you create a worksheet, Excel gives youflexibility when working with rows and columns. Atany time, you can insert new rows or columns, deleterows or columns, and move entire rows or columnswhile retaining most of their properties. Sometimes,however, you may want to transpose a row into acolumn — or vice versa.Transposing comes in handy when you need to createa table, a special kind of worksheet discussed inChapter 4. A table might consist of rows describingproducts, with each column describing a featureof the product: its ID, its price, the quantity ininventory, and so on. Tables typically have manyrows and fewer columns.With Excel, you can copy, or transpose, a row intoa column and vice versa by using the Paste Specialdialog box. To ensure you have room for newworksheet data, you can place the transposedcolumns or rows on a different worksheet or in anew workbook.112233447755664 Click to select the first cell in thenew column or row.Note: Excel removes existing databy copying over it.5 Click the Home tab.6 Click Paste.A menu appears.7 Click Paste Special.6005_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 60
    • l The Paste Special dialogbox appears.8 Click Transpose( changes to ).9 Click OK.8899l The data appears in its new position.61Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?With the TRANSPOSE function, you can transposea grid of cells. Start by selecting an area largeenough to hold the new grid. In the Formula bar,type =TRANSPOSE( and then click the InsertFunction button. The Function Arguments dialogbox appears. Select the cells you want to transposeand then press Ctrl+Shift+Enter. Excel transposesthe grid.Did You Know?You can avoid rearranging worksheets by designingthem carefully. For long lists of people, things,transactions, and so on, arrange them in columnswith descriptive column heads. Excel calls thistype of layout a table. For more about tables, seeChapter 4.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 61
    • 1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to copy.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click the Copy button.Excel places a copy of the cellsyou selected on the OfficeClipboard.Copy with theOFFICE CLIPBOARDWith Office 2007, you can place content into astorage area called the Clipboard and paste thecontent into Excel or another Office application. Cutand copied content stays on the Clipboard until youclose all Office applications. The Office clipboard canstore up to 24 cut or copied items. All the items onthe Clipboard are available for you to paste to a newlocation in Excel or in another Office document.The Clipboard is not visible until you access it. InExcel, access the Clipboard by clicking the launcherin the Clipboard group of the Home tab. You can usethe Clipboard to store a range of cells. The OfficeClipboard pastes the entire range, including all thevalues, but any formulas in the cells are not includedwhen you paste.After you paste an item from the Clipboard, Excelprovides the Paste Options icon menu. You can usethe menu to choose whether you want to use thesource formatting or the destination formatting onthe pasted data.112233444 Click the Launcher in theClipboard group.The Clipboard Task Pane appears.6205_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 62
    • 5 Click the destinationcell.6 Click the item youwant to paste.5566l The content is pasted into the newlocation.l In the Paste Options icon menu, choosewhether to keep the formatting of thecopied item or change it to match theformatting of the new location. Thedefault is to match the formatting of thenew location. Press Esc to accept thedefault and remove the menu.63Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?To copy a cell range within or between worksheets,click and drag to select a series of cells and thenclick the Copy button on the Home tab in theClipboard group. To paste the range, navigate to theworksheet to which you want to copy the range,click in the cell where you want the range to start,and click Paste on the Home tab in the Clipboardgroup.Did You Know?To keep the Clipboard Task Pane from unexpectedlyappearing while you are copying, open the pane,click the Options button on the lower left, and selectCollect Without Showing Office Clipboard.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 63
    • 1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to copy.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click the Copy button.4 Place the cursor in the cell(s)into which you want to paste.5 Click Paste.A menu appears.6 Click Paste Special.Adjust column widths withPASTE SPECIALBy clicking the Copy button on the Home tab,pressing Ctrl+C, or clicking Copy on a contextualmenu, you can easily copy the contents of a rangeof cells so you can paste the contents somewhereelse in your worksheet. Cells can contain a lot ofinformation. When you paste with Paste Special, youdecide exactly what information you want to paste.You can choose to paste everything or you canchoose to paste just one element of the cell’scontents, such as the formula, value, format,comment, validation, or column width.You can paste more than once. For example, whenyou paste by clicking Paste, Excel pastes the values,formulas, and formats but does not adjust thecolumn widths. You can remedy this problem bypasting in two steps. In the first step, paste columnwidths. Excel adjusts the column widths. In thesecond step, paste your values, formulas, andformats.4422331155778866l The Paste Special dialog boxappears.7 Click Column Widths( changes to ).8 Click OK.6405_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 64
    • l Excel copies thecolumn widthsfrom the source tothe destination.9 Click Paste.99l Excel pastes the contents of the cell.You can press Esc to end the copy session.65Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?You can choose the Skip Blanksoption ( changes to ) in thePaste Special dialog box if yoursource includes any blanks. If youdo, Excel will not overwrite adestination cell with a blank if thedestination cell has data in it.Did You Know?You can press Ctrl+C to copy. Youcan press Ctrl+V to paste. You canpress Ctrl+X to cut. Cutting movesdata from its current location tothe location where you paste it.Did You Know?The Office Clipboard holdsgraphical objects, so you canuse it to bring digital pictures,WordArt, and clip art fromother programs into Excel.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 65
    • 1 Click in a cell with the format,formula, or value you want tocopy.2 Click the Copy button.3 Place the cursor in the cell(s)into which you want to paste.4 Click Paste.A menu appears.5 Click Paste Special.Specify how to paste withPASTE SPECIALYou can use the Format Painter to copy formats fromone cell to another. You can also use Paste Special.Simply copy a cell with the format you want, andthen use Paste Special to paste the format into othercells. See Chapter 7 to learn more about the FormatPainter.You can use the same steps to copy formulas orvalues from one location in your worksheet toanother. When you want to use a cell’s formula inother cells in your worksheet, paste the formula.When you want the results of a formula but not theformula itself, paste the value.You can also use Paste Special to perform simplearithmetic operations on each cell in a range. Forexample, in a list of prices, you may want to increaseevery price by 10 percent. You can use Paste Specialto make the change quickly. Just type 1.10 in acell and then select Multiply in the Paste Specialdialog box.33221144667755l The Paste Special dialog boxappears.6 Click to select a Paste option( changes to ).This example copies a formula.7 Click OK.l Excel pastes.6605_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 66
    • 8 Click in a cell with thenumber by which youwant to add, subtract,multiply, or divide.9 Repeat Steps 2 to 5.l The Paste SpecialDialog box appears.0 Click an operation( changes to ).! Click OK.8800!!l Excel performs the operation you selected.67Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?You can use the Paste Link option in the PasteSpecial dialog box to keep your source anddestination data synchronized. If you click thePaste Link button when pasting, when you makechanges to the source data, Excel automaticallyupdates the destination data.Did You Know?You do not have to open the Paste Special dialogbox to paste formulas and values. You can selectthese options directly from the Paste menu on theHome tab.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 67
    • GROUP FORMATS AS A STYLE1 Click in a cell with formats youwant to use as the basis for astyle.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click Cell Styles.The Styles gallery appears.4 Click New Cell Style.Create your ownSTYLEBy using Excel’s many format options, you can easilyformat numbers, text, and cells. A style is a namedcollection of formats you can share among users andapply across workbooks. Styles streamline the work offormatting so you and others can apply a consistentset of formats to worksheet elements such as rowheads, column heads, and data values. Excel comeswith many styles, which you can view in the Stylegallery. To apply one of Excel’s styles, select the cellsyou want to apply it to and then click the style.You can create your own styles. To create a new stylebased on the current one, right-click the style in theCell Styles gallery and then click Modify. The Styledialog box appears. Click Format. The Cells dialogbox appears. Use the dialog box to select one ormore formats. Click OK when you finish. Back in theStyle box, give your new style a name, and thenclick OK.335544112266l The Style dialog box appears.l This area describes the formats ofthe cell selected in Step 1.5 Type a name for your style.6 Click OK.You can now apply the stylethroughout the currentworkbook.6805_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 68
    • APPLY A FORMAT STYLE1 Click and drag to selectthe cells to which youwant to apply the style.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click Cell Styles.The Style galleryappears.4 Click the style youcreated.22331144l Excel applies the style.69Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?You can use the Format Painter to apply styles,and you can copy, and paste formats from one cellto another. However, if you use a format often,consider creating a style. See Task # 71 to learnmore about Format Painter.Apply It!You can build a style from the ground up ratherthan basing it on a formatted cell. Click the Hometab and then click Cell Styles. The Style galleryappears. Click New Cell Style and then in the Styledialog box click Format. The Format cells dialogbox appears. You can use it to design your style.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 69
    • 1 Open the file with your customstyle.COPY STYLESto another workbookA style is a collection of formats you use within aworkbook. With styles, you maintain consistency inthe way numbers, dates, times, borders, and textappear in cells. You can create a style based on anycombination of formats available in the Format Cellsdialog box, which you access by clicking the Formatbutton in the Styles dialog box. One workbook cancontain many styles.Styles simplify your work and reduce the timerequired to format worksheets. With styles, you canchange many cells at once by creating a style andapplying the style to other cells. To use a style inanother workbook, copy the style from one workbookto the other. When you copy a style into anotherworkbook, Excel calls that merging.To copy styles, you need to open both the workbookfrom which you want to copy the style and theworkbook to which you want to apply it.1122553311442 Open the workbook into whichyou want to merge styles.3 Click the Home tab.4 Click Cell Styles.The Styles gallery appears.5 Click Merge Styles.7005_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 70
    • l The Merge Stylesdialog box appears.6 Click the workbookwhose styles youwant to use.7 Click OK.7766l The copied styles are now available in thenew workbook.71Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?Each style in a workbook must have a uniquename. If you try to copy a style into a workbookcontaining a style with the same name, a warningbox appears when you click OK in the MergeStyles dialog box. If you want the imported styleto take the place of the existing style, click OK.Otherwise, click No or Cancel.Apply It!Using a style copied into a workbook works thesame as if you created the style within theworkbook. To use a copied style, select the cellor range of cells to be styled. Click Home andthen click Cell Styles in the Styles group. Thestyle gallery appears. Click the imported style.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 71
    • CONDITIONAL FORMAT1 Click and drag to select the datayou want to monitor.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click Conditional Formatting.A menu appears.4 Click to select a menu option.A submenu appears.5 Click to select a menu option.ConditionallyFORMAT YOUR WORKSHEETIf you want to monitor your data by highlightingcertain conditions, Excel’s conditional formattingfeature can aid you. For example, if your companyoffers a bonus whenever sales exceed 150,000dollars, you can have Excel highlight cells containingsales figures whenever the value is more than150,000 dollars. You can also have Excel highlighta cell when the entry is less than, between, or equalto a specified value. Use Excel’s conditionalformatting feature to monitor text, dates, duplicatevalues, the top N, the top N percent, the bottom N,the bottom N percent, above average values, orbelow average values.Changes affect conditionally-formatted data. If, aftera change, a cell no longer meets the condition, Excelremoves the highlighting. If, after a change, a cellmeets the condition, Excel adds highlighting. Youdetermine exactly what the condition is and whatshould happen if a cell meets the condition. Excelprovides you with a list of formats from which tochoose, and you can also create a custom format.3355774422668811l A dialog box appears.Note: This example usesGreater Than.6 Type your criteria.7 Click here and select theformatting you want to apply.You can choose to create acustom format.8 Click OK.l Excel highlights all of the datathat meets your criteria.7205_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 72
    • DATA BARS1 Repeat Steps 1 to 3listed under ConditionalFormat.l This is the selecteddata.A menu appears.2 Click Data Bars.A submenu appears.3 Click the color data baryou want to use.22 33l Excel applies the data bars to the cells youselected.73Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?Excel provides you with several colors to choosefrom when you add data bars to your worksheet.You can select another color. Click the Home taband then click Conditional Formatting in the Stylesgroup. A menu appears. Click Data Bars and thenclick More Rules. The New Formatting Rule dialogbox appears. Use the Bar Color field to select a newcolor. Click OK.Did You Know?You can use color scales to conditionally format data.Color scales use gradations of color. For example, ifyou use Excel’s yellow and green color scale, yellowrepresents lower values and green, higher values. Toapply a color scale, select the cells to which youwant to apply the scale, click the Home tab, clickConditional Formatting, click Color Scales, and thenclick the color scale you want to apply.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 73
    • MODIFY RULES1 Repeat Steps 1 to 3 listed underConditional Format.l This is the selected data.A menu appears.2 Click Icon Sets.Alternatively, you can click DataBars or Color Scales. Each allowsyou to change the associatedrules.A submenu appears.3 Click More Rules.ConditionallyFORMAT YOUR WORKSHEETData bars enable you to discern at a glance how largea value in one cell is relative to the values in othercells. A data bar is a colored bar you place in a cell.The length of the bar represents the value of the cellrelative to other cells — the longer the bar, the higherthe value. Excel provides you with several bars fromwhich to choose and you can design your own.Color scales and icon sets are similar to data bars,except color scales use gradients of color torepresent the relative size of the cell value, and iconsets use icons to represent the relative size of thevalue.Data bars, color scales, and icon sets all use rules todetermine when to display what. You can use therules defined by Excel or you can create your ownrules. At the bottom of the data bar, color scale, oricon set menu, click More Rules to adjust rules.4422335566 7788l The New Formatting Rule dialogbox appears.4 Click here and select a rule type.5 Click here and select a formatstyle.6 Click here and select an operator.7 Type a value or click in the cellthat contains the value you wantto use.8 Click here and select a type.Note: You can choose Number,Percent, Formula, or Percentile.7405_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 74
    • 9 Click here and select anicon style.0 Click OK.0099l Excel displays the results of your rule.75Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?You can Sort by Cell Color, Font Color, or Icon.Right-click in any cell that has conditionalformatting applied to it. A context menu appears.Click Sort and then select the appropriate sortoption. To learn more see Task #40.Did You Know?If you click Show Icon Only, Show Bar Only, orShow Color Only in the New Formatting Ruledialog box ( changes to ), Excel displaysicons, bars, or color, but not the values ineach cell.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 75
    • 1 Click the Review tab.2 Click Track Changes.A menu appears.3 Click Highlight Changes.TRACK CHANGESwhile editingIf you work in a networked environment and severalpeople work on the same worksheet, you may needto account for who makes what change, in whichcells, and when. To do so, you can use the TrackChanges feature.In the Highlight Changes dialog box, use the When,Who, and Where options. Use When to define thetime after which edits are tracked — for example,after a specific date or since you last saved. UseWho to identify the group whose edits you want totrack — for example, everyone in the workgroup,everyone but you, or a named individual. Use Whereto specify the rows and columns whose data youwant to monitor.When someone makes a change, Excel indicates thechange by placing a small purple triangle in the upper-left corner of the changed cell. Excel records cellchanges in automatically generated cell comments.You can view these comments by moving your mousepointer over the cells.22114433l The Highlight Changes dialogbox appears.4 Click Track Changes WhileEditing ( changes to ).The optional When, Who, andWhere fields become available.7605_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 76
    • 5 Click here and selectwhen to track changes.6 Click here and selectwhose changes to track.7 Type the cell range, orclick and drag to selectthe cells you want tomonitor.8 Click Highlight ChangesOn Screen to insert apurple flag into editedcells ( changes to ).9 Click OK.0 A message informs youthat Excel has saved yourworkbook. Click OK.556677880099l Purple flags appear in edited cells.l To view a cell’s comment, move yourcursor over the cell.Note: For more about comments, seeTask #7.77Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?To view all worksheet changes after you or othersmake edits, open the Highlight Changes dialog boxand click the List Changes on a New Sheet option( changes to ). For the Who field, click Everyone.Click to uncheck the When and Where fields. ClickOK. Excel creates a new worksheet called History thatshows each change, the type of change, the valueschanged, the person who made the change, and soon. You can sort and filter the worksheet.Did You Know?You can review every change made to a worksheetand either accept or reject the change. Click theReview tab, click Track Changes, and then clickAccept/Reject Changes. The available options let yourestrict your review to changes by certain people andat certain times.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 77
    • 1 Click in the top-left cell of therange into which you want toconsolidate your data.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Consolidate.CONSOLIDATEworksheetsIf you keep related data in separate worksheets, orfor that matter, separate workbooks, you mayeventually want to consolidate. For example, if youkeep sales information for several regions onseparate worksheets, you may want to consolidatethe worksheets to find the total sales for all regions.Excel’s Consolidate feature allows you to do justthat. Excel provides a variety of functions you canuse to consolidate including SUM, COUNT, AVERAGE,MAX, MIN, and PRODUCT.You start the consolidation process by selecting thelocation for your consolidated data. You may want toformat your cells so that the incoming data displaysproperly. You then select the function you want touse to consolidate you data. The SUM function takesthe data from each location you specify and adds ittogether. You tell Excel the location of the data youwant to consolidate. The data can be in the sameworkbook or another workbook. Excel takes the dataand consolidates it.33114422l The Consolidate dialog boxappears.4 Click here and select the functionyou want to use to consolidateyour data.7805_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 78
    • 5 Click and drag toselect the location ofyour data or type thecell range.6 Click Add.7 Repeat Steps 5 and 6as necessary.8 Click OK.6655778855l Excel consolidates your data.79Chapter 3: Copy, Format, and MoreDid You Know?To include data from another workbook in yourworksheet, open the other workbook. In theConsolidate dialog box in your original workbook,place your cursor in the Reference field. Click theView tab, click Switch Windows, and select the otherworkbook. Click and drag to specify the data youwant to consolidate. Click Add. Click OK. Excelconsolidates the data.Did You Know?If you click Create Links to Source Data ( changesto ) in the Consolidate dialog box, Excel updatesyour consolidated data each time you make a changeto the data on which you base your consolidation.05_126745 ch03.qxp 6/5/07 7:04 PM Page 79
    • Manipulate RecordsA list is a set of columns and rows. Eachcolumn represents a single type of data. Forexample, a list might have three columns:name, gender, and age. Each row in the list isa record. For each record in the list, the namecolumn contains a name, the gender columncontains a gender, and the age column containsan age. When you structure a worksheet as alist, you can tap the Excel database-likecapabilities that go beyond what is possiblewith a simple worksheet.This chapter shows you how to work with listsand other data that you structure as lists.Much of the chapter focuses on sorting andfiltering. To sort means to arrange a list inorder, either alphabetically or numerically. Youcan sort and re-sort lists as necessary andeven sort within a sort. To filter means todisplay only the information that meetscertain criteria — temporarily hiding the rest.Advanced filtering gives you tools for filteringout duplicate records and applying multiplecomplex filters to your data.With data formatted as a list, you can count,average, and subtotal parts of your data thatmeet certain criteria. In a customer survey, forexample, you can count the number of seniorcitizens who prefer a certain sport or comparethe time spent online among different agegroups in different communities. You carry outcalculations by using the Ribbon or by usingdatabase functions. Refer to Chapter 2 to learnmore about functions.When you organize data into a list, you haveaccess to lookups, a special way of searchingfor data. You might use a lookup to retrieve astock price by typing a stock symbol. You canalso create a powerful analytical tool called aPivotTable, which is discussed in Chapter 5.06_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 80
    • Enter Data with a Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82Filter Duplicate Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84Perform Simple Sorts and Filters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86Perform Complex Sorts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88Sort by Cell Color, Font Color, or Icon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90Perform Complex Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92Filter by Multiple Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94Subtotal Sorted Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96Chart Filtered Data Easily. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98Count Filtered Records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100Look Up Information in Your Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . 102Define Data as a Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104Modify a Table Style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10606_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 81
    • 1 Type your column heads.2 Click and drag to select yourcolumn heads.3 Click the Form button.ENTER DATAwith a formCreating a list is a two-step process: First, you createthe structure, which consists of a series of textlabels, one per cell, each describing the content of acolumn. Then you enter the data. Excel enables youto generate a form to simplify data entry.A form simplifies and speeds up data entry byproviding a blank field for each column in your table.You type the data and press the Tab key to movefrom field to field. After you complete one set offields, you enter them into a row in your list andstart entering a new set of fields. You can movebackward and forward through your list to view ormodify your data. The list form also doubles as asearch box you can use to retrieve values.You must add the Form button to the Quick Accesstoolbar before you can use forms. See Task #95to learn how to add a button to the Quick Accesstoolbar.11442233l A warning appears.4 Read the warning and then clickOK.8206_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 82
    • l The data form appears,consisting of one fieldfor each column headyou created.5 Type the requestedinformation in the firstfield.6 Press Tab to move tothe next field.7 Repeat Steps 5 and 6 tocomplete the remainingfields.8 After completing thefirst set of fields, clickNew to start a newrecord.558800l The data fills the worksheet, and the formfields clear, ready for another record.9 Repeat Steps 5 to 8 for each new record.0 Click Close after entering all your data.A list of your data records appears in theworksheet.83Chapter 4: Manipulate RecordsDid You Know?You can use the data form to search for and edit yourdata. With the list and form displayed, click the form’sCriteria button. In a blank field, type an operator,such as = or >, and a value in one or more fields. Forexample, to find all records for Sally, you would type=”Sally” in the First Name field and then press Enter.If several records are available, click the Find Prev(Previous) and Find Next buttons as appropriate. Ifyou are looking for text, place the text you arelooking for in quotes; if you are looking for a number,do not place the number in quotes.Did You Know?You can use a form with an existing list. Just click anddrag to select the column heads and then click theForm button on the Quick Access toolbar.06_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 83
    • 1 Click in a cell in your list.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Advanced.FilterDUPLICATE RECORDSExcel provides many tools for managing long lists.With such lists, you may find you need to identify anddisplay unique records. A baseball-card collector, forexample, may want to find the number of uniqueplayers represented in his collection so he can createa catalog. Alternatively, a store manager may want toknow the number of unique individuals represented inher survey to help her make informed decisions aboutcustomer needs.Excel provides tools for displaying only uniquerecords in a list. Start with a worksheet formatted asa list in which some of the records are duplicates,meaning the values in every column are the same.Use Excel’s advanced filtering tools to identify andremove from view the duplicated records. Ordinarily,you use advanced filtering tools to create filters inseveral columns or even several filters on a singlecolumn.If you want to remove duplicate records permanently,use the Remove Duplicates option on the Data tab.11223355446677l The Advanced Filter dialog boxappears.4 Click Filter the List, In Place( changes to ).5 Click and drag to select yourentire list, or type the cell range.6 Click Unique Records Only( changes to ).7 Click OK.8406_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 84
    • Excel filters theduplicate records.l You can tell theduplicate records arehidden because the rownumbers are notcontinuous.88998 Click the Data tab.9 Click Clear.l The duplicate records display.85Chapter 4: Manipulate RecordsDid You Know?If you want to retain you unfiltered list, you can placeyour filtered list in another area of you worksheet. Inthe Advanced Filter dialog box, click Copy To AnotherLocation ( changes to ) and then enter thelocation where you want to place your filtered list inthe Copy To field.Did You Know?Filtering duplicate records temporarily removes themfrom view. If you want to delete duplicate recordspermanently, select your list, click the Data tab, andthen in the Data Tools group click Remove Duplicates.The Remove Duplicates dialog box appears. If yourlist has headers, click My Data Has Headers( changes to ). Select the columns you want tocheck for duplicates and then click OK. Excel deletesthe duplicate records.06_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 85
    • SORT A LIST1 Click in a cell in a list.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click a sort direction.Click A to Z to sort from lowestto highest — ascending order.Click Z to A to sort from highestto lowest — descending order.Perform simpleSORTS AND FILTERSSorting and filtering your lists offers different viewsof your data. When you sort, you rearrange yourdata in ascending or descending order.The meaning of these terms depends on the kind ofdata you have. Customer data arranged by the datein ascending order shows the earliest record first;descending order shows the latest record first. Whenyou sort by customer name, the names appear inascending (A to Z) or descending (Z to A) order.When you sort numeric data in ascending order, thenumbers sort from the lowest number to the highest.In descending order, numbers sort from the highestto the lowest. When you sort a list, you can easilyfind data, group data, and present it meaningfully toothers.Filtering works like a sieve through which you passyour data, displaying only data that meets yourcriteria. In a customer survey, for example, you canchoose to view only customers who live in a certainstate or city or are of a certain age or gender.111122332233l Excel sorts your list.FILTER A LIST1 Click in a cell in your list.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Filter.8606_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 86
    • l Down arrows appearnext to your fieldheaders.4 Click a down arrow.The Sort and Filterdialog box appears.5 Click to deselect theitems you do not wantto appear ( changesto ).6 Click OK.445566l Excel filters your list.In this example, CA andMA do not appear.87Chapter 4: Manipulate RecordsDid You Know?When you click the down arrow Excel creates whenyou click Filter, Excel provides options for filteringyour data. It also provides options for sorting yourdata. You can perform simple sorts, complex sorts,or you can sort by cell color, font color, or icon.See Task #s 39 and 40 to learn more aboutsorting.Did You Know?When you perform a filter, Excel places downarrows next to your field headers. Fields you havefiltered have a filter button ( ) on the downarrow. Fields you have sorted in ascending orderhave an up-arrow button on the down arrow ( ).Fields you have sorted in descending order have adown-arrow button on the down arrow ( ).06_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 87
    • 1 Click in a cell in your list.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Sort.PerformCOMPLEX SORTSSorting a list by one criterion, such as age, arrangesyour records for easy scanning. You can also sortby multiple criteria — a sort within a sort. Whenpossible, sort first by a discrete category such asgender, community, region, or department. That way,subsequent sorts apply to the multiple valuescontained within each category.For example, after sorting your customer records bycommunity, you could sort them by gender to displaythe communities in which the men and women live.Sorting by a third column, income, would then showhow men’s and women’s incomes differ in eachcommunity.With your data sorted in this way, you can createsubtotals, averages, and counts at every break ina category — that is, for all people in a specificcommunity, for men and women in that community,and so on.You define all sorts in the Sort dialog box. Ascendingand descending are not your only choices. In theSort dialog box, you can click Options to specify acustom order. For example, you could order monthschronologically from January to December instead ofalphabetically from April to November, which, in mostcases, would not be useful.662233771144 55l The Sort dialog box appears.4 Click here and select the columnby which you want to sort.5 Click here and select Values.6 Click here and select a sort order.7 Click the Add Level button.8806_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 88
    • l A new level appears.8 Repeat Steps 4 and 5to sort by an additionalcriterion.9 Click here and selectCustom List.l The Custom Lists dialogbox appears.0 Click to sort by days ofthe week or months ofthe year.! Click OK to close theCustom Lists dialog box.@ Click OK to close theSort dialog box.9900!!@@l The list sorts according to the sort orderspecified, along with any options chosen.89Chapter 4: Manipulate RecordsDid You Know?Excel defines different sorts as follows. For numbers,ascending order goes from the smallest number tothe largest. For text that includes numerals, as in U2and K12, ascending order places numerals beforesymbols and symbols before letters. Case does notmatter unless you click Options in the Sort dialogbox and then click the Case Sensitive check box( changes to ).Did You Know?In the Sort dialog box, click Delete Level to deletea level of sort. Click Copy Level to copy a level ofsort. Click to move a sort level up. Click tomove a sort level down.06_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 89
    • 1 Format your data with a color,font, or icon.2 Select the data you want to sort.Note: If you have formatted yourdata as a list, click in any cell inthe table.3 Click the Data tab.4 Click Sort.SORTby cell color, font color, or iconYou can use conditional formatting to set criteria andthen format your data based on that criteria. Forexample, you can have the highest ten values in alist appear in a particular color or font or with anicon. You can have values that meet other criteriaappear in another color or font or with another icon.See Task #33 to learn how to conditionally formatyour data. You can then sort your data based on thecell color, font, or icon you assign.You can also manually assign cells a font or cell color.Then you can sort cells by these colors. Select asingle column and then click a sort button on theRibbon to sort your data. You can nest your sorts.In the Sort dialog box, you can select the color youwant to sort by and then tell Excel whether you wantto send items of that type to the top or the bottomof the list.11 22334455 66l The Sort dialog box appears.5 Click here and select the columnby which you want to sort.6 Click here and select whetheryou want to sort by a value, cellcolor, font color, or icon.9006_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 90
    • l If you select Cell Color,Font Color, or Cell Icon,an Order field appears.7 Click here and select acolor or icon.8 Click here and selectfrom On Top or OnBottom.Click On Top tosend the items thatmatch the criteria tothe top of the list.Click On Bottom tosend the items thatmatch the criteria tothe bottom of the list.8899779 Click the Add Level button to add anotherlevel of sort.Repeat Steps 5 to 8, as necessary.0 Click OK when you finish.l Excel sorts your data by font, color, oricon.91Chapter 4: Manipulate RecordsDid You Know?An alternative way to sort by color, font, or iconis to right-click in any cell that has the color,font, or icon by which you want to sort. A menuappears. Click Sort. Another menu appears.Click to choose from Put Selected Cell Coloron Top, Put Selected Font Color on Top, or PutSelected Icon on Top.Did You Know?By default, Excel sorts from top to bottom. Ifyou want to sort from left to right, click Optionsin the Sort dialog box. The Sort Options dialogbox appears. Click Sort Left to Right.06_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 91
    • 1 Click in a cell in your list.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Filter in the Sort & Filtergroup.PerformCOMPLEX FILTERSWhereas sorting rearranges all records in ascendingor descending order, filtering enables you to see onlythe records that match your criteria, hiding the rest.Criteria look like this: Age is greater than 65 and Stateequals Missouri, where Age and State are the namesof column heads. When you filter a list, down arrowsappear to the right of every column head.Click a column’s arrow to select values, such asMissouri or Age greater than 65. By applying a filter,you display only those records that contain certainvalues in the column — for example, all customers inMissouri or all men over 65. You can also create afilter that displays the records for a column’s top tenvalues. With Excel, you can combine filters, applyingdifferent criteria to different columns.By applying several filters, you can quickly narrowdown a long list to the few records of interest to you.Criteria that apply to too narrow a range of values,however, might not return any records. To filter a listby multiple criteria, start with a worksheet formattedas a list.223344661155l Down arrows appear next to allof your column heads.4 Click the down arrow next to thefield you want to filter.5 Click Number Filters if you chosea number field.Alternatively, click Text Filtersif you chose a text field or DateFilters if you chose a date field inStep 4.6 Click Custom Filter.9206_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 92
    • l The Custom AutoFilterdialog box appears.7 Click here and select anoperator.8 Type a value or select avalue.l You can repeat Steps 7and 8 if you want tocreate a second criterion.Choose And if you wantboth criteria to be met.Choose Or if you wanteither criteria to be met.9 Click OK.889977l The list displays records matching yourcriteria.Note: To sort the filtered records, click theData tab and then click a sort option.93Chapter 4: Manipulate RecordsDid You Know?You can use a filter to view the top or bottom N values in a list, where N stands for thenumber of values you want to view. Click the down arrow next to the numeric field youwant to filter. A menu appears. Click Number Filters and then click Top Ten. The Top 10AutoFilter dialog box appears. Select Top if you want to view the Top N values. ClickBottom, if you want to view the bottom N values. Type the number of values you wantto view and then select whether you want Excel to return results based on a number ora percentage. Click OK. Excel returns the results you request.06_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 93
    • 1 On the worksheet with your list,type the column head names ofthe columns you want to filter.2 Type criteria by which you wantto filter values.Note: Use operators to definecriteria and place text in quotes.For example, to find all males,type = “=M”; Excel will display=M.Filter byMULTIPLE CRITERIAWith advanced filtering, you can go beyond thelimitations of the AutoFilter command discussed inTask #41. With advanced filtering, you can createtwo or more filters and easily coordinate a set offilters between columns. For example, you can filtera survey to find people age 30 or younger who aremale and people age 60 or older who are female.Advanced filtering requires a bit of work, even whenyou use the Advanced Filter menu command. Youmust find a block of cells on the worksheet andcreate a criteria range. Use one or more columnheads from a list. In the cell below each head, typecriteria by which to filter each column, such as<=35, to find people 35 and under and = “=M” tofind all males.Using the Advanced Filter dialog box, you specify thecell addresses of the entire list, the criteria range,and a location for the filtered list. The filtered listmust be on the same worksheet as the original list.332211443 Click the Data tab.4 Click Advanced.9406_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 94
    • l The Advanced Filterdialog box appears.5 Click to indicate whereto place the filtered list( changes to ).You can click Copy ToAnother Location tocopy the list to anotherlocation and retain theoriginal list.6 Click and drag to selector type the range forthe entire list.7 Click and drag to selector type the range forthe criteria defined inStep 2.5599886677888 If you chose to copy the filtered list inStep 5, click in the first cell for the filter.9 Click OK.l The filtered list appears.You may need to format the results toaccommodate wide columns.95Chapter 4: Manipulate RecordsDid You Know?A criteria range can have several rows of criteria.When a row consists of two or more criteria,Excel looks through your list and returns only therows that meet all criteria. If you want Excel toreturn records that meet either criteria place thecriteria on separate rows.Caution!Make sure your Copy To range has enough roombelow it to include all the values that may returnin the filtered list. If you place the Copy To rangeabove your original list, the results may overwritethe list and disrupt the filtering. Placing the copyto the side of the list or below it protects youroriginal list.06_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 95
    • 1 Click in a cell in your sorted list.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Subtotal.SUBTOTALsorted dataAfter you sort and group your data into categoriessuch as gender or age, you can perform a calculationon each category. Excel provides the tools forperforming simple calculations to compare onecategory with another. With a sort defined for at leastone column, you can find the average, sum, min, max,number of items, and much more for that column oranother column. Excel calls the feature that enablesyou to perform calculations on columns subtotaling,even though you can use it to do more than subtotal.Subtotaling uses outlining to hide data so you cancompare rows or columns. When you calculate theaverage, sum, or other calculation for a sorted list,outlining enables you to view only the results of thecalculation.Note that with subtotals, you can do a count on acolumn with text entries. In other circumstances, theCOUNT function works only with numbers.22663344551177l The Subtotal dialog box appears.4 Click here and select thecategory by which you want tosubtotal.5 Click here and select the type ofcalculation you want to perform.6 Click one or more columns tosubtotal ( changes to ).7 Click OK.9606_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 96
    • l The list appears withthe outlining controlsthat enable you tocompare the results.8 To compare results indifferent rows, click theminus signs (-).9988l Only the result rows appear.9 To redisplay all results, click the plussigns (+).All results display.97Chapter 4: Manipulate RecordsDid You Know?You can create several subtotalsfor a single sorted list. To displayall your subtotals, make sure theReplace Current Subtotals checkbox is not checked when you usethe Subtotal dialog box.Did You Know?You can remove outlining byclicking the Data tab, and thenin the Outline group, clickingUngroup and Clear Outline.Did You Know?Remember that you can do acalculation on a different columnfrom the one defining the sort. Forexample, if you sort by gender inone column, you can find theaverage salary or age for men orwomen and place the results intheir respective columns, such asan income column or age column.06_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 97
    • 1 Create a chart.Note: See Chapter 6 for detailedinformation on creating charts.2 Filter the data on which thechart is based.Note: See previous tasks in thischapter to learn more aboutfiltering.l A filter button on the downarrow indicates that you havefiltered data.By default, only the unfiltereddata displays in the chart.CHART FILTERED DATAeasilyWith Excel, you can quickly create a chart showingthe information in a worksheet or list. Charts showtrends and anomalies that may otherwise be difficultto detect in columns of numbers. By choosing theappropriate type of chart and formatting chartfeatures, you can share your results with others andconvey patterns in your data. For more aboutcharting, see Chapter 6.To create a chart, select the data you want to chart,click the Insert tab, and then click a chart type.Excel creates a chart. You can position your chartnext to the data on which you base it, so whenyou change the data you can instantly observe thechanges in the chart.By default, as you filter your data, Excel removes thefiltered data from your chart. If you do not wantExcel to remove filtered data, select the Show Datain Hidden Fields option in the Hidden and Empty CellSettings dialog box.445533113 Click your chart.l The chart tools become available.4 Click the Design tab.5 Click Select Data.9806_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:05 PM Page 98
    • l The Select Data Sourcedialog box appears.6 Click the Hidden andEmpty Cells button.776688l The Hidden and Empty Cell Settingsdialog box appears.7 Click Show Data in Hidden Rows andColumns ( changes to ).8 Click OK to close the Hidden and EmptyCell Settings dialog box.9 Click OK to close the Select Data Sourcedialog box.Excel displays the hidden data in yourchart.99Chapter 4: Manipulate RecordsDid You Know?If you want to reposition a chart, click the chart.A border with triple dots on all four sides of thechart and on the corners appears. Roll yourmouse pointer over the dots. When your mousepointer turns into a four-headed arrow, you canclick and drag your chart.Did You Know?You can delete the graphical representation of avalue from a chart. For example, you can deletethe graphical representation of Region 2 in thechart shown in this task. Just click the graphicand then press the Delete key.06_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:06 PM Page 99
    • 1 Insert several rows above yourlist to hold the criteria range.2 Type the column head for whichyou want to count records.3 Type the criterion for countingrecords.4 Click in the cell in which youwant your results to appear.COUNTfiltered recordsLike the standard worksheet functions, databasefunctions enable you to perform calculations andsummarize data patterns. You use database functionswith lists. Database functions are especially good atsummarizing the subsets of your list. Most databasefunctions combine two tasks: They filter a group ofrecords based on values in a single column, and thenthey count them or perform another simple operationon the filtered data.DCOUNT is a database function that counts thenumber of cells containing a number. DCOUNT takesthree arguments. The first argument, Database,identifies the cell range for the entire list. The secondargument, Field, identifies the cell range for thecolumn from which you want to extract data. In thethird argument, Criteria, you provide Excel a criterionfor extracting information. For example, yourcriterion in a sales list could be Net Sales>5,000,where Net Sales is the column name. You build thecriterion manually, copying a column head anddefining a condition in the cell below it.1122334466555 Type =DCOUNT(.Alternatively, click the functionon the AutoComplete list.6 Click the Insert Function button.10006_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:06 PM Page 100
    • l The FunctionArguments dialog boxfor DCOUNT appears.7 Click and drag all thecells in your list, or typethe cell range.8 Type the column namewithin quotation marks.Alternatively, you cantype the column’snumber or the column’srange.9 Click and drag or typethe cell range fromSteps 2 and 3.0 Click OK.00778899l The result appears.Note: The DCOUNT function counts onlycells containing numbers. For nonnumericdata, use the DCOUNTA function.101Chapter 4: Manipulate RecordsDid You Know?The names of database functions begin with a Dto distinguish them from worksheet functions. Aswith worksheet functions, you can use the FunctionWizard to build database functions. Type thefunction into a cell, for example =DCOUNT(),and click the Insert Function button.Did You Know?You can use the DSUM function to add numbersthat match the criteria you specify. You can useDAVERAGE to find the average of numbers thatmatch the criteria you specify. These functions usethe same arguments as DCOUNT: database, field,and criteria range.06_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:06 PM Page 101
    • 1 Type the value you want to useto retrieve another value.2 In an adjacent cell, type=VLOOKUP(.As you begin to type, theFunction AutoComplete listappears. Double-click anoption to select it.3 Click the Insert Function button.LOOK UP INFORMATIONin your worksheetBy using the VLOOKUP function, you can enter aproduct’s ID and retrieve its price. Use VLOOKUPwhen you know one value, such as the product ID,and need to look up another value, such as price.Before you can use VLOOKUP, you must sort your listin ascending order, and the first column of your listmust contain the values you want to use to retrieveanother value. Specify the column from which youwant to retrieve the corresponding value.You can use the Function Wizard to enter yourVLOOKUP arguments. You must enter three requiredarguments: the cell address containing the value youwant to use to retrieve another value, the list’s cellrange, and the column that contains the value youwant to retrieve. For simplicity, call the first columnin the list 1, the second column 2, and so on.The VLOOKUP function has an optional fourthargument called range lookup. If you enter TRUE orleave this argument blank, the function looks for theclosest match to the value you seek. If you enterFALSE, the function returns only exact matches.11773322445566l The Function Arguments dialogbox for VLOOKUP appears.4 Click in the cell with the valueentered in Step 1 or type the celladdress.5 Click and drag to select all thevalues in the list, or type the cellrange.6 Type the number of the columncontaining the value you want toretrieve.7 Click OK.10206_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:06 PM Page 102
    • l The cell containing theformula displays thevalue correspondingto the lookup value.888 Type another lookup value.l The cell containing the formula displaysthe value corresponding to the lookupvalue.103Chapter 4: Manipulate RecordsDid You Know?The closely related but less commonly usedHLOOKUP function finds a value in a row based onanother value in the same row.Caution!When using VLOOKUP, if you are searching textdata, make sure the column you are searching doesnot contain any leading spaces, trailing spaces,inconsistent use of curly and straight quotationmarks, or nonprinting characters. These situationscan cause VLOOKUP to bring back an incorrectresult. For the same reason, if you search dates,make sure you format your dates as dates, not text.06_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:06 PM Page 103
    • 1 Click and drag to select the datayou want to define as a table.Include column heads.2 Click the Insert tab.3 Click Table in the Tables group.DEFINE DATAas a tableA table is a set of columns and rows where eachcolumn represents a single type of data. For example,your table might have three columns: name, gender,and age. For each row in your table, the namecolumn contains a name, the gender column containsa gender, and the age column contains an age. Youcan define worksheet rows and columns as a table.When you define rows and columns as a table, sortand filter drop-down lists are automatically added toeach column head, enabling you to readily sort andfilter your data. Defining a table is simple. In fact, youcan define an existing worksheet as a table. Beforeyou start, make sure your data is arranged in columnsand rows, each with a descriptive column head.Defining rows and columns as data also makes Designtools available. You can use the design tools to formatyour table quickly.You should avoid blank cells and blank spaces at thebeginning of a table cell because they make sortingdifficult.2244551133l The Create Table dialog boxappears.l The data range you selectedappears here.4 Click here if your table hasheaders ( changes to ).5 Click OK.10406_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:06 PM Page 104
    • Excel converts yourdata to a table.l The Table tools becomeavailable.l Each column has adrop-down arrow thatyou can click to sortand filter.Note: Refer to the othertasks in this chapter tolearn how to sort andfilter.6 Click the Design tab.7 Click Total Row( changes to ).6677889999l Excel places a total at the end of yourtable.8 Click a field in the Total row.A down arrow appears next to the field.9 Click the down arrow and then select howyou want to total the column.Excel totals your column.105Chapter 4: Manipulate RecordsDid You Know?An Excel table is primitive when compared withthe data management capabilities of Accessor server-based databases. You can createworksheets in Excel and then export them intoAccess, where you can maintain and incorporatethe sheets into a set of data tables. For moreinformation, see Task #92.Did You Know?You can convert a table back to a regular rangeof cells. Click anywhere in your table, click theDesign tab, and then click Convert to Range inthe Tools group. At the prompt, click Yes. Excelconverts the table to a normal range andremoves the drop-down arrows.06_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:06 PM Page 105
    • 1 Click in any cell in your table.l The Table tools becomeavailable.2 Click the Design tab.3 Click the down arrow in theTable Styles group.Modify aTABLE STYLETable styles format the rows and columns of yourtable to make your table easier to read. When youcreate a table, Excel applies the default style. Youcan easily change or remove any style applied toyour table. Excel provides you with a large gallery ofstyles from which to choose. As you roll your cursorover each style in the gallery, Excel gives you a quickpreview of how each style will appear when applied.Excel also provides a number of table-style optionsyou can use to modify your table. By choosingbanded rows or banded columns, you can have everyother row or every other column appear in a differentcolor. You can also apply special formatting to thelast column or the first column in your table if youwant the titles, totals, or information in thosecolumns to stand out. Table styles make your tablemore attractive and user friendly.224433551166A gallery of styles becomesavailable.4 Click a style to apply the style toyour table.5 Click Clear to remove a stylefrom your table.6 Right-click a style.10606_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:06 PM Page 106
    • A menu appears.7 Click Set As Default.Excel makes the stylethe default style.778800!!998 Click to remove banded rows ( changesto ).9 Click for banded columns ( changesto ).0 Click to apply special formatting to thefirst column ( changes to ).! Click to apply special formatting to thelast column ( changes to ).l Excel formats your table.107Chapter 4: Manipulate RecordsDid You Know?You can easily add columns to your table. Click in anycell in your table. The Table tools become available.Click the Design tab and then click Resize Table inthe Properties group. The Resize Table dialog boxappears. Click and drag to select the new range, ortype the range in the Select the New Data Range forYour Table field. Click OK.Did You Know?You can create your own table style. The easiest wayis to modify an existing style. Click in any cell in yourtable and then click the Design tab. Click the downarrow in the Table Styles group. A gallery of stylesappears. Click the style you want to modify and thenright-click. A menu appears. Click Duplicate. TheModify Table Quick Style dialog box appears. Use itto modify your style.06_126745 ch04.qxp 6/5/07 7:06 PM Page 107
    • Explore the PatternsinYour DataExcel offers you much more than a wayof keeping track of your data and doingcalculations. It also provides tools to analyzeyour data and thus to understand it better andmake better decisions. In this chapter, youlearn about a range of tools that can give yourich insights into your data.One of the most useful tools, the PivotTable, isalso one of the least understood. Similar tocross-tabulation in statistics, a PivotTable showshow data is distributed across categories. Forexample, you can analyze data and display howdifferent products sell by region and by quarter.Alternatively, you can analyze income distributionor consumer preferences by gender and agebracket. Excel makes it easy for you to answeruseful questions about your data.This chapter also introduces Excel’s statisticalfunctions. These statistics were once availableonly through large, expensive statisticalsoftware packages. You will learn to usedescriptive statistics to characterize your dataand to explore associations between dataseries by using the correlation function. Forthe statistically adept, Excel also includes moreadvanced functions.Finally, you learn to do two related analyticaltasks: what-if analysis and goal seeking. Withwhat-if analysis, you vary an input to find howit affects a result. With goal seeking, you startwith a goal and try to achieve it by varying asingle factor.07_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:07 PM Page 108
    • Create a PivotTable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110Modify PivotTable Data and Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114Compute PivotTable Sub and Grand Totals . . . . . . . . . . 116Create a PivotTable Calculated Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118Hide Rows or Columns in a PivotTable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120Sort a PivotTable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121Create a PivotChart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122Describe Data with Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124Find the Correlation between Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126Explore Outcomes with What-If Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 128Optimize a Result with Goal Seek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13007_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:07 PM Page 109
    • 1 Click and drag to select the datayou want to include in yourPivotTable.Note: Make sure to include therow and column headings.Create aPIVOTTABLEPivotTables help you answer questions about yourdata. PivotTables are based on lists. Lists are madeup of rows and columns. You can use a worksheetlist or you can connect to a list from another datasource, such as Access. For more information onlists, see Chapter 4.The row and column labels of a PivotTable usuallyhave discrete information, meaning the values fallinto categories. For example, gender is a discretevariable because all values are either male or female.Quarter is another discrete variable because allvalues fall into one of four quarters — Quarter 1,Quarter 2, Quarter 3, or Quarter 4. Salary andweight are not discrete but continuous becausea wide range of values is possible for each.The body of a PivotTable — the data area — usuallyhas continuous data to show how the data aredistributed across rows and columns. For example,you could show how the number of units sold isdistributed among sales regions in different quarters.2211332 Click the Insert tab.3 Click PivotTable.11007_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:07 PM Page 110
    • The Create PivotTabledialog box appears.4 Click a data source( changes to ).l If you selected arange in the currentworkbook, the rangeappears here.5 Click to select whereto place the report( changes to ).l If you want to placethe list in the existingworksheet, click the cellin which you want toplace the list, or type alocation.4455666 Click OK.l Excel opens the PivotTable Field List.l The PivotTable tools become available.111Chapter 5: Explore the Patterns in Your DataDelete It!If you want to remove a PivotTable from yourworksheet, click anywhere in the PivotTable.The PivotTable tools become available. Click theOptions tab. Click Select in the Actions group.A menu appears. Click Entire Table. Excel selectsthe entire table. Press the Delete key. Exceldeletes your PivotTable.Caution!PivotTables are based on lists. When creating aPivotTable, do not use a list with blank columnsor rows. Excel may not create the PivotTablecorrectly if the list includes a blank columnor row.07_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:07 PM Page 111
    • 7 Click to select the fields you wantto include in your PivotTable( changes to ).Create aPIVOTTABLEThe PivotTable layout consists of several elements:report filters, data, columns, and rows. Use thePivotTable Field List to organize the elements. Whenworking with a PivotTable, you can bring the FieldList into view by clicking anywhere in the PivotTable,clicking the Options tab, and then clicking Field List.To construct a PivotTable, choose the fields you wantto include in your report and then drag fields fromthe PivotTable Field List into the Report Filter, ColumnLabels, Row Labels, and Σ Values boxes. You can clickand drag more than one field into an area. ReportFilter fields enable you to filter the data that appearsin your report. Row Label fields show as row labelsdown the left side of your PivotTable, and ColumnLabel fields show as column labels across the top ofyour PivotTable. Place your continuous data fields inthe Σ Values box. Fields placed in the Σ Values boxmake up the data area. You can sort and filter yourPivotTable column and row data, and you can arrangeand rearrange field layouts.88778 Click and drag fields among theReport Filter, Column Labels,Row Labels, and Σ Values boxes.l If you want to filter what displaysin a PivotTable page, click anddrag the field you want to filterby to the Report Filter box.l Click and drag fields you wantto display as columns to theColumn Labels box.l Click and drag fields you wantto display as rows to the RowLabels box.l Click and drag fields you wantto display as data to the Σ Valuesbox.11207_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:07 PM Page 112
    • l As you build thePivotTable, yourchanges instantlyappear.99999 Click the field header and then chooseyour sort and filter options.Note: For more information on sorting andfiltering, see Chapter 4.113Chapter 5: Explore the Patterns in Your DataCustomize It!To change the way the PivotTable Field Listdisplays, click the Field List button ( ),which is located in the upper right-handcorner of the PivotTable Field List box. Amenu appears. Choose from the optionslisted.Did You Know?Field and column labels appear in the orderyou place them in the Column and RowLabels box. You can change the display orderby clicking and dragging the fields withinthe box.07_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:07 PM Page 113
    • REFRESH DATA1 Make changes to your data.l The data changed here.l There is no change here.ModifyPIVOTTABLE DATA AND LAYOUTPivotTables help you answer essential questionsabout your data. To extend the value of PivotTables,Excel allows you to change the data on which theyare based and the manner in which they are laid out.PivotTables can easily get quite complex. Fortunately,you need not regenerate and re-edit a table everytime the underlying data changes. Instead, you canrefresh a table by clicking Refresh.You can easily change the layout of a PivotTable byclicking the Design tab and choosing the PivotTablestyle and layout you want. Excel 2007 has manypredesigned styles from which you can choose.You can decide whether you want your PivotTable tohave row headers, column headers, banded rows, orbanded columns. Excel 2007 also lets you display yourtable in a compact, tabular, or outline form. Try eachform to determine which one displays your data best.3322442 Click any cell in your PivotTable.l The PivotTable tools becomeavailable.3 Click the Options tab.4 Click Refresh.l Numbers and calculations reflectchanges in the data.11407_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:07 PM Page 114
    • CHANGE LAYOUT1 Click any cell in thePivotTable.l The PivotTable toolsbecome available.2 Click the Design tab.3 Click here and select thestyle you want.Excel applies the style.4 Click to select PivotTablestyle options( changes to ).In this example, all fouroptions were selected.l Excel applies the options.22665544335 Click Report Layout.A menu of layouts appears.6 Click a layout.l Excel changes your report layout.115Chapter 5: Explore the Patterns in Your DataDid You Know?By default, Excel creates or modifies your PivotTableas you click and drag fields among the Report Filter,Column Labels, Row Labels, and Σ Values boxes. Ifyou do not want your PivotTable created or modifieddynamically, click the Defer Layout Update check box( changes to ) at the bottom of the PivotTableField List and then click the Update button when youare ready to create or modify your PivotTable.Did You Know?If you choose the Design tab and then click BlankRows in the Layout group, you can add — or remove —a blank line after each data group.07_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:07 PM Page 115
    • 1 Click any field in yourPivotTable.l The PivotTable tools becomeavailable.2 Click the Options tab.3 Click Field List.The PivotTable Field Listbecomes available.4 Click the field for which youwant a subtotal or grand total.A menu of options appears.5 Click Value Field Settings.Compute PivotTableSUB AND GRAND TOTALSYou can use PivotTables to compare and contrast thedistribution of data across categories. You may needa variety of statistics to examine differences betweencategories. To aid you, PivotTables can automaticallycalculate subtotals and grand totals for the columnsand rows in your list. When calculating subtotals andgrand totals, you have a choice of calculations fromwhich to choose, including sum, average, count,standard deviation, minimum, and maximum.To change the summary statistic, open the ValueField Settings dialog box and choose the type ofcalculation you want to use to summarize your data.Changing the type of calculation used to generatevalues in a row or column can result in improperlyformatted data. To remedy this, use the NumberForward button in the PivotTable Field dialog box toaccess the number-formatting capabilities of theFormat Cells dialog box. You may, for example, wantto add a thousands separator so you see 7,236,273instead of 7236273.22334411556677l The Value Field Settings dialogbox appears.6 Click the type of calculationyou want to use to summarizeyour data.This example uses MAX.7 Click Number Format.11607_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:07 PM Page 116
    • l The Format Cells dialogbox appears, displayingonly the Number tab.8 Click to selectformatting options.9 Click OK to close theFormat Cells dialog box.0 Click OK to close theValue Field Settingsdialog box.8888990088l Excel recalculates the PivotTable.l Excel reformats the numbers.117Chapter 5: Explore the Patterns in Your DataChange It!In the Design tab Layout group, click Subtotals totell Excel whether you want to show subtotalsand whether the subtotals should show at thetop or the bottom of the group. Click GrandTotals to tell Excel whether you want to showgrand totals for rows and columns, just for rows,or just for columnsDid You Know?A cell in a PivotTable may summarize severalrows of information. To view the underlying datafor a cell, double-click it. The rows appear in anew worksheet. Changes you make to the newworksheet have no effect on the original data.07_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:08 PM Page 117
    • 1 Click any field in yourPivotTable.l The PivotTable tools becomeavailable.2 Click the Options tab.3 Click Field List.The PivotTable Field Listbecomes available.4 Click Formulas.Create a PivotTableCALCULATED FIELDWithin a PivotTable, you can create new fields, calledcalculated fields, which you base on the values inexisting fields. You create a calculated field byperforming simple arithmetic on every value in theexisting column. Your formula can include functions;operators such as +, –, *, and /; and existing fields,including other calculated fields.You usually use calculated fields with continuousdata such as incomes, prices, miles, and sales. Forexample, you can multiply each value in a field calledPrice by a sales tax rate to create a calculated fieldcalled Tax. Use the Insert Calculated Field dialog boxto name your calculated field and create the formulayou want to use. You can also use this dialog box tomodify existing calculated fields or delete fields youno longer want to use.Your calculated fields are available in the PivotTableField List for use in your PivotTable. You can use thevalues in the calculated field only in data cells.11552244 33A menu appears.5 Click Calculated Field.11807_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:08 PM Page 118
    • l The Insert CalculatedField dialog boxappears.6 Type a name for thenew field.7 Double-click an existingfield to use in definingthe field.8 Type an operator andthe value, such as*1.05.9 Click OK.77996688l Values for the calculated field fill the dataarea.l The calculated field appears at the end ofthe Field List.119Chapter 5: Explore the Patterns in Your DataDid You Know?You can use the Value Field Settings dialog boxto change the name of your field headers. Openthe Value Field Settings dialog box and type anew name in the Custom Name field. To removefield headers from your PivotTable, click theOptions tab on the Ribbon and then click FieldHeaders to toggle off the field headers.Did You Know?You can change your data source. Clickanywhere in your PivotTable to activate thePivotTable tools. On the Ribbon, click Optionsand then click Change Data Source. The ChangePivotTable Data Source dialog box appears.Select a new table or range or change theexternal data source.07_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:08 PM Page 119
    • 120HIDE ROWS OR COLUMNSin a PivotTableFormatting data changes its appearance, but formattingis not just a matter of cosmetics. Rather, formatting isuseful because the details in PivotTables can make itdifficult to see data patterns. Formatting improves datalegibility.Two PivotTable formatting options available in Excelare grouping and sorting. With grouping, you canhide detail so you can easily compare groups of data.When you group columns or rows, Excel totals thedata, creates a field header, and creates a field witha drill-down button that displayseither a plus or a minus sign.When the drill-down button displays a minus sign, youcan click the button to collapse the data. When thedrill-down button displays a plus sign, you can clickthe button to expand the data. If you do not want todisplay the button, you can click Buttons on theOptions tab to toggle the display of buttons to off. Ifafter grouping your data, you want to ungroup it, youcan.3366115522441 Click and drag the row orcolumn labels to select the rowsor columns you want to hide.l The PivotTable tools becomeavailable.2 Click the Options tab.3 Click Group Selection.l A new cell appears, with a minusbutton.4 Click the minus button.l The details of the rows orcolumns are hidden, the totalappears, and the minus sign onthe button turns into a plus sign.Note: You can click the plus buttonto see the hidden cells again.5 Click the cell that contains thegroup header.6 Click Ungroup.Excel removes the grouping.07_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:08 PM Page 120
    • SORTa PivotTableSorting enables you to see patterns in your data. Youcan sort PivotTables by field labels or by data values.When you sort by field labels, the corresponding datavalues are sorted as well. The opposite is also true:sorting the data values rearranges the field labels.You can sort your PivotTable in either ascending ordescending order. You can also specify the sortdirection: top to bottom or left to right. This can get abit confusing, so the Sort By Value dialog box providesan explanation of the results of your sort selection.11442211 3355332244SORT FIELD LABELS1 Click any field in yourPivotTable.l The PivotTable tools becomeavailable.2 Click the Options tab.3 Click and drag to select the fieldlabels you want to sort.4 Click the ascending ordescending button.Excel sorts your field labels.SORT DATA FIELDS1 Click and drag to select the datayou want to sort.2 Click Sort.l The Sort By Value dialog boxappears.3 Click a Sort option ( changesto ).4 Click a Sort direction( changes to ).l The Sort By Value dialog boxprovides an explanation of whatwill result from your sortselection.5 Click OK.Excel sorts your data fields.121Chapter 5Did You Know?You can click the down arrow next tothe field header to sort and filter yourPivotTable data. For more informationon sorting and filtering with fieldheadings, see Chapter 4.07_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:08 PM Page 121
    • 1 Click any cell in your PivotTable.l The PivotTable tools becomeavailable.2 Click the Options tab.3 Click PivotChart on the Toolsgroup.Create aPIVOTCHARTPivotTables reveal patterns in your data. PivotCharts,which you base on PivotTables, make patterns evenmore apparent. Like all charts in Excel, PivotChartsconsist of elements such as chart type, axis, legend,and data, all of which you can modify to meet yourneeds. See Chapter 6 to learn more about workingwith charts.When you create a chart from a PivotTable, you canbase your chart on summary statistics and you canadjust the row and column layout. After creating yourchart, you can display the PivotTable Field List andchange the layout of your PivotTable. As you do, yourPivotChart changes automatically.In addition, PivotCharts have options that regularcharts do not have. You can filter the data thatappears in your PivotChart. For example, if your datais divided into multiple regions, you can easily specifywhich regions appear in your PivotChart.446611223355l The Insert Chart dialog boxappears.4 Click to select a chart type.5 Click to select a chart sub-type.6 Click OK.12207_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:08 PM Page 122
    • l The PivotChart appears.l The PivotChart FilterPane appears.7 Click here and thenselect the fields youwant to appear in yourchart.8 Click here and thenselect the fields youwant to appear in yourlegend.77889900Excel filters your chart.9 Click the PivotTable Field List button.l The PivotTable Field List appears.0 Modify your PivotTable layout.Note: See Task #50 to learn how to modifyyour layout.l Excel changes the layout of your chart.123Chapter 5: Explore the Patterns in Your DataDid You Know?When you use the PivotChart Filter Pane to filteryour chart, Excel also filters your PivotTable. Assuch, information you remove from the PivotChartis also removed from the PivotTable.Remove It!To remove all the filters from your PivotChart, clickyour chart to activate the PivotChart tools. Click theAnalyze tab, click Clear, and then click Clear Filters.To clear your PivotChart and your PivotTable, clickthe chart to activate the PivotChart tools, click theAnalyze tab, click Clear, and then click Clear All.07_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:08 PM Page 123
    • 1 Click the Data tab.2 Click Data Analysis.DESCRIBE DATAwith statisticsExcel includes more than 80 statistical functions. Youcan find these functions by using the Function Wizardin the Statistics category. Some of them are alsoavailable in the Descriptive Statistics dialog box. Tomake additional statistical functions available, installthe Excel Analysis Toolpak described in Task #94.Among the statistical functions, you will find morethan a dozen types of descriptive statistics. Withthese statistics, you characterize both the centraltendency of your data, such as mean, mode, andmedian, and the data’s variability, such as samplevariance and standard deviation. The Function Wizardprovides individual statistical functions. By using theDescriptive Statistics dialog box, you can apply alldescriptive statistics at the same time.To use descriptive statistics, first display a worksheetwith the data you want to analyze. You can generatethe worksheet within Excel or import it from Accessor another data source. Many functions work onlywith numeric data.11332244l The Data Analysis dialog boxappears.3 Click Descriptive Statistics.4 Click OK.12407_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:08 PM Page 124
    • l The DescriptiveStatistics dialog boxappears.5 Click and drag the cellsyou want to describe,or type the cell range.6 Click if your data haslabels ( changes to ).7 Click to select whereyou want the outputto appear ( changesto ).l If necessary, type alocation.66778899558 Click Summary Statistics ( changesto ).l Optionally, you can include otherstatistics.9 Click OK.The statistics appear in a boxed area.l To see all your statistics, widen thecolumn heads by clicking the borderbetween column letters and dragging.125Chapter 5: Explore the Patterns in Your DataDid You Know?Descriptive statistics areavailable as Excel functions.Excel FunctionsDescriptive Excel Descriptive ExcelStatistic Function Statistic FunctionMean AVERAGE() Skewness SKEW()Standard Error STEYX() Range MAX()–MIN()Median MEDIAN() Minimum MIN()Mode MODE() Maximum MAX()Standard Deviation STDEV() Sum SUM()Sample Variance VAR() Count COUNT()Kurtosis KURT()07_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:08 PM Page 125
    • 1 Click the cell in which you wantto place your answer.2 Type =correl( or double-clickCORREL on the FunctionAutoComplete list.FIND THE CORRELATIONbetween variablesWith the correlation function, you can measure therelationship between two variables. You can explorequestions such as whether baseball players hit fewerhome runs as they age.A correlation does not prove one thing causesanother. The most you can say is that one numbervaries with the other. Their variation may be theresult of how your numbers were measured or theresult of some factor underlying both variables. Whenyou use correlations, you start with a theory that twothings are related. If there is a correlation, you mustthen gather evidence and develop plausible reasonsfor the correlation.Use the CORREL function to determine a correlation.CORREL takes two arguments: array1 and array2 —the two lists of numbers. The result of the function isa number, r, between –1 and 1. The closer r gets to–1 or 1, the stronger the relationship. If r is negative,the relationship is an inverse relationship — forexample, as age increases, batting averages decrease.A positive result suggests that as one variableincreases, so does the other.11 22333 Click the Insert Function button.12607_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:08 PM Page 126
    • l The FunctionArguments dialog boxappears.4 Click and drag to selectthe first series ofnumbers, or type thecell range.5 Click and drag to selectthe second series ofnumbers, or type thecell range.Note: You can select asubset of a list, but makesure the same subset isselected for each list.6 Click OK.664455l The correlation coefficient appears.Note: The sign suggests whether therelationship is positive (+) or negative (–).127Chapter 5: Explore the Patterns in Your DataDid You Know?When using CORREL, if a reference cell containstext, logical values, or empty cells, Excel ignoresthose values. However, reference cells that have avalue of 0 are included in the calculation. If thenumber of data points in array1 and array2 arenot equal, Excel returns the error message #N/A.Did You Know?An add-in is software that adds one or morefeatures to Excel. To learn how to install add-ins,see Task #94. The Analysis Toolpak is an add-in thatcontains a number of statistical tools, including theCorrelation tool, which you can use to calculatecorrelations. Correlations calculated by using theCorrelation tool do not automatically update as youupdate your worksheet.07_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:08 PM Page 127
    • Note: To create scenarios, you mustfirst enter the values required into aworksheet and type a formula thatcalculates the answer. This exampleuses the IRR function, discussed inTask #16.1 Click and drag to select the cellsthat contain the values you wantto vary.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click What-If Analysis.A menu appears.4 Click Scenario Manager.Explore outcomes withWHAT-IF ANALYSISWhen you use a function, your purpose is often tofind out how one thing influences another. When youuse the IRR function, for example, you can find outhow a change in the loan amount, payment amount,or payment date — or some combination of thesefactors — affects the interest received. By typing indifferent amounts, and payment dates, you can seehow different scenarios affect the interest rate.What-If analysis is a systematic way of finding outhow a change in one or more variables affects aresult. Scenario Manager lets you vary one or moreinputs to find out how the result changes. Theadvantage of the Scenario Manager is that it storesa series of values so you can create a single reportor table showing how each value or combination ofvalues influences the result — your interest rate, inthis example. You can even present this informationas a PivotTable, with all the flexibility it offers.22337711556644l The Scenario Manager dialogbox appears.5 Click Add.l The Add Scenario dialog boxappears, indicating the cellsselected in Step 1.6 Type a name for the scenario.7 Click OK.12807_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:08 PM Page 128
    • l The Scenario Valuesdialog box appears.8 Type the scenariovalues.9 Click Add to createmore scenarios.The Add Scenariodialog box reappears.0 Click OK in the ScenarioValues dialog boxinstead of Add whenyou finish enteringscenarios.l The Scenario Managerdialog box appears.##880099!!@@$$! Click Summary.l The Scenario Summary dialog boxappears.@ Click to select a report type ( changesto ).# Click the field or type the cell address ofthe field that calculates the results.$ Click OK.l The type of report you requested appearson a new worksheet, displaying how eachvalue affects the result.129Chapter 5: Explore the Patterns in Your DataDid You Know?If you share copies of a workbook and people addtheir own scenarios, you can merge these scenariosinto a single list. To do so, open the workbooksand click Data and then Scenario Manager. In theScenario Manager, click Merge. In the MergeScenarios window, select the workbooks andindividual worksheets to consolidate. Click OKwhen you finish selecting.Did You Know?If you name the cells in your original worksheet,your Scenario Summary becomes easier to readbecause Excel displays the cell name instead ofthe cell address. For example, in this task cell, cellB2 is named Investment, cells B3 through B6 arenamed Payment_1 through Payment_4, and cell B7is named Interest_Earned. To learn how to namecells, see Task #11.07_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:08 PM Page 129
    • 1 Click the cell that contains thevalue you want to reach.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click What-If Analysis.A menu appears.4 Click Goal Seek.Optimize a result withGOAL SEEKExcel gives you a powerful tool for finding a way toreach your goals. For example, if you need a loan fora new home your goal might be to pay a specificmonthly payment. You can use the Goal Seek featureto show how you can reach your goal by adjusting oneof the loan terms such as interest rate or loan amount.You could also have Goal Seek find the interest raterequired to reach your payment goal, given a loanamount, or find the loan amount required to reachyour goal, given a specific interest rate. Some goalscannot be met, as when you try to reduce yourmonthly payment to nothing; the interest rates andloan amounts would be unrealistic.To vary multiple inputs to achieve a specific goal,you need to use Solver, an add-in. See Task #94 formore about add-ins.22337711445566l The Goal Seek dialog boxappears.5 Type the value you want toreach.6 Click or type the cell address ofthe cell whose value you want tochange to reach your goal.7 Click OK.13007_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:08 PM Page 130
    • l The result appears inthe worksheet.8 Click OK to accept thechange.l Alternatively, you canclick Cancel to restorethe original values.In this example, principalis kept the same, andthe $900 monthlypayment can be reachedby finding an interestrate of 4.2 percent.88l Repeat Steps 1 to 7 for another value.131Chapter 5: Explore the Patterns in Your DataDid You Know?The example in this task shows the loan amountrequired to bring the monthly payment down to $900($113,810). If your purchase price is $120,000, youwould have to contribute a down payment of justover $6,000 to bring the loan down to that amount.You could construct a worksheet that allows you toenter various down-payment amounts.Did You Know?If you are not getting a result, you can try clickingthe Office button, Excel Options, and then Formulas.Then in the Calculations Options area, increase themaximum iterations.07_126745 ch05.qxp 6/5/07 7:08 PM Page 131
    • Create ChartsExcel gives you tools for quickly generating achart, or visual representation, of the numbersin your worksheet. Charts clarify patterns thatcan get lost in columns of numbers andformulas, and they make your data moreaccessible to people who are not familiar withor do not want to delve into the details.Charts can make a greater impression thanrows and columns of numbers because themind perceives, processes, and recalls visualinformation more quickly than textual ornumerical information. In addition, shapes andcolors have real impact. This effectiveness,however, can be a liability when chartsemphasize unimportant or misleading patterns.This chapter helps you become comfortablewith the Excel charting tools, so you cancommunicate your content as effectively aspossible.In this chapter, you learn how to generate achart quickly. You then learn to add chartdetails, change the chart type, and removedata series. One task shows you how to createa trendline. A trendline visually summarizes thedirection and magnitude of change over time.Anyone who uses Excel to manage and analyzeexperimental data can benefit from the sectionin this chapter on error bars. Several tasksprovide insight into specific types of charts. Forexample, you can use histograms to showfrequencies.08_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 132
    • Create a Chart That Has Visual Appeal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134Add Chart Details. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136Change the Chart Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140Add a Trendline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142Add and Remove Chart Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144Add Error Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146Create a Histogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148Create a Combination Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15008_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 133
    • 1 Click and drag to select theworksheet data you want tochart.Include row and columnheadings.2 Click the Insert tab.3 Click a chart type in the Chartsgroup.4 Click a chart subtype.CREATE A CHARTthat has visual appealWith Excel 2007, you can create charts with dramaticvisual appeal quickly and easily. Simply select thedata you want to chart and then choose a chart typefrom the Insert tab’s Chart group. Excel providesseveral chart types from which to choose, includingcolumn, line, pie, bar, area, and scatter charts. Inaddition, each chart type has a number of subtypeoptions.After you create your chart, Excel makes Chart toolsavailable to you through the Design, Layout, andFormat contextual tabs. Using the Chart tools, youcan choose a chart style and layout. You can changethe color scheme of your chart with chart styles anduse layouts to add a chart title, axis labels, a legend,or a data table to your chart. A chart title summarizeschart content; axis labels explain each axis; a legendexplains the colors used to represent data; and a datatable displays the data presented in the chart. Charttools make changing row data to column data, or viceversa, as simple as clicking a button.3344556611228877Excel creates a chart based onthe data you selected.l Row data.l Column data.l The Chart tools becomeavailable.5 Click the Design tab.6 Click here and select a chart style.Excel applies the style to yourchart.7 Click Quick Layout in the ChartLayouts group.8 Click to select a chart layout.l Excel applies the layout to yourchart.13408_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 134
    • 9 Right-click the charttitle or an axis title.A menu appears.0 Click Edit Text.! Type to change the titleor axis label.@ Click SwitchRow/Column in theData group.@@99!!00135l Excel switches the data row and column.Chapter 6: Create ChartsDid You Know?The Column chart is the default chart type. Youcan change the default chart type by clicking thelauncher in the Insert tab’s Chart group to openthe Insert Chart dialog box. Click a chart type anda subtype, and then click the Set as Default Chartbutton located at the bottom of the Insert Chartdialog box.Did You Know?The fastest way to create a chart using all ofExcel’s charting defaults is to select the data youwant to chart and then press F11. Excel creates achart on a new worksheet. You can then modifythe chart by using any of the Chart tools.08_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 135
    • CHANGE CHART LOCATION1 Click your chart.l The Chart tools becomeavailable.2 Click the Design tab.3 Click Move Chart in the Locationgroup.AddCHART DETAILSAfter you create your chart, Excel makes is easy foryou to modify it or add details. In fact, you canmodify virtually all the elements of a chart. Forexample, when you create a chart, Excel places iton the same worksheet as the data from which youcreated it. You can move the chart to anotherworksheet or to a special chart sheet.To make a 3-D chart easier to read, you can usethe X and Y fields in the 3-D Rotation dialog box tochange the chart rotation. The X field rotates thehorizontal axis of your chart and the Y field rotatesthe vertical axis of your chart. In addition tochanging your chart’s rotation, you may also wantto change your chart’s perspective. Changing theperspective is useful if the bars in the front of yourchart hide bars in the back of your chart. Use thePerspective field in the 3-D Rotation dialog box tochange the perspective.33226644 5511l The Move Chart dialog boxappears.4 Click New Sheet ( changesto ).l Alternatively, click Object In( changes to ) to place thechart on another worksheet.l If you click Object In, click hereand select the sheet on whichyou want to place the chart.5 Type a name for the sheet.6 Click OK.13608_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 136
    • l Excel places the charton a chart sheet.CHANGE ROTATION ANDPERSPECTIVE1 Click the Layout tab.2 Click 3-D Rotation inthe Background group.112233445566137l The Format Chart Area dialog boxappears.3 Type a value to increase or decrease theX rotation.4 Type a value to increase or decrease theY rotation.5 Type a value to increase or decrease theperspective.6 Click Close.l Excel rotates and changes the perspectiveof your chart.Chapter 6: Create ChartsDid You Know?You can add, remove, or change the plot area’s fillwhen working with two-dimensional charts. Justclick your chart, click the Layout tab, and then clickPlot Area in the Background group. A menu ofoptions appears. You can use the menu to changethe color and style of the plot area of your chart.Did You Know?You can edit any element in your chart by right-clicking it. A menu appears, sometimes with amini-toolbar. Use the menu and mini-toolbar todelete elements, add elements, change the font,change the font size, change the alignment, or editthe data source.08_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 137
    • CHANGE THE WALL AND FLOOR1 Click your chart.l The Chart tools becomeavailable.2 Click the Layout tab.3 Click Chart Wall in theBackground group.A menu appears.4 Click More Wall Options.l Alternatively, choose an optionfrom the menu.AddCHART DETAILSTo make your chart more readable, you may want tochange some of the attributes of your chart. You caneasily change the walls and floor of your three-dimensional charts. The walls are the side and backof your chart and the floor is the bottom of yourchart. You can choose to show the chart walls and/orfloor; fill the chart walls and/or floor with a color,gradient, or other item; or not show the walls and/orfloor at all.Excel bases axis values on the range of values inyour data. Axis values encompass the range. Axislabels describe the data displayed on each axis. Excelprovides several options for choosing whether todisplay axis values and how to display the axis valuesand labels on each axis, including the horizontal,vertical, and depth axes.When you create a chart in Excel, Excel createshorizontal and vertical gridlines to mark majorintervals in your data series. You can remove thegridlines, display major gridlines only, display minorgridlines, or display major and minor gridlines.22113344775566l The Format Walls dialog boxappears.5 Click Fill.6 Click to choose a fill option( changes to ).7 Click Close.l Excel changes the fill of the chartwall.l Click Chart Floor in theBackground group and repeatSteps 4 to 6 to change thechart floor.13808_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 138
    • ADJUST THE AXIS1 Click the Layout tab.2 Click Axes in theAxes group.3 Click PrimaryHorizontal Axis.A menu appears.4 Click a PrimaryHorizontal Axis option.1122224433441133139l Excel changes the display of your horizontalaxis.To change the vertical axis, click PrimaryVertical Axis.To change the depth axis, click Depth Axis.CHANGE THE GRIDLINES1 Click the Layout tab.2 Click Gridlines in the Axes group.3 Click Primary Horizontal Gridlines.A menu appears.4 Click a menu option.None shows no gridlines; Major Gridlinesshows major units; Minor Gridlines showminor units; Major and Minor shows majorand minor units.l Excel changes the display of your horizontalaxis.To change the vertical gridlines, click PrimaryVertical Gridlines and click a menu option.To change the depth gridlines, click DepthGridlines and choose a menu option.Chapter 6: Create ChartsCaution!To resize a chart, click the chart. Aborder surrounds it, with dots onthe sides and corners. Place thecursor over the dots. When adouble arrow appears, click anddrag to resize the chart. Be carefulwhen resizing, because resizingmay skew the chart and distort thepresentation of the content.Did You Know?You can use the options in theLabels group on the Layout tab toadd or modify a chart title, axistitles, legend, data labels, or datatables.Did You Know?You can use the Shapes options inthe Insert group on the Layout tabto add pictures, shapes, and textboxes to your chart.08_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 139
    • 1 Click your chart.l The Chart tools becomeavailable.Change theCHART TYPEExcel provides a variety of chart types and subtypesfrom which to choose. Choose the chart type thatbest explains your data.You can use a column or bar chart to plot dataarranged in rows and columns. Both types are usefulwhen you have data that changes over time or whenyou want to compare data values.Area and line charts are also good for plotting dataorganized into columns and rows. Use an area chartto show how values change over time and how eachpart of the whole contributes to the change. Linecharts are ideal for showing trends in your data;consider using a line chart to show changesmeasured at regular intervals.Pie charts are useful when you want to display dataarranged in one column or one row. Each data point ina pie chart represents a percentage of the whole pie.1122332 Click the Design tab.3 Click Change Chart Type in theType group.14008_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 140
    • l The Change ChartType dialog boxappears.4 Click a new chart type.5 Click a subtype.6 Click OK.554466141The chart appears, formatted in the newchart type and subtype.Chapter 6: Create ChartsDid You Know?If you show more than two data series in a singlechart, you can change the chart type for one ormore series and create a combination chart.Using different chart types can make it easier todistinguish different categories of data shown inthe same chart.Do It!To create a combination chart, right-click arepresentation of a data series in the currentchart. For example, right-click one of the bars ina bar chart. Then choose Change Series ChartType from the menu that appears. The ChangeChart Type dialog box appears. Choose a newchart type, and then click OK.08_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 141
    • 1 Click your chart.l The Chart tools becomeavailable.2 Click the Layout tab.3 Click Trendline in the Analysisgroup.A menu appears.4 Click More Trendline Options.l Alternatively, click a menuoption to choose the type oftrendline you want to apply.Add aTRENDLINEWith Excel, you can add trendlines to your charts.Trendlines help you see both the size and directionof changes in your data and you can use them toforecast future or past values based on available data.By creating a trendline, you can answer questionssuch as, “Is there a pattern in the recent surge ofnew orders?”You can add a trendline to any chart type except3-D, stacked, radar, pie, surface, or doughnut charts.Excel superimposes the trendline over your chart.A trendline is the line through your data series that isas close as possible to every point in the data series.Excel provides the following trendline types: linear,logarithmic, polynomial, power, exponential, andmoving average. The type of trendline you chooseshould be based on the type of data you have. Excelgenerates a statistic called R-squared that indicateshow well a given trendline fits your data. The closerR-squared is to 1, the better the line fits your data.You can choose to have the R-squared value appearon your chart.2233115544l The Format Trendline dialog boxappears.5 Click Trendline Options.14208_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 142
    • 6 Click a regression type( changes to ).7 Set the number ofperiods to forecast.8 Click Display R-squaredValue on Chart( changes to ).R-squared gives you anidea of the accuracy ofthe line generated. Thecloser R-squared is to 1,the better the fit.9 Click Close.88667799143l The trendline appears on the chart.l If selected, the R-squared value appearson the chart.Chapter 6: Create ChartsDid You Know?If you want to project futurevalues for a simple linear trend,you can use the fill handle. Selectat least the last two rows in yourdata and then drag the fill handle.Did You Know?You can project values that fit astraight-line trend by using theTREND function. You can projectvalues that fit an exponentialtrend by using the GROWTHfunction. See the Excel Help filesfor more about these functions.Did You Know?You can use the Forecast sectionof the Format Trendline dialogbox to forecast future and pastdata. To open the FormatTrendline dialog box, click yourchart, the Layout tab, Trendline,More Trendline Options, and thenTrendline Options.08_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 143
    • CHANGE THE DATA AREAIf the chart is on the worksheet,position it so it does not overlapthe data.l Currently charted data.1 Click your chart.l The Chart tools becomeavailable.2 Click the Design tab.3 Click Select Data in the Datagroup.Add and removeCHART DATAIf you want to include new data in your chart orexclude data from your chart, you can use the EditData Source dialog box to add and remove entirecolumns or rows of information or change your dataseries entirely without changing your chart’s type orother properties.You can also add data to an existing data series. Usethe Edit Data Source dialog box’s Legend Entries(Series) to select the cell addresses that define yourdata series label and your data series. You can alsouse the Legend Entry (Series) box to add or removea data series. Click Switch Row/Column if you needto switch your column and row data.If you update the data on which your chart is based,you do not have to regenerate your chart. Excelcharts automatically update to reflect changes youmake to your data.221144553344l The Select Data Source dialogbox appears.4 Click and drag to select the datayou want to include in your chartor type the cell range.5 Click OK.14408_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 144
    • l Excel redefines thedata series area.ADD A LEGEND ITEM1 Perform Steps 1 to 3under Change theData Area.l The Select Data Sourcedialog box appears.2 Click Add.334433442255145l The Edit Series dialog box appears.3 Click the cell with the name you want foryour new data series or type the celladdress.4 Click and drag to select the data series ortype the range.5 Click OK.l Excel adds the data series and legendname to your chart.Chapter 6: Create ChartsDelete It!To delete data from your chart, click the data youwant to delete in the Legend Series box of theSelect Data Source dialog box and then clickRemove. Or, click the legend item on the chartand then press the Delete key.Did You Know?Here is a quick way to add data to a chart. Clickand drag to select the data you want to includein the chart. Click the Copy button on the Hometab. Click the chart to select it and click Pasteon the Home tab. The chart reflects the addeddata series.08_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 145
    • 1 Click your chart.l The Chart tools becomeavailable.AddERROR BARSWith Excel, you can easily generate error bars toprovide an estimate of the potential error inexperimental or sampled data. In science, marketing,polling, and other fields, people make conclusionsabout populations by sampling the population ordevising controlled experiments. When data issampled or generated in laboratory conditions, theresulting numbers approximate the larger realityyou are exploring. An error bar shows the range ofpossible values for these experimentally derivednumbers. With Excel, you can show the range ofpossible values in several ways: as a fixed number,measured in the same units used to measure data,above or below each data point in your data series;as a percentage of the data point; or in terms ofstandard deviation units.Standard deviation units indicate whether anexperimental number is reasonably close to thepopulation characteristic being studied. For example,you can have a confidence level of 95 percent that thepopulation mean falls within two standard deviationunits of the sampled mean, which you know.112233442 Click the Layout tab.3 Click Error Bars in the Analysisgroup.A menu appears.4 Click More Error Bars Options.l Alternatively, click theappropriate menu option.14608_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 146
    • The Format Error Barsdialog box appears.5 Click Vertical Error Bars.l The Vertical Error Barsoptions appear.6 Click to choose adirection ( changesto ).Click Both if you wantto show the possibleerror amount aboveand below the observedvalue.Click Minus if you wantto show the possibleerror amount below theobserved value.665577880099147Click Plus if you want to show the possibleerror amount above the observed value.7 Click to choose an end style ( changesto ).8 Click to choose an error amount type( changes to ).9 Type a value, if necessary.0 Click Close.l The chart appears with error bars.Chapter 6: Create ChartsDid You Know?Your confidence level in estimatingpopulation characteristics assumesthat the sampled values arenormally (evenly) distributedaround the mean, as in a bellcurve.Did You Know?You can add trendlines and errorbars to a PivotChart. However, if youmake changes to your PivotChart,Excel may remove the trendlines orerror bars. Changes that may resultin the loss of trendlines or errorbars include changing the layout,removing fields, and hiding ordisplaying items.Did You Know?Only certain chart types supporterror bars, including 2-D area, bar,column, line, and XY scatter charts.These types let you create errorbars for the values measured bythe y axis. For the scatter chart,you can create both X and Yerror bars.08_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 147
    • 1 Type the values that definethe bins.Note: The bins must be orderedfrom lowest to highest but neednot be the same size.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Data Analysis in theAnalysis group.Create aHISTOGRAMWith Excel, you can use histograms to group a list ofvalues into categories and compare the categories.Excel calls these categories bins. To display the testscores for a group of students, for example, yourfirst bin might be <=60, representing scores of 60percent or under; your second bin might be 70; andso on up to a bin for test scores over 100 percent.Excel counts the number of occurrences in each bin.When creating a histogram, you must provide threepieces of information. First, define the raw data youwant to sort. Then define the bins. Finally, specifythe cell in which you want the result to appear. Yourbins must be in lowest to highest order. The resultscan appear in the current worksheet, in a newworksheet, or in a new workbook. As you makechanges to your data, Excel does not automaticallymake changes to your histogram. You mustregenerate your histogram when you make changesto your data.The histogram tool is part of the Analysis Toolpak,which you may need to install as explained inTask #94.2244335511l The Data Analysis dialog boxappears.4 Click Histogram.5 Click OK.14808_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 148
    • l The Histogram dialogbox appears.6 Click and drag therange of numbers tocategorize, or typethe cell range.7 Click and drag therange of bins createdin Step 1, or type thecell range.8 Click where you wantto place your output.9 Click the cell where youwant the results tostart, or type the celladdress.88770066!!991490 Select options.Pareto sorts data from highest to lowest.Cumulative shows cumulative percentage.Chart Output displays a chart.! Click OK.The results appear on the same worksheetas the original data.l Frequency means number of valuesper bin.l More refers to the uncategorized valuesabove the highest bin.Chapter 6: Create ChartsDid You Know?Click the Chart Output option( changes to ) in theHistogram dialog box to create ahistogram and a chart at the sametime. You can modify the chart justas you would any other chart.Did You Know?You can click the CumulativePercentage option ( changesto ) in the Histogram dialog boxto create a histogram output tablethat includes cumulativepercentages. You can click thePareto (sorted histogram) option( changes to ) to create ahistogram output table that includesyour data sorted in descendingorder based on frequency.Did You Know?The FREQUENCY function givesyou the same capabilities as thehistogram tool. However, whenyou use the FREQUENCY function,your bins are automaticallyupdated as you update your data.See the Excel Help files for moreabout this function.08_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 149
    • 1 Select the data you want tochart.2 Click the Insert tab.3 Select a chart type. Excel chartsyour data.l The Home Sold data series.l The Average Sales Price dataseries.CREATE A SECONDARY AXIS1 Click a data point in the seriesyou want to place on asecondary axis.Create aCOMBINATION CHARTIf you show more than two data series in a singlechart, you can change the chart type for one or moreseries and create a combination chart. Using differentchart types can make it easier to distinguish differentcategories of data shown in the same chart. Forexample, you can create a combination chart thatshows the number of homes sold as a line chart andthe average sales price as a column chart.When you plot two different types of data in thesame chart, the range of values can vary wildly. Forexample, the range of values for homes sold mightbe between 9 and 15 while the range of values forthe average sales price might be between 760,577and 936,966. You can plot each of these data serieson a different vertical axis to make it easier for theuser to see values for the associated series. In theexample, you could plot average sales prices onone vertical axis and number of homes sold on theother vertical axis.332211112266443355l The Chart tools becomeavailable.2 Click the Format tab.3 Click Format Selection in theCurrent Selection group.l The Format Data Series dialogbox appears.4 Click Series Options.5 Click Secondary Axis ( changesto ).6 Click Close.l Excel plots the data you chose ona secondary Axis.15008_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:09 PM Page 150
    • CHANGE CHART TYPE1 Click a data point inthe series for whichyou want to changethe data series.l The Chart tools becomeavailable.2 Click the Design tab.3 Click Change ChartType.l The Change Chart Typedialog box appears.4 Click a new chart type.5 Click a new chartsubtype.5522116633441516 Click OK.l Excel changes the chart type for theseries.Chapter 6: Create ChartsDid You Know?You can add a title to your secondary axis. Click anywhere in your chart. The Chart toolsbecome available. Click the Layout tab, click Axis Titles in the Labels group, click SecondaryVertical Axis Title, and then choose an option from the menu. Choose None if you do notwant to display an Axis Title. Choose Rotated if you want to display a Rotated axis title andyou want Excel to resize the chart. Choose Vertical if you want to display vertical text and youwant Excel to resize the chart. Choose Horizontal if you want to display horizontal text andyou want Excel to resize the chart.08_126745 ch06.qxp 6/5/07 7:10 PM Page 151
    • Present WorksheetsWith Excel, you can adjust almost every aspectof how your worksheets appear. Such controlresults in more than making text bold orcoloring cells blue. Formatting makes yourworksheets easier to read and understand andthus more useful to others.This chapter provides tips on formatting.You learn how to format numbers and cellsmanually and then how to apply formatsquickly with Format Painter. Format Painterspeeds your work. With Format Painter, in justa few clicks, you can copy a format from onecell to other cells.Excel gives you several tools to simplify thework of formatting. The Home tab and theFormat Cells dialog box provide all the controlsyou need to change the look and propertiesof both cells and numbers. You can adjustthe color, border, and numerous other cellproperties, and you can choose from a varietyof formats for numbers, dates, and times.With shapes, text boxes, and pictures, Excelgoes even further, giving you the ability tointegrate graphics into your worksheet. It alsosupplies prepackaged styles you can apply toyour graphics to give them a distinctive flair.You can place background images behind yourdata to get people’s attention or to enhancethe content itself. You can also take a pictureof your worksheet and use the resultinggraphic in Excel or another software product.09_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 152
    • Format Numbers, Dates, and Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154Apply Formats to Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158Fill with a Gradient. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162Format Quickly with Format Painter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164Insert Shapes into Your Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166Insert Text Boxes into Your Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168Insert Photographs into Your Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . 170Arrange the Graphics in Your Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . 172Insert a Background Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174Take a Picture of Your Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17609_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 153
    • COMMA STYLE FORMAT1 Type numbers.The numbers appear in theformat you type them.2 Click and drag to select the cellsto format.3 Click the Home tab.4 Click the Comma Style button inthe Number group.FORMATnumbers, dates, and timesExcel provides a variety of options for formattingnumbers, dates, and times. Formatting makes yourdata easier to read and helps you conform to company,country, or industry standards for formatting.The Home tab in the Number group has a number ofbuttons you can use to format numbers quickly. Ifyou cannot find the format you need, you can clickthe Number group’s launcher to open the FormatCells dialog box.The Format Cells dialog box has four categories youcan use to format numbers: General, Number,Currency, and Accounting. The General format is thedefault format. It displays the numbers exactly theway you type them.The Number format lets you apply special formats toyour numbers. You can set the number of decimalplaces, specify whether your number should display athousands separator, and determine how to displaynegative numbers. You can choose from four choicesfor negative numbers: preceded by a negativesign (–), in red, in parentheses, or in red and inparentheses.22441133l Excel separates the thousands inthe numbers.l Excel adds two decimal places.l Negative numbers display inparentheses.l Zeros display as a dash.15409_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 154
    • ACCOUNTING NUMBER FORMAT1 Click and drag to selectthe numbers to format.2 Click the AccountingNumber Format button.l Excel adds a dollar sign,aligned with the leftside of the cell. Excelreserves space for rightparenthesis if there arenegative values.3 Click the DecreaseDecimal Place button.l Each click removes adecimal place.11112233 445566332277l If you click the Increase Decimal Placebutton, each click adds a decimal place.CURRENCY FORMAT1 Click and drag to select the numbers toformat.2 Click the Number group’s launcher.l The Format Cells dialog box opens to theNumber tab.3 Click Currency in the Category box.4 Click here and set the number of decimalplaces.5 Click here and select a currency symbol.6 Click to select the number format fornegative numbers.7 Click OK.l Excel formats your numbers.Did You Know?Changing a number format can increase the contentsof the cell. If your number is too long to fit in its cell,Excel fills the cells with pound signs (#####). Toview the number, at the top of the column, double-click the line that separates columns or click and dragthe line to make the cell wider.Did You Know?You can use the Text format in the Format Cellsdialog box to convert a number to text. Numbersformatted as text should not be used in mathematicalcalculations. Certain numbers — for example, employeenumbers — are never used in mathematicalcalculations and should be formatted as text. If youwant to format a number as text as you type it,precede the number with an apostrophe (‘).155Chapter 7: Present Worksheets09_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 155
    • PERCENTS1 Click and drag to select thenumbers you want to format.2 Click the Percent Style button.FORMATnumbers, dates, and timesThe Currency format offers you the same options asthe Number format except you can choose to displaya currency symbol. The currency symbol you choosedetermines the options you have for displayingnegative numbers. If you choose the dollar sign ($),thousands are separated by commas by default.Excel designed the Accounting format to comply withaccounting standards. If you use the dollar signsymbol ($), the dollar sign displays aligned with theleft side of the cell, decimal points are aligned, adash (–) displays instead of a zero, and negativevalues display in parentheses.Countries vary in the way they display dates andtimes. Use the Date and Time format option tochoose a locale. If you choose English (U.S.), youhave more than 15 ways to display a date and avariety of ways to display time. To learn more aboutdates and times, see Task #s 22 and 23.The percentage option converts numbers to apercent. You can choose the number of decimalplaces you want to display. The fraction optionconverts numbers to a fraction.11112233442255l Excel converts the numbers to apercent.DATES1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to format.2 Click the Number group’slauncher.l The Format Cells dialog boxopens to the Number tab.3 Click Date.4 Click to choose a format.5 Click OK.15609_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 156
    • l Excel formats thedates.TIMES1 Click and drag toselect the cells youwant to format.2 Click the Numbergroup’s launcher.l The Format Cells dialogbox opens to theNumber tab.3 Click Time.4 Click to choose aformat type.5 Click OK.11224433551122443355l Excel formats the time.FRACTIONS1 Click and drag to select the cells you wantto format.2 Click the Number group’s launcher.l The Format Cells dialog box opens to theNumber tab.3 Click Fraction.4 Click to choose a format type.5 Click OK.Excel formats the numbers as fractions.l These cells show how Excel formats thenumbers.157Chapter 7: Present WorksheetsDid You Know?You can set the default number of decimal placesExcel applies when you type a number into aworksheet. Click the Office button. A menu appears.Click Excel Options in the lower-right corner. ClickAdvanced. Make sure the Automatically InsertDecimal Point check box is checked ( changesto ). Type the number of decimal places you wantin the Places field. Click OK.Did You Know?If you right-click in any cell that contains a number,you can choose number formatting options fromthe Mini-Toolbar or you can click Format Cellsfrom the contextual menu to open the FormatCells dialog box.09_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 157
    • CREATE A FILL1 Click the Home tab.2 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to format.3 Click here and then select a fillcolor.APPLY FORMATSto cellsFormatting enhances the presentation of reports.Rows of column headings provide a visual orientationto your data and highlight important informationabout the structure and content of your data.By using the Home tab, you can format cells in avariety of ways. Clicking the launcher in the Font orAlignment group opens the Format Cells dialog box,which you can use to format numbers, align datawithin or across cells, apply a variety of formats tofonts, add borders, and fill cells with color. Many ofthe options available to you in the Format Cellsdialog box are also available in the Ribbon. By usingthe Ribbon, you can frequently apply a format with asingle click.You can set off cells by applying a colored backgroundand changing the font color. You can set off columnsor other important information by applying borders.When applying a border, you can choose the color,style, and placement of the border.11223333112222l Excel applies a fill color to thecells you selected.CHANGE THE TEXT COLOR1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to format.2 Click here and then select a fontcolor.15809_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 158
    • l Excel applies the fontcolor to the cells youselected.ADD A BORDER1 Click and drag to selectthe cells you want toformat.2 Click here and thenselect a border color.3 Click to select a borderstyle.2211223322l Excel adds a border to your cells.159Chapter 7: Present WorksheetsDid You Know?On the Home tab, in the Font group, Excel providesan Increase Font Size button ( ) and a DecreaseFont Size button ( ). Click the Increase Font Sizebutton to make your font larger. Click the DecreaseFont Size button to make your font smaller.Did You Know?Clicking the down arrow next to the Border button,Fill Color button, and the Font Color button providesyou with a menu of choices. The choice you makebecomes the default format for the button until youchange it. When you want to reapply the format, justclick the appropriate button.09_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 159
    • MERGE AND CENTER1 Click the Home tab.2 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to merge and center.3 Click the Merge and Centerbutton.APPLY FORMATSto cellsTitles provide a brief summary of your data andyou often center them over the data they summarize.To center text within a cell, click the Center button. Tocenter text across several cells, click the Merge andCenter button to merge all the cells you select andcenter the text in the merged cells.If the text you enter is too long to fit in a single cell,Excel allows the text to spill over into adjacent cells.If you place text or data in the adjacent cells, Excelcuts the text off and you can no longer read the textthat spilt into the adjacent cell. You can click theWrap Text button to wrap the text in the cell in whichyou typed it and thereby make it readable.By default, data or text you enter in a cell displaysfrom left to right. You can change the default displayby clicking the Orientation button and selecting anew orientation. You can angle your text or haveyour text display vertically.1122223311l Excel merges and centers yourtext.WRAP TEXT1 Click and drag to select the cellswhose text you want to wrap.2 Click the Wrap Text button.16009_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 160
    • l Excel wraps yourtext.ORIENTATION1 Click the cellor cells whoseorientation youwant to change.2 Click here andthen select anorientation.222211l Excel changes the orientation of your text.161Chapter 7: Present WorksheetsDid You Know?Excel has several buttons you can use to aligndata within a cell. Use the Align Left button ( )to align your data with the left side of the cell,use the Align Right button ( ) to align yourdata with the right side of the cell, and usethe Center button ( ) to center your datain the cell.Did You Know?Excel has buttons you can use to place data atthe top, bottom, or middle of the cell. Use theTop Align button ( ) to place data at the topof the cell, use the Middle Align button ( ) toplace data in the middle of the cell, and use theBottom Align button ( ) to place data at thebottom of the cell.09_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 161
    • 1 Select the cells you want toformat.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click the launcher in the Fontgroup.Fill with aGRADIENTYou can add a two-color effect to your fills by usingExcel’s gradient fill feature. A gradient is a blending ofcolors — one color gradually changes to another color.In Excel, you choose the two colors you want to useto create your gradient. You then choose from one ofthe following shading styles: Horizontal, Vertical,Diagonal Up, Diagonal Down, From Corner, or FromCenter. Each shading style has several Variants —ways in which you can create your gradient. TheSample box provides you with a preview of whatyour gradient will look like when applied.The Horizontal shading style provides horizontalbands of color, the Vertical shading style providesvertical bands of color, and Diagonal Up and DiagonalDown shading styles provide diagonal bands of color.In the Variants box, you can choose the color withwhich the gradient starts and ends.The From Corner style starts with Color 1 and blendsto Color 2. In the Variants box, you choose thecorner in which Color 1 starts. The From Center stylestarts with Color 1 in the center and blends outwardto Color 2.1133442255l The Format Cells dialog boxappears.4 Click the Fill tab.5 Click Fill Effects.16209_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 162
    • l The Fill Effects dialogbox appears.6 Click Two Colors( changes to ).7 Click here and thenselect Color 1.8 Click here and thenselect Color 2.9 Click to select a Shadingstyle ( changes to ).0 Click to select a Variant.! Click OK to close theFill Effects dialog box.@ Click OK to close theFormat Cells dialog box.@@7788006699!!l Excel fills the cells with the gradientyou created.163Chapter 7: Present WorksheetsDid You Know?You can clear the formats you apply to cells.Select the cells you want to clear, click theHome tab, and then click the Clear button ( )in the Editing group. A menu appears. ClickClear Formats. Excel removes the formats youapplied to the selected cells.Did You Know?You can give your fill a professional look byadding a pattern to your fill. Patterns consist ofdots or hatches. To add patterns, use the Fill tabin the Format Cells dialog box. In the PatternColor field, select a color. In the Pattern Stylefield, select a pattern. Click OK. Excel adds thepattern to selected cells.09_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 163
    • 1 Click and drag to select the cellswith the format you want tocopy.Note: Open multiple windows tosee different parts of the worksheetat the same time. See Task #96.Format quickly withFORMAT PAINTERExcel can save you time when you need to reapplyformats that already exist in your worksheet. Theeasiest way to apply a cell’s format to another cell orto a range of cells is by using the Format Painter. Usethe Format Painter for one-time copying of formatswithin a workbook. Use styles, discussed in Task#s 31 and 32, when you plan to apply commonformats throughout a workbook and across workbooks.You can find the Format Painter tool on the Home tabin the Clipboard group. To use it, first click in a cellwith the format you want to copy. Then click theFormat Painter button. Finally, click in a cell or cellsthat you want to receive the formatting. You canapply a format to many cells at the same time. Excelapplies formats instantly. Use the Format Painter tocopy and apply both cell and number formats. If youmake a mistake, you can undo the formats bypressing Ctrl+Z.1122332 Click the Home tab.3 Click the Format Painter button.To apply the format you selectedin Step 1 several times, double-click the Format Painter button.16409_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 164
    • 4 Click in the cell or cellsin which you want toapply the format.You can also click anddrag to select a rangeof cells you want toformat.44l The cell or cell range instantly takes onthe formatting of the cell.165Chapter 7: Present WorksheetsDid You Know?You can only apply a format once if you click theFormat Painter tool. If you want to copy a formatmore than once, applying one format to severalnonadjacent cells, double-click the tool instead ofsingle-clicking it in Step 2.Did You Know?You can use the Format Painter to transfer propertiesfrom one image, such as clip art, to another image.The properties you transfer include background color,text flow around the image, and so on. Click theformatted graphic, click the Format Painter button,and then click the graphic you want to format.09_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 165
    • 1 Click the Insert tab.2 Click Shapes in the Illustrationgroup.A menu of shapes appears.3 Click the shape you want to add.INSERT SHAPESinto your worksheetShapes have a variety of purposes. Arrows point outrelationships between data. Flowchart elementsconvey the structure of your data. Excel provides avariety of shapes, including lines, rectangles, arrows,flowchart elements, stars, banners, and callouts — allof which you can use in your worksheet.You can rotate, resize, move, and reshape shapes. Youcan also apply predefined styles to your shapes. Excelprovides many predefined styles from which tochoose. As you roll your cursor over each shape style,Excel provides a quick preview of how the styleappears when applied.In many cases, you can add text to your shape. Youcan reformat the text on your shape and change itsfont, size, color, and alignment. Simply select thetext and then click commands on the Home tab tomake your changes.2211335566444 Click and drag to add the shapeto your worksheet.l The Drawing tools becomeavailable.l Click and drag to rotate theshape.l Click and drag to adjust the size.l Click and drag to adjust the sizeof the arrow.5 Click the Format tab.6 Click here and select a style.16609_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 166
    • l Excel formats yourshape.7 Click your shape andtype your text.8 Click and drag to theleft to select your text.9 Click the Home tab.l Click to adjust the sizeof your text.l Click to align your text.l Click to format yourtext.l Click to change thecolor of your text.889977l Excel applies your changes.167Chapter 7: Present WorksheetsDid You Know?You can copy and paste shapes. Select yourshape. Click the Home tab. Click the Copybutton ( ). Click Paste. A menu appears.Click Paste Special. The Paste Special Dialogbox appears. In the As box, click MicrosoftOffice Drawing Object and then click OK.A copy of your shape appears in yourworksheet.Did You Know?You can use the buttons to format your text.Format OptionsButton Function Button FunctionBold ItalicizeUnderline RotateIncrease Indent Decrease IndentChange Font09_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 167
    • 1 Click the Insert tab.2 Click Text Box.3 Click and drag to create atext box.INSERT TEXT BOXESinto your worksheetBy using a text graphic, you can create logos, add textto pictures, or add text to your worksheet. You cancreate text with shadows, reflections, glows, bevels,3-D rotations, and transforms. For each option, youcan choose from several sub-options, and you canapply multiple effects to the same piece of text.By using the various options, you can create thestyle you want or select a predefined style. As youroll your cursor over the predefined styles, Excelprovides a quick preview of how the styles appearwhen applied to your text.Use the Text Fill button to change the color of yourtext and the Text Outline button to change the colorthat outlines your text.As with all graphics, you can resize, rotate, andreposition text boxes. You can also change the fontsize, alignment, and format. Use the same methodsyou use to change text added to a shape. To learnmore, see Task #72.1122556677334488l Your text box appears.l The Drawing tools becomeavailable.4 Type your text.5 Click the Format tab.6 Click the Text Effects button.A menu appears.7 Click to view the menu for thetext effect you want to apply.8 Click the text effect you want toapply.16809_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 168
    • l Excel applies the effect.9 Click and drag to theleft to select your text.You can also pressShift+Home.0 Click Quick Styles.A menu of choicesappears.! Click the style you wantto apply.00!!@@99@ Click outside your text box.Excel applies your formats.Note: As you roll your cursor over your textbox, a four-sided arrow appears. When yousee the four-sided arrow, click and drag toreposition your text.169Chapter 7: Present WorksheetsDid You Know?You can format a text box as columns. Use thelauncher on the Format tab in the Shape Styles groupto open the Format Shapes dialog box. Click Text Box.The Text Box Pane appears. Click the Columns button.The Columns dialog box appears. In the Numberfield, enter the number of columns you want. In theSpacing field, enter the amount of space you want tocreate between each column.Did You Know?You can use WordArt to create a text graphic. Clickthe Insert tab. Click WordArt. A list of options appears.Click the text style you want. A text box appears withtext. Type your text. You can modify the WordArt textjust as you would any other text box.09_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 169
    • 1 Click the Insert tab.2 Click Picture in the Illustrationsgroup.INSERT PHOTOGRAPHSinto your worksheetPhotographs can enhance your worksheet, illustrateyour point, and emphasize your message. Adding aphotograph to Excel is easy. Just locate the photographand insert it.After you insert your photograph, you can choosefrom many options to enhance the display of yourphoto. Use picture styles to angle; add borders,shadows, and reflections; and otherwise stylize yourphotograph. As you roll your cursor over the variouspicture styles, Excel provides a preview of how thestyles appear when applied.You can change the color of your picture border andadjust your photo’s brightness and contrast. Youcan even crop your photo to show only the portionyou want.You can manipulate your photograph the same wayyou manipulate any other graphic. You can move it,rotate it, and resize it. When resizing, drag the cornerhandles to resize your photo proportionately. Drag theside handles to make your picture wider. Drag thetop and bottom handles to make your picture taller.1144223355The Insert Picture dialog boxappears.3 Click here and select the folder inwhich you stored your picture.4 Click your picture.5 Click Insert.17009_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:11 PM Page 170
    • The picture appears inyour worksheet.l The Picture toolsbecome available.6 Click the Format tab.7 Click Crop.l Black markings appearon your photo.8 Click and drag themarkings to crop yourphoto.9 Click here and select apicture style.0 Click here and select acolor for your picture’sborder.667788!!##0099! Click here and select a brightnessadjustment.@ Click outside your photo.Excel applies the options you selected.# Click your photo.l Click and drag to rotate.l Click and drag to resize.Excel adjusts your photo.171Chapter 7: Present WorksheetsDid You Know?You can also add clip art to your worksheet. Clickthe Insert tab and then click Clip Art. The Clip Artdialog box appears. In the Search For field, typethe category in which the item for which you arelooking falls and then click Go. Excel finds all theclip art in that category and displays them. Double-click the image you want. It appears in yourworksheet.Did You Know?You can use Excel to colorize your photographs.Click your photo. Click the Format tab and then clickRecolor in the Adjust group. Among other choices,you can change your photo to grayscale or to asepia tone.09_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:12 PM Page 171
    • 1 Click a graphic.l The Drawing tools becomeavailable.2 Click the Format tab.3 Click Selection Pane.ARRANGE THE GRAPHICSin your worksheetWhen you place a shape, text box, photograph, clipart, or any other type of graphic into your Excelworksheet, Excel stacks it. When graphics overlap,graphics that are higher in the stack appear to be ontop of graphics that are lower in the stack. This cancause problems. For example, the text you want toplace on a shape could actually appear behind theshape. Fortunately, you can change the stackingorder. You can use the Selection and Visibility Paneto choose the exact stack order in which your graphicsdisplay.Excel names each graphic as you create or add it toyour worksheet. When you open the Selection andVisibility Pane, these names display. You can changethe Excel-generated names to names that are moremeaningful.Excel also provides tools to help you arrangegraphics on your worksheet. You can select graphicsand then align or rotate them.33556622114477The Selection and Visibility Paneappears.4 Double-click a shape name andtype to change the name.5 Click to reorder the graphics.l Click to move the graphics up.l Click to move the graphicsdown.6 Click to hide graphics.7 Click to close the pane.Excel arranges the graphics aslisted in the Selection andVisibility Pane.17209_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:12 PM Page 172
    • ROTATE AND ALIGN GRAPHICS1 Click a graphic toselect it.l The Drawing toolsbecome available.2 Click the Format tab.3 Click the Rotate buttonin the Arrange group.A menu appears.4 Click to select a rotateoption.2233441155667755Excel rotates your graphic.5 Hold down the Shift key and click toselect the objects you want to align.6 Click the Align button.A menu appears.7 Click to select an align option.l Excel aligns your graphics.173Chapter 7: Present WorksheetsDid You Know?You can group your graphics. Grouping graphicsallows you to treat two or more graphics as if theyare one. As you move one graphic in a group, all theother graphics in the same group move with it. Togroup, hold down the Shift key and click each graphicyou want to group. Click the Format tab, click theGroup button ( ), and then click Group.Did You Know?You can use the Bring to Front and Send to Backoptions on the Format tab in the Arrange group tochange the stacking order of your graphics. Send toBack sends your graphic to the bottom of the stack.Send Back moves it down one level. Bring to Frontbrings your graphic to the top of the stack. BringForward brings it up one level.09_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:12 PM Page 173
    • 1 Click the Page Layout tab.2 Click Background.Insert aBACKGROUND IMAGEPlacing a background image behind a worksheet candraw attention to and enhance the appearance ofotherwise drab columns of numbers. In other words,backgrounds can set the tone. Using a company logo,for example, can convey official status. Backgroundscan also create a dramatic or decorative effectrelated to worksheet content. For example, you canplace pale red hearts behind a worksheet showingtrends in the sale of Valentine’s Day cards.A background shows a color or image under the textand covers the entire surface of the worksheet. Youcan use images in any standard format, such as JPG,BMP, PNG, or GIF. Excel tiles your worksheet with theimage.Background images are for display in Excel only. Whenyou print your worksheet or publish your worksheet asa Web page, the image is not printed or displayed onthe Web page.If you include your worksheet in a presentation, youmay want to view it in Full Screen mode.2244113355The Sheet Background dialogbox appears.3 Click here and select the properfolder.4 Click the image.5 Click Insert.17409_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:12 PM Page 174
    • The image appears inyour worksheet.Note: Click DeleteBackground on thePage Layout tab toremove the image.6 Click View.7 Click Full Screen in theWorkbook views group.7766Your worksheet displays in Full Screen mode.Note: Press the Esc key to return to normalmode.175Chapter 7: Present WorksheetsDid You Know?If you do not want to see the formula bar, headings,or gridlines when you present your worksheet, youcan hide them. Click the View tab and then, in theShow/Hide group, deselect the options you want tohide ( changes to ).Did You Know?You can apply backgrounds to other objects inExcel. To place a background behind a chart, right-click near the chart border. A menu appears. ClickFormat Chart Area. The Format Chart Area dialogbox appears. Click Fill and then click the Filebutton to import a picture or other background.09_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:12 PM Page 175
    • 1 Click and drag to select cells.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click Paste.A menu appears.4 Click As Picture.5 Click Copy As Picture.TAKE A PICTUREof your worksheetUsing Excel’s Copy as Picture feature, you can takesnapshots of cell ranges in your worksheet. The Copyas Picture feature turns whatever you copy into agraphic that you can manipulate just as you wouldany other graphic. In fact, you can apply styles,shapes, borders, and picture effects to the graphic.You can also adjust the brightness and the contrast,and you can recolor your graphic. You can copy yourgraphic to the Clipboard and paste it into other Officeproducts such as Word or non-Office products suchas Photoshop.Using the Copy as Picture feature is as simple ascopying and pasting. When you copy as a picture,you do not retain information such as formulas. Theresult is a graphical image with which you can work.You can resize the image and drag it to a newlocation, but you cannot edit the values representedin the image.2255 114433667788l The Copy Picture dialog boxappears.6 Click As Shown on Screen( changes to ).7 Click Picture ( changes to ).8 Click OK.17609_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:12 PM Page 176
    • 9 Click where you wantto paste the picture.0 Click Paste.A menu appears.! Click As Picture.@ Click Paste As Picture.@@99!!00l Excel pastes the cells as a picture.l The Picture tools become available.177Chapter 7: Present WorksheetsDid You Know?You can add the Camera button ( ) to the QuickAccess toolbar and use it to take pictures of yourworksheet. You select the cells, click the Camerabutton, and then click the location where you wantto paste the picture. You cannot use the Picturetools with graphics created with the Camera button.See Task #95 to learn how to add a button to theQuick Access toolbar.Did You Know?You can copy cell images as pictures into otherOffice applications and use them in presentationsand reports; however, the copies lose their liveconnection to the Excel data. With a live connection,updates occur in Word, for example, as you updateyour data in Excel.09_126745 ch07.qxp 6/5/07 7:12 PM Page 177
    • Protect, Save, and PrintAfter you complete the work of entering,formatting, analyzing, and charting your data,you can share it with others. Sharing datausually means either saving it and sharing thefile, or saving it and sharing a printout. Thetips in this chapter make it easier to shareyour work with others.You can protect your worksheet so otherscan view and print it but cannot make changesto it. You can also save your workbook asa template. By saving your workbook as atemplate, you eliminate the chore of re-creating a special-purpose worksheet eachtime you need to use it. In addition, you cansave documents in many formats; in thischapter, you review a few document formatsand the advantages of each are explained.The printing tips in this chapter focus onprinting multiple-page worksheets and multiple-sheet workbooks. You find out how to selectnoncontiguous cell ranges and print them andhow to repeat row and column labels acrossseveral pages.The two key printing tools are the Page Setupdialog box and the Print Preview window.Familiarize yourself with the many choicesthey offer.Chapter 9 carries forward the themesintroduced in this chapter. There you learnmore about exchanging data between Exceland other applications.10_126745 ch08.qxp 6/5/07 7:14 PM Page 178
    • Protect Your Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180Save a Workbook as a Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182Choose a Format When Saving a Workbook. . . . . . . . . . 184Print Multiple Areas of a Workbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186Print Multiple Worksheets from a Workbook . . . . . . . . . 18810_126745 ch08.qxp 6/5/07 7:14 PM Page 179
    • 1 Click and drag to select the cellsyou want to remain unlockedor whose formulas you wantto hide.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click Format in the Cells group.A menu appears.4 Click Format Cells.PROTECTyour worksheetIf you share your worksheets with others, you canprotect them so others can view and print them, butcannot make changes to them. Even if you do notshare your worksheets, you may want to lock certainareas so you do not inadvertently make changes.Locking your worksheet enables users to make certaintypes of changes while disallowing others. Forexample, you can allow users to make changes toformats; insert or delete columns, rows, or hyperlinks;sort; filter; use PivotTables; and/or edit objects orscenarios.By default, when you lock a worksheet, Excel locksevery cell in the worksheet, and the formulas arevisible to anyone who uses the worksheet. You canspecify the cells that remain unlocked, and you canhide formulas.To protect your worksheet, enter a passwordin the Protect Sheet dialog box. Keep a list ofyour worksheet passwords in a safe place because aworksheet password cannot be recovered. If you loseor forget your password, you can no longer accessthe locked areas of your worksheet.223344551166l The Format Cells dialog boxappears.5 Click the Protection tab.l By default, Locked is selected.Selecting Locked enables youto lock the selected cells, anddeselecting Locked enablesyou to leave the selected cellsunlocked.l By default, Hidden is deselected;select it if you want to hide yourformulas.6 Click OK.18010_126745 ch08.qxp 6/5/07 7:14 PM Page 180
    • 7 Click Format in theCells group.A menu appears.8 Click Protect Sheet.77889900!!@@##l The Protect Sheet dialog box appears.9 Enter a password, if you wish to password-protect your worksheet.0 Click to select the options you want to allowthe users to perform ( changes to ).! Click OK.l The Confirm Password dialog box appears.@ Reenter your password.# Click OK.Excel locks the cells in your worksheet andhides the formulas in the selected cells.l Users receive a message if they attempt tochange data.181Chapter 8: Protect, Save, and PrintDid You Know?You can protect a workbook from unwanted changes.Click the Review tab, click Protect Workbook in theChanges group, and then click Protect Structure andWindows. The Protect Structure and Windows dialogbox appears. Select Structure ( changes to ) toprotect your workbook from the moving, addition, anddeletion of worksheets. Select Windows ( changesto ) to protect your workbook from changes in thesize and position of windows. Optionally, require apassword to remove these protections.Did You Know?If you click the Review tab and then click Allow Usersto Edit Ranges in the Changes group, the AllowUsers to Edit Ranges dialog box appears. Use thisdialog box to specify the ranges users can modify.Click the New button and complete the fields in theNew Range dialog box. You can password-protecteach range you allow.10_126745 ch08.qxp 6/5/07 7:14 PM Page 181
    • 1 Open the workbook you want touse as a template.Templates can consist of actualdata, column labels, and emptycells with specific numberformats such as percentage.2 Click the Office button.A menu appears.3 Click Save As.4 Click Other Formats.Save a workbook asA TEMPLATETemplates are special-purpose workbooks you use tocreate new worksheets. They can contain formats,styles, and specific content such as images, columnheads, and date ranges you want to reuse in otherworksheets. Templates save you the work of re-creating workbooks for recurring purposes such asfilling out invoices and preparing monthly reports.When you work with a template, you edit a copy, notthe original, so you retain the original template foruse in structuring other worksheets. Excel 2007worksheets ordinarily have an .xlsx file extension.Saving an Excel worksheet as a template creates afile with an .xltx extension.Your custom template includes all the changes youhave made to your workbook, including formats,formulas, and such changes as opening multiplewindows or deleting tabs. Saving formulas withyour template causes your worksheet to calculateautomatically. Saving formats saves you from havingto re-create them.556644331122The Save As dialog box appears.5 Type a name for your template.6 Click here and select ExcelTemplate (*.xltx).18210_126745 ch08.qxp 6/5/07 7:14 PM Page 182
    • l The Save In folderchanges to Templates.7 Click Save.77l Excel creates the template.183Chapter 8: Protect, Save, and PrintDid You Know?To use a template you have created, click the Officebutton and then click New. The New Workbook dialogbox appears. Click My Templates. The New dialog boxappears. Click the template you want to open andthen click OK. Excel opens your template. When yousave your modified file, save it as a regular file with an.xlsx extension so you do not overwrite your template.Did You Know?Excel comes with ready-made templates that servebasic business purposes such as invoicing. To openand use one of these templates, click the Officebutton and then click New. The New Workbookdialog box appears. Click Installed Templates. Clickthe template you want to open and then click Create.10_126745 ch08.qxp 6/5/07 7:14 PM Page 183
    • 1 Click the Office button.A menu appears.2 Click Save As.3 Click Other Formats.CHOOSE A FORMATwhen saving a workbookAfter you create an Excel 2007 worksheet, you maywant to share it with others. The file format youchoose when you save your file can aid you. Thedefault format for Office 2007 is Excel Workbook(.xlsx). This file format is new to Office 2007. Itcreates smaller files that are easily accessible inother software programs because the files arein XML format, which is a data-exchange standard.Previous versions of Excel did not use XML as thedefault format. These files have an .xls extension. Ifyou want to share your documents with people whouse Excel 97-2003, you can save your file as anExcel 97-2003 workbook (.xls). Features that are notsupported in earlier versions of Excel are lost whenyou save your file as an Excel 97-2003 workbook.You can also save your worksheet in other fileformats, including several text-based formats suchas Text (Tab delimited), Text (Macintosh), and CSV(comma delimited). These formats save theworksheet as text that can be read into otherapplications.55663322447711The Save As dialog box appears.4 Click here and select the folder inwhich you want to save your file.5 Type a file name.6 Click here and select a file type.7 Click Save.You may be warned aboutincompatibilities.18410_126745 ch08.qxp 6/5/07 7:14 PM Page 184
    • Excel saves yourworksheet in theformat you specify.l This example showsthe worksheet saved inOffice 2003.This example shows the file saved in CSVformat.185Chapter 8: Protect, Save, and PrintDid You Know?If you want to see the XML layout for an Excel 2007file, change the file extension on the file to .zip andthen double-click the file. The file opens and severalfolders and files appear. Double-click the files to openand view them.Did You Know?If you have a computer with Excel 97-2003 installed,you can go to the Office Update Web site anddownload the 2007 Microsoft Office systemCompatibility Pack for Excel. Once you install theCompatibility Pack, you can open Excel 2007 files inExcel 97-2003. Excel features and formatting maynot display in the earlier version, but they are stillavailable when you open the file again in Excel 2007.10_126745 ch08.qxp 6/5/07 7:14 PM Page 185
    • 1 Press and hold the Ctrl key asyou click and drag to select eacharea you want to print.2 Click the Page Layout tab.3 Click Print Area.4 Click Set Print Area.5 Click Print Titles.PRINT MULTIPLE AREASof a workbookYou can print noncontiguous areas of your worksheet,thereby limiting your printing to the information thatis of relevance. This feature involves little more thanselecting the cells you want to print.There are many reasons why you may want to printnoncontiguous areas of your worksheet. For example,if you have sales data for several products, each in acolumn, you can select and print only the columnsthat are of interest to you. You select noncontiguousareas of the worksheet by pressing and holding theCtrl key as you click and drag. After you select areas,you set them as the print area.When printing noncontiguous areas of your worksheet,you may have column headings or row labels youwant to print with each selection. You can specify therows you want to repeat at the top or the columns youwant to repeat down the side of every page you print.When you print a worksheet with multiple selectedareas, each area prints on its own page.77665533442211 11 1188l The Page Setup dialog boxappears.6 Click the Sheet tab.l The areas you selected in Step 1are shown here.7 Click and drag the columns orrows you want to repeat or typethe range.8 Click Print Preview.18610_126745 ch08.qxp 6/5/07 7:14 PM Page 186
    • l The Print Previewwindow shows thefirst page of theprintout containingan area you selectedin Step 1.99009 Click Next Page and Previous Page toview subsequent and previous pages.l The Print Preview window shows the nextpage of the printout containing an areayou selected in Step 1.0 Click Print when you are satisfied with thelayout.Excel prints the selected areas.187Chapter 8: Protect, Save, and PrintDelete It!To clear the print area, click Page Layout and thenclick Print Area. A menu appears. Click Clear PrintArea. Print Areas stay in effect until you clear them.You can add to the print area by selecting a rangeand clicking Page Layout, Print Area, and then Add toPrint Area.Did You Know?To open the Page Setup dialog box, click thelauncher in the Page Setup group. You can use theHeader/Footer tab in the dialog box to add pagenumbers as well as both a header and a footer. ClickCustom Header or Custom Footer to create dates andpage numbers on each page, or even add an imageto the header or footer.10_126745 ch08.qxp 6/5/07 7:14 PM Page 187
    • 1 Press and hold the Ctrl key.2 Click the individual tabs youwant to print.You can click Chart tabs, Sheettabs, and tabs you haverenamed.3 Release the Ctrl key.The selected tabs appear white.PRINT MULTIPLE WORKSHEETSfrom a workbookBy default, Excel prints either the entire activeworksheet or a selected print area within the activeworksheet. However, you can select several worksheetsand print them all at the same time. You may want touse this option if you have a workbook with data orcharts on several separate sheets.To select two or more adjacent sheets for printing,press and hold the Shift key and click the tab for eachsheet you want to print. To select several nonadjacentworksheets, press and hold the Ctrl key and click thetab for each sheet you want to print. To print everyworksheet in the workbook, right-click any tab. Amenu appears. Click Select All Sheets.Selecting multiple tabs groups the sheets. While thesheets are grouped, any data you type into any sheetor any changes you make to the structure of sheetsare also typed into or changed in all the other sheetsin the group. To ungroup sheets, click any unselectedsheet. If no unselected sheet is visible, right-clickany sheet. A menu appears. Click Ungroup Sheets.445522 22 224 Click the Page Layout tab.5 Click the Page Setup grouplauncher.18810_126745 ch08.qxp 6/5/07 7:14 PM Page 188
    • l The Page Setup dialogbox appears.6 Click Print Preview.6677l Each worksheet appears on its own page.The first worksheet you selected in Step 2appears first.l Click Previous Page and Next Page toreview the selected sheets.7 Click Print when you are ready to print.Excel prints the selected worksheets.189Chapter 8: Protect, Save, and PrintDid You Know?You can print row numbers and column letters onevery page. Click the Launcher in the Page Setupgroup on the Page Layout tab to open the PageSetup dialog box. On the Sheet tab, click Row andColumn Headings ( changes to ) before printingyour worksheet. To print comments, select an optionin the Comments field. You can print commentsadjacent to their cells or gather them at the end ofthe report.Did You Know?To print several workbooks at the same time, clickthe Office button and then click Open. In the Opendialog box, press and hold the Ctrl key and click theworkbooks you want to print. Click the Tools drop-down menu in the lower-right corner and then clickPrint.10_126745 ch08.qxp 6/5/07 7:14 PM Page 189
    • Extend ExcelIn Excel, you can do more than create andmaintain workbooks and worksheets. Throughdata exchange, you can extend Excel in twoways. First, you can use data from otherprograms within Excel and thereby applyExcel’s extensive worksheet capabilities toother programs’ data. Second, you can useExcel data within other programs, therebyextending your ability to use, analyze, andpresent your Excel data. This chapter focuseson the many techniques for integrating Excelwith Word, PowerPoint, and Access; queryingWeb sites; importing data; exporting data;and querying Access databases from Excel.With queries, you can bring non-Excel data,such as a Microsoft Access table, into Excel.As you create a query, you can sort and filterthe data. Later you can analyze and chart thedata as you would any other worksheet data.Queries are a powerful database tool foranalyzing data sets. With minor changes,you can extend the tasks in this chapter toexchange data with corporate databasesbased on Oracle, SQL Server, and other suchproducts.Less known to Excel users are the queryfeatures that enable you to query a Web sitewithin Excel. You can query a Web site andimport Web content into Excel. For example,you can import statistics presented in HTMLtables.You can create links from your worksheetsto other worksheets and other programs. Forexample, you can use a link to open a relatedworkbook or a related Word document.11_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 190
    • Paste Link into Word or PowerPoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192Embed a Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194Create a Link from an Excel Workbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196Query a Web Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198Copy a Word Table into Excel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200Import a Text File into Excel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202Import an Access Database into Excel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206Query an Access Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208Reuse a Saved Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212Import an Excel Worksheet into Access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214Using Excel with Mail Merge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21811_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 191
    • 1 Select the worksheet data youwant to paste link.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click the Copy button in theClipboard group.PASTE LINKinto Word or PowerPointBy paste linking Excel worksheets into Word orPowerPoint, you can add sophisticated calculationscreated in Excel to documents created in Word orPowerPoint. In Word, for example, you can use Excelworksheets to present quarterly reports or otherfinancial documents.When you paste link, if you alter Excel data whilein Word or PowerPoint, Office automatically updatesthe Excel worksheet. The opposite is also true. Whenyou alter paste-linked data while in Excel, Officeautomatically updates the paste-linked Word orPowerPoint document. Paste linking enables you tokeep your documents in sync, because you do nothave to worry about manually coordinating thechanges to one document with the other document.To update a paste-linked Excel worksheet while inWord or PowerPoint, double-click the worksheet toedit it. When you do, Microsoft Word or PowerPointautomatically opens the document in Excel so youhave all the Excel commands available to you as youedit your document.114477223355664 Switch to your Word document.5 Click the Home tab.6 Click Paste in the Clipboardgroup.A menu appears.7 Click Paste Special.19211_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 192
    • l The Paste Special dialogbox appears.8 Click Paste Link( changes to ).9 Click Microsoft OfficeExcel Worksheet Object.0 Click OK.99!!8800l The worksheet appears in Word.! Double-click the worksheet to edit it.Your worksheet opens in Excel and youcan make any necessary edits.When you finish your edits, save and closeExcel and return to your Word document.193Chapter 9: Extend ExcelDid You Know?The example paste links Excel into Word. You canfollow the same steps to paste link an Excel worksheetinto PowerPoint; just switch to PowerPoint instead ofWord in Step 4.Did You Know?You can paste link a Word document into Excel. Theprocedure is the same except you select the data inWord you want to paste link and click the Word Copybutton ( ). Then move to Excel and click the Hometab, Paste, and Paste Special. The Paste Special dialogbox appears. Click Paste Link ( changes to ).Click Microsoft Office Word Document Object andthen OK. Your Word document appears in Excel.Double-click your Word document to edit it.11_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 193
    • 1 Open the PowerPointpresentation in which youwant to include a worksheet.Note: This example usesPowerPoint. You can openWord and follow similar steps toembed your document in Word.2 Click the Insert tab.3 Click Object.EMBEDa worksheetYou can create a PowerPoint presentation or a Worddocument that contains an Excel worksheet you canedit without leaving PowerPoint or Word. This meansyou can demonstrate different business scenariosas you give your PowerPoint presentation or dosophisticated mathematical calculations while inWord. To use this feature, you must embed yourworksheet into your PowerPoint or Word file. Youcan use an existing Excel file or generate a newExcel file entirely within PowerPoint or Word.When you embed Excel documents, the Excelworksheet becomes part of the PowerPoint or Worddocument and is accessible only through PowerPointor Word. Embedding differs from paste linking. Whenyou make changes to an Excel worksheet embeddedinto PowerPoint or Word, changes you make onlyaffect the PowerPoint or Word file. When you pastelink a worksheet into PowerPoint or Word and makechanges to your file from Word or PowerPoint, Officealso updates the Excel file.112233556644l The Insert Object dialog boxappears.4 Click Create New to generatea new worksheet ( changesto ).Alternatively, click Create fromFile ( changes to ) to openan existing workbook.5 Click Microsoft Office ExcelWorksheet.6 Click OK.19411_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 194
    • l A blank worksheetappears.l All of the MicrosoftExcel commands areavailable to you.7 Create your worksheet.Click outside theworksheet when youfinish.77l Excel adds the worksheet to yourPowerPoint presentation.195Chapter 9: Extend ExcelDid You Know?When you create a new Excel chart in PowerPoint,you see a fake data set and associated chart.Change the data and replace it with your own,either by typing new data or by copying and pastingdata from an existing Excel worksheet. You can usethe new or copied data as the basis for a chart thatyou can modify as you would any chart. For moreinformation on creating charts, see Chapter 6.Did You Know?You can embed an existing worksheet. Click Createfrom File ( changes to ) in Step 4 of theexample. The dialog box changes and prompts youto type a file name or to click Browse to select aworkbook to embed.11_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 195
    • 1 Click the cell in which you wantthe link to appear.2 Click the Insert tab.3 Click Hyperlink.CREATE A LINKfrom an Excel workbookYou may be familiar with the many benefits of links asa result of using the Internet. On the Internet, whenyou click a link, you jump to a new Web page withmore links, creating an enormous and seamless webof information. Like most Office applications, Excellets you create links. These links can take you to aplace in the same worksheet or workbook, to adocument created by another Office application, oreven to a Web page.Linking a document is different from paste linking.Instead of pulling data created by another applicationinto Excel, a link enables you to move from aworksheet to a related document.You can use links to jump directly to a chart orPivotTable based on the worksheet. Or, you can linka worksheet to a Word document providing detailedinformation or identifying the assumptions used inthe worksheet. You can also create e-mail addresslinks. This option is useful if you are going to saveyour file as a Web page and you want readers to beable to click a link to e-mail you.1133556677224488l The Insert Hyperlink dialog boxappears.4 Click a Link To location.This example uses Existing File orWeb Page.5 Type the text you want to displayin the worksheet field.6 Click here and select the folder inwhich the file you want to link tois located.7 Click the file to which you wantto link.8 Click OK.19611_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 196
    • l The cell contentappears as a link.You can pass yourmouse over the linkwithout clicking tosee the name of thelinked-to file.9 Right-click the new link.A menu appears.0 Click Open Hyperlink.0099!! The linked-to document appears.! Close the document to return to youroriginal document.To remove the link, right-click the linkedworksheet cell and then click RemoveHyperlink.197Chapter 9: Extend ExcelDid You Know?Creating a link to a Word document provides analternative to annotating worksheets by usingcomments and text boxes. Unlike comments,Word links can be of any length and complexity.Unlike text boxes, hyperlinks do not obstructworksheets or distract readers.Did You Know?You can create links from workbook graphicssuch as shapes, pictures, clip art, and WordArt.Click the graphic, click the Insert tab, and thenclick Hyperlink. Use the Insert Hyperlink dialogbox to select a destination in the same document,in another document, or on the Web.11_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 197
    • 1 Open a new Excel worksheet.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click From Web in the GetExternal Data group.Query aWEB SITEYou can use Excel to query Web data so you cananalyze the Web data in Excel. You can find structureddata in many forms on the Web, including online Excelworksheets. Excel considers ordinary Web pagesstructured if they contain tabular content — that is,rows and columns of numbers or other data.Excel gives you two options for opening and usingWeb-based tabular data. You can click the Officebutton and then click Open. The Open dialog boxappears. Type the Web address in the File Name fieldand then click Open. Or, click the Data tab and, inthe Get External Data group, click the From Weboption to query a Web page.Both techniques allow you to view and edit numbers,but querying a Web site has advantages. Importingdata as a query enables you to filter the data,viewing only records of interest. A query also letsyou refresh data if it is subject to updates. With thedata in Excel, you have complete access to dataanalysis and presentation tools, including functions,PivotTables, and charts.1133554422The New Web Query dialog boxappears.4 Type the Web address for the sitefrom which you want data.This example uses www.fec.gov/pages/96to.htm.5 Click Go.19811_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 198
    • The Web page appearsin the dialog box.6 Click the elements youwant to appear in yourquery.l A check mark indicatesyou want to query anelement. An arrowindicates you do notwant to query it.7 Click Import.9966007788l The Import Data dialog box appears.8 Click to select where you want to put theimported data ( changes to ).Choose from Existing Worksheet or NewWorksheet.9 Click the cell address or type a range ifyou selected Existing Worksheet.0 Click OK.l The selected Web elements appearwithin Excel, ready for analysis, charting,and so on.199Chapter 9: Extend ExcelDid You Know?To find statistical data on the Web, you can do aGoogle search. You can download U.S. federalstatistics in multiple formats from the officialFedStats site at www.fedstats.gov/cgi-bin/A2Z.cgi.State and municipal data is also available in greatabundance. You can find central access to thismaterial at the federal compendium, FirstGov,which is available at www.firstgov.gov.Did You Know?A query definition is a file containing a definitionof the data you import into Excel from an externalsource. The query definition indicates the datasource, the rows to include, how rows added tothe source are accommodated by the query, andthe frequency with which the data is updated. Youcan view and modify query properties by clickingthe Data tab and then clicking Properties in theConnections group.11_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 199
    • 1 In Word, select the table youwant to copy.2 Click the Home tab.3 Click the Copy button.Word copies the table to theWindows Clipboard.COPY A WORD TABLEinto ExcelIf you create a table or other collection of datastructured as rows and columns in Microsoft Word,you can import that information into Excel and takeadvantage of Excel’s many features. Creating a tablein Word is often satisfactory; however, sometimesyou start creating a table in Word that becomes longand elaborate. At that point, maintaining theinformation in Excel may make more sense thanmaintaining it in Word.In Excel, you can perform calculations on the data,use functions, and apply filters, all of which would betime consuming, if not impossible, in Word. Whenyou copy a table from Word and paste it into anExcel worksheet, you may lose some formatting, andsome of the data may transfer as text instead ofas numbers. You can correct these problems. Forinformation on converting text to numbers, see Task#26. For information on formatting, see Task #s 68,69, and 70. After you import the table into Excel, youcan proceed to add data to the list by using a form,as explained in Task #36.1144223355664 In Excel, click a cell, making surethere are enough cells below andto the right to accommodate theWord table.5 Click the Home tab.6 Click Paste.20011_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 200
    • The table is copiedinto Excel.A formatting buttonappears.7 Click the formattingbutton.l The Word formatting isapplied by default.l Click here if you wantto match the Excelformatting ( changesto ).77You can click and drag columns to adjustthem to fit the imported data.You can add formats to the data.201Chapter 9: Extend ExcelDid You Know?You can import data that consists of textseparated by commas, tabs, semicolons, or otherdelimiters. Click the Data tab and then, in the GetExternal Data group, click the From Text button( ). The Import Text File dialog box appears.Click your file and then click Import. The TextImport Wizard appears. The wizard steps youthrough the process of importing your file.Customize It!When you transfer data into Excel the formattingbutton appears. To prevent unwanted Wordformatting from accompanying the importedcontent, click the menu and click MatchDestination Formatting ( changes to ). ThePaste Options menu remains visible until youbegin another Excel task.11_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 201
    • 1 Click the Data tab.2 Click From Text in the GetExternal Data group.IMPORT A TEXT FILEinto ExcelMany software applications have an option you canuse to export the application’s data to a text file.You can import text files from other applications intoExcel by using the Text Import Wizard. You can thenuse Excel to analyze the data. In fact, after youimport data, you can use it in a PivotTable, createcharts with it, or manipulate it just as you wouldany other Excel data.On the first page of the Data Import Wizard, you canuse the Start Import at Row field to specify the rowin your text file with which you want to begin theimport. If your data has titles or other informationyou do not want to import at the top of the file, thisfeature gives you the ability to skip those rows.The Text Import Wizard can handle any delimitedor fixed-width file. A delimited file uses a comma,semicolon, tab, space, or other character to mark theend of each column. A fixed-width file aligns eachcolumn and gives each column a defined width.1122443355The Import Text File dialog boxappears.3 Click here and locate the folder inwhich you stored your text file.4 Click the file.5 Click Import.20211_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 202
    • The Text ImportWizard appears.6 Click to select the filetype that best describesyour data ( changesto ).Click Delimited if acomma or some othercharacter separateseach column.Click Fixed Width ifspace separates eachcolumn.7 Click to select the rowat which to beginimporting.8 Click Next.7700669988!!9 Click to select the type of delimiter yourdata uses ( changes to ).0 Click to select the text qualifier yourdata uses.! Click Next.203Chapter 9: Extend ExcelDid You Know?If you are importing a fixed-width file, you tellExcel exactly where each column begins byclicking the location in the Data Previewwindow. Excel inserts a break line. Youcan adjust the location of the line or deletethe line.Did You KnowExcel has an option you can use to breakindividual cells into columns. The featureworks a lot like the Text Import Wizard. Youselect the cells you want to divide, and thenyou click Text to Columns on the Data tab. TheConvert Text to Columns Wizard opens. Use itto divide your cells into columns.11_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 203
    • @ Click the column head.# Click to select a data type or toskip column ( changes to ).Repeat Steps 12 and 13 asnecessary.$ Click Finish.IMPORT A TEXT FILEinto ExcelIf you are importing a delimited file, you tell Excelthe type of delimiters the file uses. You can specifymore than one delimiter. Some delimited file formatssurround text data with a text qualifier, such assingle or double quotes. The Text Import Wizardhas a Text Qualifier field. You can use it to specifywhether your data has a text qualifier, and if so,what that qualifier is.After you define the layout of your data, you mustdefine the data type contained in each column. Youhave three options: general, text, and date. Generalconverts numeric data to numbers, dates to dates,and everything else to text. If you have numeric datathat is text, use the text option to have Excel convertthe data to text. If you have dates, click the dateoption and specify the format you want to use.If there is a column you do not want to import, clickthe Do Not Import Column option.$$^^##@@%%&&The Import Data dialog boxappears.% Click to select where you want toput your data ( changes to ).Choose from Existing Worksheetor New Worksheet.^ Click the cell address or type arange if you selected ExistingWorksheet.& Click OK.20411_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 204
    • Excel imports thedata.You can format and analyze your data.205Chapter 9: Extend ExcelDid You Know?Text files created by other software applications maybe in one of many popular file formats. You canidentify the file format by the file extension. Fileswith a .csv extension are delimited with commas.Another popular extension is .txt. The exportingprogram usually delimits .txt files with tabs.Did You Know?You can export your Excel worksheet as a text file.Excel provides you with several formats from whichto choose, including .prn, .txt, .csv, .dif, and .slk. Toexport a worksheet as a text file, click the Officebutton, click Save As, and then click Other Formats.Choose the option you want in the Save as Typefield in the Save As dialog box.11_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 205
    • 1 Open the workbook in whichyou want to view Access data.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click From Access in the GetExternal Data group.IMPORT AN ACCESS DATABASEinto ExcelMany organizations use more than one applicationto manage data. Excel is an excellent choice formanaging, analyzing, and presenting numbers.Databases such as Access help you store, filter, andretrieve data in large quantities and of every type.By importing Access data into Excel, you can applyeasy-to-use data analysis techniques to complexAccess databases.Instead of using worksheets, in Access you mustorganize your information into data tables, each ofwhich stores information about one part of the entityof interest to you: customers, products, employees,transactions, and so on. To help keep track of thesetables in Access, you must create and assign uniqueidentifiers, called keys, to each table or have Accessautomatically assign keys to each customer, product,employee, transaction, and so on. Access uses thekeys to link tables to each other.Excel simplifies the use of Access data tables. Whenyou import a data table, you can select tables orcolumns of interest from multiple tables and displaythe results in a single worksheet.113355224466The Select Data Source dialogbox appears.4 Click here to select the folder inwhich your Access database islocated.5 Click your database.6 Click Open.20611_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 206
    • l The Select Table dialogbox appears.7 Click the table youwant to open.8 Click OK.l The Import Data dialogbox appears.9 Click to select how youwant to view your data( changes to ).@@!!88990077Choose from Table, PivotTable Report,or PivotChart and PivotTable Report.0 Click to select where you want to putyour data ( changes to ).Choose from Existing Worksheet or NewWorksheet.! Click the cell address or type a range ifyou selected Existing Worksheet.@ Click OK.Your data appears in Excel.207Chapter 9: Extend ExcelDid You Know?The Northwind database is a large databaseelaborated over many years and distributed withAccess on the Office CD. The database includesinformation about the products, customers,employees, and other attributes of a fictionalgourmet food store. To follow along with this taskor to experiment with importing and querying adatabase, you can install the Northwind database.Did You Know?You can apply the technique described in this taskto any database that has an ODBC (Open DatabaseConnectivity) driver, a standard interface. WithExcel, you can import databases such as Oracle orMicrosoft SQL Server, and desktop databases suchas Visual FoxPro.11_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 207
    • 1 Click the New Database Querybutton.Note: You must add the NewDatabase Query button to theQuick Access toolbar. See Task#95 to learn how to customize theQuick Access toolbar.The Choose Data Source dialogbox appears.2 Click the Databases tab.3 Click MS Access Database.4 Click OK.Query anACCESS DATABASEThe Query Wizard is part of Microsoft Query, aseparate application that comes with Microsoft Office.Microsoft Query is an application that makes it easyfor you to generate queries in Structured QueryLanguage (SQL), a standard in the corporate world.The Query Wizard provides a point-and-click interfacefor importing tables or selected columns intoMicrosoft Excel. Once you have selected the columnsor tables you want, you can filter and sort. TheQuery Wizard provides 16 filter criteria from whichyou can choose. In addition, you can create multiplefilters by using and and or.Use or when you want the wizard to select datathat meets either condition. For example, ask thewizard to select all dresses that are blue or have redbuttons. The wizard returns every blue dress andevery dress with red buttons. Alternatively, ask thewizard to select all dresses that are blue and havered buttons. The and selection criterion is morerestrictive. The wizard only returns items that meetboth selection criteria: blue dresses with red buttons.11447722336655The Select Database dialog boxappears.5 Click to locate the folder inwhich you stored your database.6 Click to select your database.7 Click OK.20811_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:16 PM Page 208
    • The Query Wizard —Choose Columns pageappears.8 Click the table and/orfields you want toimport.9 Click the Add button.If you want to openmore than one tableor field repeat Steps 8and 9.0 Click Next.##88!!99@@00$$The Query Wizard — Filter Data pageappears.! Click the column by which you want tofilter.@ Click here and select a comparisonoperator.# Click here and select the criterion bywhich you want to filter.l You can apply additional filters.$ Click Next.209Chapter 9: Extend ExcelImportant!In this task, you click the New Database Querybutton ( ) to access the Choose DataSource dialog box. The task assumes you haveinstalled the New Database Query button onthe Quick Access toolbar. See Task #95 tolearn how to add commands to the QuickAccess toolbar.Did You Know?You use the Choose Data Source dialog boxto import an Access database. To open theChoose Data Source dialog box, place theNew Database Query button on the QuickAccess toolbar or click the Data tab, click FromOther Sources, and then click From MicrosoftQuery.11_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:17 PM Page 209
    • The Query Wizard — Sort Orderpage appears.% Click here and select the columnby which you want to sort yourdata.^ Click Ascending or Descendingto choose a sort order( changes to ).l Optionally, you can addadditional sort criteria.& Click Next.Query anACCESS DATABASEWith the Query Wizard, you can also create sortswithin sorts. For example, you can alphabetize alist of states, counties, and towns as follows: firstin alphabetical order by state, then in alphabeticalorder by county, and finally in alphabetical orderby town.After importing the data into Excel, you can useExcel’s tools to further sort and filter. You can gobeyond the wizard and directly manipulate theAccess tables from which your query is drawn.On the final page of the wizard, click View Data orEdit Query in Microsoft Query and then click Finishfor a graphical view of the underlying data tables.You can work directly with criteria fields, add tables,and connect tables by shared fields. You can alsorun and view queries.When you finish creating your query, you can saveyour query. Saved queries become available in Excelfor viewing, analysis, charting, and so on. To learnhow to run a saved query, see Task #91.%%**^^&&((The Query Wizard — Finish pageappears.* Click Return Data to MicrosoftOffice Excel.l Click View Data or Edit Query inMicrosoft Query and then Finishfor a graphical view of theunderlying data tables.l Click here to save your query.( Click Finish.21011_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:17 PM Page 210
    • The Import Datadialog box appears.) Click to selecthow you want toview your data( changes to ).Choose from Table,PivotTable Report,or PivotChart andPivotTable Report.))qqeewwq Click to select where you want to placeyour data ( changes to ).Choose from Existing Worksheet or NewWorksheet.w Click the cell address or type the cellrange if you selected Existing Worksheet.e Click OK.Your Access data appears in Excel.211Chapter 9: Extend ExcelDid You Know?Filtering data improves performance when youwork with large databases. Using Microsoft Querycan speed up performance. If you work with largedatabases and want to apply numerous filters andsort orders, MS Query is worth learning.Did You Know?On the Finish page of the Query Wizard, if youclick View Data or Edit Query in Microsoft Query( changes to ) and then click Finish, Excelprovides a sophisticated interface you can use toedit your query. Click Help on the Microsoft Querymenu to learn how to use this function.11_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:17 PM Page 211
    • 1 Open your Excel worksheet.2 Click the Data tab.3 Click Existing Connections.Reuse aSAVED QUERYRunning a query has benefits beyond opening adatabase in Excel. For large databases, you can usefilters to restrict which rows and columns you view.By saving the query, you can quickly return to thequeried data, refresh the data, and perform allworksheet operations, such as applying functions,using PivotTables, and creating charts.Regardless of the data source, queries have a similarformat and you can reload them quickly. On the Datatab, you can click Properties to review query propertiesand change properties as needed.Refreshing updates the data so you can see anychanges made to the data in Access since the lastrefresh. To break your connection to the Accessdatabase, click the Data tab and then clickConnections. The Workbook Connections dialogbox appears. Click the name of your query and thenclick Remove.You can import queries into existing or newworksheets. After you import them, the worksheetslook like any other worksheet. Saving changes to theworkbook leaves the original query definitionuntouched, so that you can reuse the query later.1122334455The Existing Connections dialogbox appears.4 Click the name of your savedquery.5 Click Open.21211_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:17 PM Page 212
    • The Import Data dialogbox appears.6 Click to select how youwant to view your data( changes to ).Choose from Table,PivotTable, or PivotChartand PivotTable Report.7 Click to select where youwant to place your data( changes to ).66779988!!00Choose from Existing Worksheet or NewWorksheet.8 Click the cell address or type a range ifyou selected Existing Worksheet.9 Click OK.The results of your query appear in yourworksheet.0 Click the Data tab.! Click Refresh All.Excel refreshes your data.213Chapter 9: Extend ExcelDid You Know?You can add the Import External Data button ( )to the Quick Access toolbar. You can then click thebutton to open the Select Data Source dialog box.From the Select Data Source dialog box, click thename of a query you saved and then click Open.Excel opens your saved query. See Task #95 to learnhow to add items to the Quick Access toolbar.Did You Know?You can edit a saved query. Click the Data tab, clickFrom Other Sources, and then click From MicrosoftQuery. The Choose Data Source dialog box opens.Click the Queries tab, click your query name, andthen click Open. Your query is available for youto edit.11_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:17 PM Page 213
    • 1 Open an Access database.2 Click the External Data tab.3 Click Excel in the Import group.The Get External Data — ExcelSpreadsheet dialog box appears.4 Type the path to the file youwant to import.l Alternatively, click the Browsebutton and locate your file.5 Click OK.Import an Excel worksheetINTO ACCESSExcel tables enable you to take advantage of basicdatabase features like sorting and filtering withinExcel. By importing worksheets into Microsoft Access,you can better manage growing lists by takingadvantage of additional database features. As arelational database, Access offers the benefits ofintegrated wizard and design tools that enable you tobuild customized forms, queries, and reports. Anotherbenefit is size. Unlike a workbook, a database is, forpractical purposes, limited only by the amount ofavailable disk space.Before importing a worksheet into Access, you needto format it as a table. Your columns may haveheadings; however, you should try to eliminate blankcolumns, rows, and cells. Exported Excel lists shouldalso avoid repeating information. For example,instead of including a customer’s name and address inevery record of a transaction list, split the worksheetinto two lists: one with customer information and theother with transaction information. The two listsbecome, in Access, two tables linked by a key field.11662233554477The Import Spreadsheet Wizardappears.6 Click the worksheet you want toimport.7 Click Next.21411_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:17 PM Page 214
    • The next page of theImport SpreadsheetWizard appears.8 Click if your data doesnot have columnheadings ( changesto ).9 Click Next.8800!!99##The next page of the Import SpreadsheetWizard appears.0 Click to select a column heading.! Set the Field options for the column.@ Repeat Steps 10 and 11 for each column.# Click Next.215Chapter 9: Extend ExcelDid You Know?You cannot import more than 255 columns intoAccess because the maximum number of columnsan Access table supports is 255.Did You Know?When you export, every row in a column shouldhave the same data type. A column with more thanone data type can cause errors during the exportprocess. Access looks at a column’s first eight rowsto determine the column’s data type.11_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:17 PM Page 215
    • The next page of the ImportSpreadsheet Wizard appears.$ Click to select a primary keyoption ( changes to ).l If you choose to set your ownprimary key, click here and selecta field.% Click Next.Import an Excel worksheetINTO ACCESSEach record in an Access database must be unique. Aprimary key field is a field, such as a record number,that you use to ensure that a record is unique. Youcan have Access create primary key field values oryou can create your own. For example, if no twoemployees in your company have the same employeenumber, you can use employee number as a primarykey field. You keep Access data in multiple tables.You use key fields to link tables together.You can import into Access any single page of aworkbook or a named range. Use the ImportSpreadsheet Wizard to import Excel data. The wizardenables you to set several field options during theimport process. You can change field names and datatypes or you can choose not to import a field.You can index a field during the import process.An index speeds up the retrieval of information inAccess. You should always index primary key fields.Select the Yes (No Duplicates) Option in the Indexedfield. This option ensures that each primary key fieldentry is unique.$$%%^^&&The next page of the ImportSpreadsheet Wizard appears.^ Type a name for your table.& Click Finish.21611_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:17 PM Page 216
    • The next page ofthe Wizard appears.* Click Close.The ImportSpreadsheetWizard closes.((**( Double-click your table name.l Your worksheet appears in Access.217Chapter 9: Extend ExcelDid You Know?You can append Excel data to an existing Accesstable. On the first page of the Get External Data— Excel Spreadsheet Wizard, click Append a Copyof the Records to the Table ( changes to )and then select the table to which you want toappend.Did You Know?On the first page of the Get External Data — ExcelSpreadsheet Wizard, you can choose to link yourAccess data to Excel. If you link your data, anychanges you make to the Excel data are reflectedin Access. You can use Access to query the dataor create reports, but you cannot update yourdata in Access.11_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:17 PM Page 217
    • 1 Create a list in Excel.2 Save your document.3 Close your document.Using Excel withMAIL MERGEOffice applications have complementary benefits.Microsoft Word, for example, enables you to do justabout anything with words, while Excel provides amore structured environment for working primarilywith numbers. Word includes a Mail Merge featurewith which you can merge information from Excelinto Word documents of your own design. Use MailMerge to create mailing labels, form letters, printedenvelopes, directories, and other useful documents.Using Excel with Mail Merge has three major steps.First, create an Excel list consisting of addresses orother structured data. Second, access the list inWord. Third, use Mail Merge to integrate the list intoyour Word document.You can use Mail Merge with letters, name badges,CD labels, notebook tabs, business cards, and more.On the Mailings tab, click Start Mail Merge and selectan option. Word automatically formats the output tofit your purpose.After you import your Excel list into Word, you canuse the Edit Recipient List option to edit it.114477226655 4 Open your Word document.5 Click the Mailings tab.6 Click Select Recipients.A menu appears.7 Click Use Existing List.21811_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:17 PM Page 218
    • The Select Data Sourcedialog box appears.8 Click here and selectthe folder in which yousaved your Excel file.9 Click your file.0 Click Open.!!9988$$00@@ ##l The Select Table dialog box appears.! Click to select the worksheet that containsyour list.@ Click if your list does not have columnheadings ( changes to ).# Click OK.Excel imports your Excel list.$ Click Edit Recipient List.l The Mail Merge Recipients dialog boxappears.Your list is ready to use in a mail merge.219Chapter 9: Extend ExcelDid You Know?When creating an Excel list for mail-mergepurposes, begin by identifying your data needs.For name badges, for example, you might notneed address information, but you might need anew column called Affiliation. For shipping labels,you might need a customer ID number inaddition to address information. For multipletasks, you can use existing lists as templates tocreate new ones.Did You Know?The Mail Merge Recipients dialog box displaysall the data in your list. You can use it to select,sort, and filter your list before you perform yourmail merge. You can also use it to find duplicatesin your list or to find a particular recipient.11_126745 ch09.qxp 6/5/07 7:17 PM Page 219
    • Customize ExcelExcel has a large number of integratedfeatures you can customize and adapt to suityour purposes. This chapter introduces a fewimportant ways in which you can customizeExcel.One simple way is to install additional features,called add-ins. This chapter shows you how toinstall the add-ins included with Excel and howto find add-ins available from third-partydevelopers.You also learn to tailor Excel by placing itemson the Quick Access toolbar. Items on theQuick Access toolbar are independent of thetabs in the Ribbon and you can access themwith a single click. You can add many optionsthat are not available in the Ribbon to Excelvia the Quick Access toolbar.When working with large worksheets, you canopen multiple windows to view different partsof a worksheet at the same time. This chapterteaches you how. You also learn to createcustom views. If you filter data, hide columnsor rows, or create special print settings, youcan save your changes in a custom view andrecall them when you need them. Another taskshows you how to create custom numberformats for use in a workbook.The task on macros introduces an enormoustopic, which more than any other task enablesyou to extend and customize Excel. After youlearn how to create a macro, you learn how toassign a macro to a button and how to add thebutton to the Quick Access toolbar.12_126745 ch10.qxp 6/5/07 7:18 PM Page 220
    • Add Features by Installing Add-Ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222Customize the Quick Access Toolbar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224Work with Multiple Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226Save Time by Creating a Custom View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227Create a Custom Number Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228Automate Your Worksheet with Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230Add a Button to Run a Macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23212_126745 ch10.qxp 6/5/07 7:18 PM Page 221
    • 1 Click the Office button.A menu appears.2 Click Excel Options.Add features byINSTALLING ADD-INSInstalling add-ins gives you additional Excel featuresnot available in the Ribbon by default. An add-in issoftware that adds one or more features to Excel.Bundled add-in software is included with Excel but notautomatically installed when you install Excel. BundledExcel add-ins include the Lookup and Conditional SumWizards, both of which simplify complex functions. TheEuro Currency Tools add-in enables you to calculateexchange rates between the Euro and othercurrencies. Task #s 56 and 66 introduce two of thestatistical add-ins in the Analysis Toolpak.You install the bundled add-ins by using the ExcelOptions dialog box. Once installed, the add-in isavailable right away.In addition, you can take advantage of third-partyadd-ins. This type of software adds functionality insupport of advanced work in chemistry, risk analysis,modeling, project management, statistics, and otherfields. Third-party add-ins usually have their owninstallation and usage procedures. Consult thedeveloper of these programs for documentation.4455112233The Excel Options dialog boxappears.3 Click Add-Ins.l The View and manage MicrosoftOffice add-ins screen appears.4 Click an add-in.The example uses the AnalysisToolpak.5 Click Go.22212_126745 ch10.qxp 6/5/07 7:18 PM Page 222
    • The Add-Ins dialogbox appears andprovides access toseveral options.6 Click to select an add-in( changes to ).7 Click OK.776688 8 Click the Data tab.l Excel places the Data Analysis Toolpak onthe Data tab.l Excel places many other add-ins on theAdd-Ins tab.223Chapter 10: Customize ExcelRemove It!Removing an add-in is easy. Click the Officebutton, click Excel Options, click Add-ins, click theadd-in you want to remove, and then click Go.The Add-Ins dialog box appears. Click to deselectthe add-in you want to remove ( changesto ) and then click OK. Excel removes theadd-in.Did You Know?To learn about special-purpose Excel add-ins inyour field, you can perform a Google search bygoing to www.google.com. Your search termsshould include Excel, the field of knowledge — forexample, chemistry — and other information youmight have, such as vendor name. Third-partyvendors are responsible for supporting their ownproducts.12_126745 ch10.qxp 6/5/07 7:18 PM Page 223
    • ADD A FEATURE TO THE QUICK ACCESSTOOLBAR1 Click here and select MoreCommands.Customize theQUICK ACCESS TOOLBARYou can add features you frequently use to the ExcelQuick Access toolbar. The Quick Access toolbarenables you to access commands with a single click.Right-clicking a Ribbon command provides you witha way to add commands in the Ribbon to the QuickAccess toolbar easily.You can also add features that are not in the Ribbonto the Quick Access toolbar by accessing theCustomize Quick Access Toolbar screen and clickingthe commands you want to add. Excel divides thecommands into categories to make it easier for youto find the command you want. You can specifywhether the command should appear on the toolbarof all Excel workbooks or only on the Quick Accesstoolbar in the workbook you specify. By default, thebutton will appear in all workbooks. Task #s 8, 20,36, 77, and 90 demonstrate features you must addto the Quick Access toolbar before you can use them.The Quick Access toolbar can appear above or belowthe Ribbon.11115533224466224The Excel Options dialog boxopens to the Customize theQuick Access Toolbar screen.2 Click here and select acommand category.3 Click here and select the scopeof the addition.Click For All Documents if youwant to add the command tothe Quick Access toolbar inevery document.Click the document name if youonly want to apply the option tothe current document.4 Click the command you want toadd to the Quick Accesstoolbar.5 Click Add.l The item moves to the list boxon the right.6 Click OK.12_126745 ch10.qxp 6/5/07 7:18 PM Page 224
    • l Excel places the optionon the Quick Accesstoolbar.Click the option touse it.Note: This example usesNew Database Query.See Task #90 to learnmore about using theNew Database Querybutton.MOVE THE QUICK ACCESSTOOLBAR BELOW THE RIBBON1 Right-click the addedoption.A menu appears.11222 Click Show Quick Access Toolbar Belowthe Ribbon.l Excel places the Quick Access toolbarbelow the Ribbon.225Chapter 10: Customize ExcelDid You Know?You should review all of the options listed underCommands Not in the Ribbon. This is particularly trueif you have used a previous version of Excel. If certaincommands from previous versions are not in theRibbon, you may find them listed under CommandsNot in the Ribbon. For example, in previous versionsyou could format your documents quickly by usingAutoFormat. Excel 2007 uses styles, but you can stillaccess AutoFormat via Commands Not in the Ribbon.Did You Know?You can restore the Quick Access toolbar to thedefault setting by clicking the Reset button in theCustomize the Quick Access Toolbar dialog box.12_126745 ch10.qxp 6/5/07 7:18 PM Page 225
    • 226Work withMULTIPLE WINDOWSWhen a worksheet contains a large amount ofdata, you cannot see all of it at the same time.Excel enables you to open additional copies ofthe worksheet, each in its own window, so youcan view them simultaneously yet manipulatethem independently. You can view theworksheets side by side, stacked, tiled, orcascaded. The zoom settings control how muchof a worksheet appears on your screen.116622334455771 Click the View tab.2 Click New Window.l Excel creates a new window.Note: Excel opens a copy of yourworksheet in a new window. Thecopy may be directly on top of theold window so you may not beable to discern that it is there.3 Click Arrange All.l The Arrange Windows dialogbox appears.4 Click an option ( changesto ).Note: Horizontal places thewindows on top of each other.Vertical places the windows sideby side. Tiled places the windowsin columns and rows. Cascadeplaces the windows on top of eachother with the Title bar for eachwindow displayed.5 Click OK.Excel displays all open windows.6 Click a window to activate it.You can navigate around eachwindow independent of theother window.7 Drag to adjust the zoom.l Excel resizes the contents of thewindow.Did You Know?If you have a large worksheet and want to view differentparts of the worksheet at the same time, you can splitthe worksheet. Click the View tab and then click theSplit button ( ). Excel splits the worksheet into fourparts. To remove a splitter, drag the splitter off thescreen or click the Split button again.12_126745 ch10.qxp 6/5/07 7:18 PM Page 226
    • Save time by creatingA CUSTOM VIEWAfter you create a worksheet, you maywant to filter your data, hide columns orrows, or create special print settings. Forexample, you may want to keepinformation on every quarter of a year ina single worksheet but be able to presentone quarter at a time. You can filter yourdata, hide columns, set print settings,and save these settings by creating acustom view. You can then recall theview whenever you need it.55661133224477881 Hide rows or columns in yourworksheet.Missing letters or numbersindicate hidden columns orrows.2 Set your print settings by usingthe Page Layout tab.3 Click the View tab.4 Click Custom Views.l The Custom Views dialog boxappears.5 Click Add.l The Add View dialog boxappears.6 Type a name for the view.7 Click to include Print settingsand/or Hidden rows, columns,and filter settings ( changesto ).8 Click OK.l Excel adds the view.To use the view, open theworkbook, click View, CustomViews, click the name of thesaved view, and then click Show.227Chapter 10Did You Know?To hide columns or rows, select the columns or rows you wantto hide. Click the Home tab and then click Format in the Cellsgroup. A menu appears. Click Hide and Unhide. Another menuappears. Click to choose from Hide Rows or Hide Columns.When you want to display your columns or rows again, clickand drag to select the columns or rows on both sides of thehidden cells; then on the Home tab choose Format, Hide &Unhide, Unhide Columns or Unhide Rows.12_126745 ch10.qxp 6/5/07 7:18 PM Page 227
    • 1 Click the Home tab.2 Click the Number grouplauncher.Create aCUSTOM NUMBER FORMATExcel provides many formats for presenting numbers,dates, times, currencies, and other types of informationinvolving numerals. You can use these formats or youcan create custom formats for specific purposes. Forexample, you may want to include the letters SSNbefore Social Security numbers or include an area codein parentheses before a telephone number.Creating formats requires you to use number codes.Common codes include 0 or # to stand for any digit.Use 0 if you want Excel to enter a 0 when the userdoes not type another number. Use # when you onlywant the digit typed to appear. To represent a SocialSecurity number, use the code 000-00-0000. For aphone number with area code, type (000) 000-0000.When using one of these examples, type numbersinto the cell with the custom format; Excel adds thedashes and parentheses automatically. To code text,simply place the text in quotes: for example, “SSN”000-00-0000.556622113344The Format Cells dialog boxappears.3 Click the Number tab.4 Click a category with formatssimilar to the one you want tocreate.5 Click a format type similar to theone you want to create.6 Click Custom.22812_126745 ch10.qxp 6/5/07 7:18 PM Page 228
    • l The Type box appearsin the dialog box.7 Type the appropriatecodes to represent yourformat.Use a period (.) for adecimal point and acomma (,) to separatethousands.Note: See Excel Help fora complete guide tocodes.8 Click OK.77@@!!8899##l Your format now appears at the bottom ofthe list of Custom format types.9 To apply the format, select one or morecells.0 Repeat Steps 1 and 2 to reopen theFormat Cells dialog box.! Click Custom.@ Click your custom format.# Click OK.l Excel applies the custom format to thecells you selected.229Chapter 10: Customize ExcelDid You Know?To use a custom format in another workbook,copy a formatted cell from the workbook withthe format and paste it into the workbookwithout the format. The format then becomesavailable in the Format Cells dialog box.Caution!Excel correctly applies custom number formats aslong as you type the correct number of digits. Forexample, for the format ##-##, if you type toomany digits, Excel correctly places the twonumbers starting from the right but incorrectlyformats the excess digits on the left.12_126745 ch10.qxp 6/5/07 7:18 PM Page 229
    • 1 Click to select a cell.2 Click the Record Macro button.Automate your worksheet withMACROSA macro enables you to automate a common task,such as entering a series of dates or formatting acolumn of numbers. You create a macro by recordingeach step of the task and then assigning all of thesteps to a keyboard shortcut. Pressing the assignedkeyboard shortcut replays the steps.You can use the Store macro in field of the RecordMacro dialog box to define the scope of your macro.If you choose Personal Macro Workbook, Excel storesyour macro in a workbook named Personal.xlsb andmakes your macro available to you whenever youuse Excel.To run a macro, you can use the shortcut youassigned to the macro before you recorded it, or youcan choose a button, place it on the Quick Accesstoolbar, and then click the button to run the macro.To find out how to place a button you can use to runa macro on the Quick Access toolbar, see Task #100.When you save a workbook that contains a macro youmust save it as an Excel Macro-Enabled Workbook.22554411336677230l The Record Macro dialog boxappears.3 Type a name for the macro.4 Type a letter to assign akeyboard shortcut.You can press and hold Shift anda letter to assign a capitalizedshortcut.5 Click here and select the scope.Select This Workbook to makeyour macro available to theactive workbook only.Select New Workbook to placethe macro in a new workbook.Select Personal Macro Workbookto make the macro available toall workbooks.6 Type a description.7 Click OK.12_126745 ch10.qxp 6/5/07 7:18 PM Page 230
    • Excel starts recordingevery keystroke andcommand.You can record anyset of keystrokes. Thisexample creates amoney format.8 Click the NumberGroup launcher.9 Click a formattingcategory.0 Type the number ofdecimal places.! Click here and select asymbol.@ Click OK.8800!!##99@@# Click Stop Recording.You can now apply the macro anywherein the workbook by selecting the cells youwant to format and typing the keyboardshortcut you chose in Step 4.231Chapter 10: Customize ExcelDid You Know?By default, you can find the Macro Recording buttonon the status bar. You decide what options display onthe status bar by right-clicking the bar and displayingthe Customize Status Bar menu. When working withmacros, make sure you select Macro Recording andMacro Playback from the menu.Did You Know?Macros are limited in the kinds of tasks they automate.If you have programming experience or aptitude, youcan edit and enormously extend Excel macros by usingthe Visual Basic Editor, available by pressing Alt+F11.12_126745 ch10.qxp 6/5/07 7:18 PM Page 231
    • 1 Open a workbook containingmacros you created.Note: See Task #99 for more oncreating macros.2 Click here and select MoreCommands.Add a button toRUN A MACROYou can create a button to run your macro. For acommon task such as applying a format, a button canspeed up your work and spare you the annoyance ofrepeatedly opening a dialog box and making the sameselections.To assign a macro to a button, you must first createthe macro, as explained in Task #99. Then youchoose a button to represent the macro and movethe button to the Quick Access toolbar. Once thebutton is on the Quick Access toolbar, simply clickthe button to run the macro.As an alternative to running your macro with abutton, press Alt+F8 to open the Macro dialog box.Click the macro name and then click the Run button.To change the shortcut key, while in the Macrodialog box, click Options. The Macro Options dialogbox appears. Type a new shortcut key. You can alsouse the Macro dialog box to delete your macro byclicking the macro and then clicking the Deletebutton.22 11667722335544The Excel Options dialog boxappears.3 Click here and select Macros.4 Click here and select the name ofyour workbook.Excel precedes the name withthe word “For.”5 Click the macro you want to addto the Quick Access toolbar.6 Click Add.l Excel moves the macro to thebox on the right.7 Click Modify.23212_126745 ch10.qxp 6/5/07 7:18 PM Page 232
    • l The ModifyButton dialogbox appears.8 Click a button.9 Click OK toclose theModify Buttondialog box.0 Click OK to close theExcel Options dialogbox.!!889900l The button appears on the Quick Accesstoolbar.! Click the button to run the macro.233Chapter 10: Customize ExcelDid You Know?You can assign a macro to a graphic. Start byplacing the graphic in your worksheet. Right-clickthe graphic and a menu appears. Click AssignMacro. The Assign Macro dialog box appears. Clickthe macro you want to assign to the graphic andthen click OK. Now all you have to do is click thegraphic to run the macro.Did You Know?The Developer tab contains the tools you can useto create macros. To view the Developer tab, clickthe Office button, click Excel Options, click Popular,and then click Show Developer tab in the Ribbon.When you return to Excel, you can access theDeveloper tab.12_126745 ch10.qxp 6/5/07 7:18 PM Page 233
    • Index234Symbols and Numbers##### (pound signs), error messages, 49, 55{ } (curly braces), in arrays, 413-D charts, 136, 138–1393-D text, rotating, 168–169AAccess databasesappending data to, 217editing queries, 210editing saved queries, 213exporting to, 214–217importing from, 206–207keys, 206–207, 216–217linking to Excel, 217maximum table size, 215Microsoft Query, 208Northwind, 207primary keys, 216–217Query Wizard, 208–211querying, 208–211reusing saved queries, 212–213saving queries, 210SQL (Structured Query Language), 208Accounting format, 154–155adding. See creatingadd-ins, 127, 222–223addition. See calculations; formulas; functionsAdvanced Filter dialog box, 94–95Align Left button, 161Align Right button, 161aligninggraphics, 172–173numbers in cells, 158–159text boxes in worksheets, 168–169text in cells, 160–161Allow Users to Edit Ranges dialog box, 181Analysis Toolpak, 127analyzing dataSee also Access databasesSee also PivotChartsSee also PivotTablesSee also statistical functionsSee also tablesgoal seeking, 130–131named cells, 129scenarios, 128–129what-if analysis, 128–129annotations. See comments; linking Excel to, Word; text boxesarea charts, 140–141arithmetic. See calculations; formulas; functionsarrows, 166–167ascending versus descending order, 86–87audio options, 19AutoFill, 8–9, 20–21AutoFill Options button, 9, 21automationaverage calculation, 25filling a data series. See AutoFillformula entry, 25macros, 230–233number count, 25sum of values, 25AutoSum, 24–25. See also formulas; Function Wizard; functionsAVERAGE (mean) function, 125averagesautomatic calculation, 25calculating, 45in databases, 101axis labelsdefinition, 134displaying, 138–139rotating, 151axis values, displaying, 138–139Bbackground images, 174–175backward compatibility, 185bar charts, 140–141bevels, text, 168–169bins, chart, 148–149blank cellsskipping when copying, 65in tables, 104blank lines between PivotTable groups, 115blank rows and columns in PivotTables, 111bold text, 167Border button, 159borderscells, 158–159photographs, 170–171Bottom Align button, 161bottom N values, 39, 93brightness, photographs, 170–171Bring to Front option, 173Ccalculated fields, 118–119calculationsSee also AutoSumSee also formulasSee also Function WizardSee also functionsdate and time, 48–49, 50–51goal seeking, 35loanscalculators, 34–35IRR (internal rate of return) function, 36–37NPV (net present value) function, 37PMT (payment) function, 34–35products, 46–47square roots, 46–47symbols and special characters in, 1113_126745 bindex.qxp 6/5/07 7:19 PM Page 234
    • calculators, 34–35, 44–45Camera button, 177case sensitivity, sorting, 89cells. See also columns; rowsaligning data, 158–159borders, 158–159breaking into columns, 201colorassigning, 90, 158–159sorting, 90–91font color, assigning, 90formattingborders, 158–159centering text across, 160–161clearing formats, 163color, 158–159data alignment, 158–159, 160–161merging, 160–161number formats, 158–159text orientation, 160–161wrapping text, 160–161groups of. See rangesmonitoring values of, 57naming. See naming, cells/rangeswidth adjustment, 155Center button, 160–161centering text across cells, 160–161charts. See also PivotChartsaxis labelsdefinition, 134displaying, 138–139rotating, 151axis values, displaying, 138–139background images, 174–175bins, 148–149confidence levels, 147creating in Excel, 134–135creating in PowerPoint, 195data, adding/deleting, 144–145data labels, 139data tables, 134, 139details, adding, 136–139dynamic update, 144editing, 137error bars, 146–147estimate of error, 146–147exponential trendlines, 142fill, color and style, 137filtered data, 98–99forecasting values, 140–141, 143. See also trendlines; trendsgridlines, 138–139horizontal text, 151legends, 134, 139linear trendlines, 142logarithmic trendlines, 142modifying, 136–139moving, 99, 136moving average trendlines, 142perspective, 136pictures, 139polynomial trendlines, 142readability, 138–139resizing, 139, 151R-squared statistic, 142shapes, 139standard deviation, 146–147text boxes, 1393-D, 136, 138–139titles, 134, 139trendlines, 142–143, 147trends, 98–99, 140–141typesarea, 140–141bar, 140–141changing, 140–141column, 140–141combination, 141, 150–151default, 135histograms, 148–149line, 140–141list of, 134pie, 140–141vertical text, 151checking data. See validating dataChoose Data Source dialog box, 209clearingcell formats, 163formats, 15PivotChart filters, 123print area, 187clip art, 171, 197. See also picturesClipboard, 62–63, 65Clipboard Task Pane, suppressing, 63colorcells, 158–159chart fills, 137diagonal bands, 162–163diagonal color bands, 162–163fills, 137, 162–163fonts, 90gradients, 162–163highlighting, 73, 74–75horizontal color bands, 162–163photographs, 170–171sorting, 90–91two-color effects. See gradient fillsvertical color bands, 162–163columnsPivotTableshiding, 120organizing, 112–113tables, adding, 107worksheets. See also cells; rowscharts, 140–141context menu, 13converting to rows, 60–61grouping, 12–13groups of. See rangesheadings, printing, 189hiding, 12–13, 227outlining, 12–13text boxes, 169width adjustment, 64–65combination charts, 141, 150–15123513_126745 bindex.qxp 6/5/07 7:19 PM Page 235
    • Index236comma delimited (CSV) format, 184Commands Not in the Ribbon, 225comments, 16–17, 197. See also linking Excel to, Word; text boxescompact PivotTable form, 114Compatibility Pack, 185compatibility with older workbooks, 185complex filters, 92–93complex sorts, 88–89conditionalformatting, sorting, 90–91formulas, 40–41highlighting, 72–73item counting, 43sums, 42–43conditional formulas (IF) function, 40–41. See also COUNTIF; SUMIFconditional item count (COUNTIF) function, 43. See also COUNT; IFConditional Sum Wizard, 43conditional sums (SUMIF) function, 42–43. See also SUMconfidence levels, in charts, 147constantscreating, 28–29in formulas, 30–31contrast, photographs, 170–171Copy as Picture feature, 176–177copy command (Ctrl+C), 65copyingcells, 66–67datato Clipboard, 62–63between workbooks, 78–79within worksheets, 64–65formats, 66–67, 69graphics to Clipboard, 65image properties, 165Paste Special, 64–65ranges between worksheets, 63ranges within worksheets, 64–65skipping blank cells, 65sort levels, 89styleswith Format Painter, 69between workbooks, 70–71values, 66–67CORREL (correlation) function, 126–127Correlation tool, 127correlation versus causation, 126–127COUNT (count) function, 125. See also COUNTIFCOUNTIF (conditional item count) function, 43. See also COUNT; IFcounting itemsautomatic, 25conditionally, 43COUNT function, 125COUNTIF function, 43DCOUNT function, 100–101filtered records, 100–101creatingcharts, 134–135comments, 16–17headings, PivotTables, 114–115PivotCharts, 122–123PivotTables, 112–113styles, 68–69validation lists, 4–5cropping photographs, 170–171CSV (comma delimited) format, 184.csv file extension, 205curly braces ({ }), in arrays, 41Currency format, 154–155Custom List dialog box, 20–21cut command (Ctrl+X), 65Ddataalignment, 158–159, 160–161analysis. See analyzing dataentryerror messages, 6–7with forms, 82–83restricting. See validating datarules for, 6–7validating. See validating datalabels, in charts, 139tables, in charts, 134, 139validating. See validating datavalues, reusing. See constantsdata bars, 73, 74–75data lookup functions, 102–103Data Validation dialog box, 4–5database functions, 100–101databases. See Access databases; PivotTables; tablesdate and timecalculations on, 48–49, 50–51entering, 51entering in series. See AutoFillformatting, 49, 51, 154–155negative values, 49, 51prior to January 1, 1900, 50as serial values, 48, 49sorting, 88workdays between two dates, 50–51DAVERAGE (database averages) function, 101days of the week, entering in series. See AutoFill; date and timeDCOUNT (counting items) function, 100–101debugging formulas, 56–57decimal places, setting, 157Decrease Font Size button, 159deletingchart data, 144–145duplicate records, 85filters, PivotChart, 123headings, PivotTables, 119PivotTables, 111sort levels, 89validation lists, 5dependents, formulas, 56–57diagonal color bands, 162–163dialog boxes. See specific dialog boxes.dif file extension, 205#DIV/0 (divide by zero) error messages, 5513_126745 bindex.qxp 6/5/07 7:19 PM Page 236
    • 237division. See calculations; formulas; functionsdrilling down in PivotTables, 120DSUM (database sums) function, 101duplicate records, 84–85dynamic updatecharts, 144PivotCharts, 123PivotTables, 115, 123EEdit Data Source dialog box, 144–145editingcharts, 137data, with forms, 83database queries, 210pictures of worksheets, 176–177saved database queries, 213tracking edits, 76–77embedding worksheets, 194–195error bars, charts, 146–147error messages##### (pound signs), 49, 55data validation, 6–7#DIV/0 (divide by zero), 55#N/A (value not available), 55#VALUE (wrong argument or operand), 55estimate of error, in charts, 146–147Evaluate Formula dialog box, 54–55Excel 2007, backward compatibility, 185exponential trendlines, 142exponentiation (POWER) function, 47exporting data to Access, 214–217extending a series. See AutoFillFFill Color button, 159filling a data series. See AutoFillfills, 137, 162–163filtering. See also hidingascending versus descending order, 87charting filtered data, 98–99complex filters, 92–93counting filtered records, 100–101duplicate records, 84–85lists, 92–93by multiple criteria, 94–95options for, 87PivotCharts, 123PivotTables, 112–113simple filters, 86–87top or bottom N values, 93Find and Replace dialog box, 14–15findingdata, with forms, 83functions, 33and replacing, formats, 14–15flowcharts, 166–167Font Color button, 159fontsbase for, 11color, sorting, 90–91non-English, 11nonstandard characters. See special characters; symbolssize, changing, 159, 168–169text boxes in worksheets, 168–169Unicode, 11forecasting values, 140–141, 143foreign letters. See special characters; symbolsFormat Cells dialog box, 154–155, 158–159Format Painter, 164–165formats, worksheetsAccounting, 154–155Align Left button, 161Align Right button, 161Border button, 159Bottom Align button, 161cellsborders, 158–159centering text across, 160–161clearing formats, 163color, 158–159data alignment, 158–159, 160–161merging, 160–161number formats, 158–159text orientation, 160–161wrapping text, 160–161Center button, 160–161clearing, 15conditional. See highlightingcopying, 66–67, 69. See also Format PainterCurrency, 154–155date and time, 49, 51, 154–155decimal places, setting, 157Decrease Font Size button, 159Fill Color button, 159fills, 137, 162–163finding and replacing, 14–15Font Color button, 159font size, changing, 159General, 154–155Increase Font Size button, 159Merge and Center button, 160Middle Align button, 161named collections of. See stylesnegative numbers, 154Number, 154–155number codes, 228–229numbers, 154–155, 228–229Orientation button, 160PivotTables, 116–117tables, 106–107text boxes, 168–169Top Align button, 161Wrap Text button, 160forms, 82–83formula barexpanding/collapsing, 25hiding, 17513_126745 bindex.qxp 6/5/07 7:19 PM Page 237
    • Index238formulas. See also Function Wizard; functionsautomatic entry, 25AutoSum, 24–25conditional, 40–41copying and pasting, 66debugging, 56–57dependents, 56–57entering, 24–25graphical representation of, 56–57identifying cell used by, 56–57monitoring cell values, 57named constants, 30–31named ranges and cells, 26naming, 31nesting, 54numbers as text, 58–59precedents, 56–57results, copying and pasting, 66special characters in, 10symbols in, 10syntax, 24tracing, 56–57validating, 54–55FREQUENCY (frequency) function, 149Function Wizard, 32–33. See also formulas; functionsfunctions. See also formulas; Function WizardCOUNTIF (conditional item count), 43finding, 33FREQUENCY (frequency), 149GROWTH (growth), 143help for, 33HLOOKUP (data lookup), 103IF (conditional formulas), 40–41IRR (internal rate of return), 36–37LARGE (Nth highest value), 38–39loan term calculation, 34–35MAX (highest value), 39MIN (lowest value), 39named constants, 30–31nesting, 55NETWORKDAY (workday calculation), 50NPV (net present value), 37PMT (payment), 34–35POWER (exponentiation), 47PRODUCT (multiplication), 46–47ROUND, versus round format, 33SMALL (Nth smallest value), 39SQRT (square roots), 46–47statistical. See statistical functionsSUMIF (conditional sums), 42–43TRANSPOSE (transpose rows and columns), 61TREND (trend), 143VLOOKUP (data lookup), 102–103GGeneral format, 154–155glows, text, 168–169goal seeking, 35, 130–131gradient fills, 162–163grand totals, PivotTables, 116–117graphical text, 169graphics. See picturesgraphs. See chartsgrayscale, photographs, 171gridlinesin charts, 138–139hiding, 175Group button, 173groupinggraphics, 173PivotTable data, 120rows and columns, 12–13GROWTH (growth) function, 143HheadingsPivotTableschanging, 119creating, 114–115deleting, 119worksheets, hiding, 175help forcalculators, 45functions, 33hiding. See also filteringcolumns, PivotTables, 120comments, 16formula bar, 175gridlines, 175headings, worksheets, 175rows and columns, PivotTables, 120rows and columns, worksheets, 12–13, 227Highlight Changes dialog box, 76–77highlightingcolor, 73, 74–75conditionally, 72–73data bars, 73, 74–75icon sets, 74–75tracking edits with, 76–77histograms, 148–149HLOOKUP (data lookup) function, 103horizontal color bands, 162–163horizontal text in charts, 151hyperlinks, 196–197, 217. See also linking Excel toIicon sets, 74–75icons, sorting, 90–91IF (conditional formulas) function, 40–41. See also COUNTIF; SUMIFimages. See picturesImport External Data button, 213Import Spreadsheet Wizard, 216–21713_126745 bindex.qxp 6/5/07 7:19 PM Page 238
    • 239importing dataAccess databases, 206–207data type definitions, 204–205text files, 202–205Word documents, 200–201Increase Font Size button, 159indenting text, 167Information Alert messages, 7input messages, 6–7IRR (internal rate of return) function, 36–37italic text, 167Kkeys, Access databases, 206–207, 216–217KURT (kurtosis) function, 125Llanguages, non-English, 11LARGE (Nth highest value) function, 38–39legends, 134, 139line charts, 140–141linear trendlines, 142lines (graphic), 166–167linking Excel to. See also hyperlinksAccess, 217PowerPoint, 192–193Word, 192–193lists. See also PivotTablescreating, 82–83database functions, 100–101filtering, 92–93loan calculationscalculators, 34–35IRR (internal rate of return) function, 36–37NPV (net present value) function, 37PMT (payment) function, 34–35locking worksheets, 180–181logarithmic trendlines, 142logos, 168–169looking up data, 103. See also Access databasesMMail Merge feature, 218–219mathematical functions, calculators, 44mathematical operations. See calculationsMAX (maximum value) function, 39, 125. See also LARGEMAX-MIN (range) function, 125mean (AVERAGE) function, 125MEDIAN (median) function, 125Merge and Center button, 160merging cells, 160–161Microsoft Query, 208Middle Align button, 161MIN (minimum) function, 39, 125. See also SMALLMODE (mode) function, 125months of the year, entering in series. See AutoFill; date and timemovingcharts, 99, 136comments, 17photographs, 170–171shapes, 166–167sort levels, 89text boxes in worksheets, 168–169moving average trendlines, 142multiplication. See calculations; formulas; functionsmultiplication (PRODUCT) function, 46–47N#N/A (value not available) error messages, 55Name Manager, 26–27, 29named cells, in scenarios, 129namingcells/ranges. See also constantsdeleting, 26, 29editing, 29in formulas, 26–27moving, 26name syntax, 26naming, 26–27renaming, 27, 29using, 30–31constants, 30–31database functions, 101formulas, 31graphics, 172–173styles, 71text boxes in worksheets, 172–173negative numbersdate and time, 49, 51formatting, 154nestingformulas, 54functions, 55outlines, 13sorts, 88–89NETWORKDAY (workday calculation) function, 50New Database Query button, 209New Name dialog box, 28–29non-English fonts, 11nonstandard characters. See special characters; symbolsNorthwind database, 207NPV (net present value) function, 37Nth highest value (LARGE) function, 38–39Nth smallest value (SMALL) function, 39Number format, 154–155number formatscells, 158–159custom, 228–229date and time, 154–155PivotTables, 116–11713_126745 bindex.qxp 6/5/07 7:19 PM Page 239
    • Index240numbersconverting from text, 58–59counting. See counting itemsdate and time. See date and timesequential, entering. See AutoFillsorting, 89as text, 58–59Oorientation, photographs, 170–171Orientation button, 160outline PivotTable form, 114outlines, 12–13, 97PPage Setup dialog box, 187passwords, 180–181paste command (Ctrl+V), 65paste link, 192–194Paste Specialadjusting column widths, 64–65calculations on ranges, 66copying cells, 66–67copying data, 64–65Paste Link option, 67synchronizing source and data, 67pattern analysis. See analyzing datapattern fills, 163payment (PMT) function, 34–35perspective in charts, 136picturesaligning, 172–173arranging, 172–173in charts, 139clip art, 171, 197copying properties, 165grouping, 173hyperlinks, 197naming, 172–173photographs, 170–171rotating, 172–173stacking order, 172–173worksheet background, 174–175of worksheets, 176–177pie charts, 140–141PivotCharts, 122–123. See also charts; PivotTablesPivotTablesSee also Access databasesSee also listsSee also PivotChartsSee also tablesblank lines between groups, 115blank rows and columns, 111button display, toggling, 120calculated fields, 118–119columnshiding, 120organizing, 112–113compact form, 114creating, 112–113customizing, 113data, 112–113data sourcechanging, 119viewing, 117deleting, 111description, 110drilling down, 120dynamic update, disabling, 115grand totals, 116–117grouping data, 120headingschanging, 119creating, 114–115deleting, 119layout, 112–115number formats, 116–117outline form, 114PivotChart dynamic update, 123rearranging labels, 113refreshing, 114–115report filters, 112–113rowshiding, 120organizing, 112–113sorting, 121subtotals, 116–117summary statistics, 116–117tabular form, 114PMT (payment) function, 34–35polynomial trendlines, 142pound signs (#####), error messages, 49, 55POWER (exponentiation) function, 47PowerPointcreating Excel charts in, 195embedding worksheets, 194–195linking to worksheets, 192–193precedents, 56–57predicting values, 140–141, 143previewing photographs, 170–171primary keys, 216–217printingbackground images, 174–175clearing print area, 187default print area, 188multiple worksheets, 188–189noncontiguous areas, 186–187Page Setup dialog box, 187row and column headings, 189.prn file extension, 205PRODUCT (multiplication) function, 46–47products, calculating, 46–47propertiescopying, 165finding and replacing, 14–15Protect Structure and Windows dialog box, 181protecting worksheets. See security13_126745 bindex.qxp 6/5/07 7:19 PM Page 240
    • 241QqueriesAccess databasesediting, 210querying Access, 208–211saved, editing, 213saved, reusing, 212–213saving, 210Web data, 198–199Query Wizard, 208–211Quick Access toolbar, 224–225Rrange (MAX-MIN) function, 125rangescopying between worksheets, 63copying within worksheets, 64–65definition, 26naming. See naming, cells/rangesreadability, charts, 138–139reading back data, 18–19rectangles, 166–167red triangle, 16reflectionsphotographs, 170–171text, 168–169refreshing PivotTables, 114–115removing. See deletingreplacing. See finding, and replacingreport filters, PivotTables, 112–113resizingcharts, 139, 151photographs, 170–171shapes, 166–167text boxes, 168–169restricting data entry. See validating datarotatingaxis labels, 151graphics, 172–173photographs, 170–171shapes, 166–167text, 167text boxes in worksheets, 168–1693-D charts, 136ROUND function versus round format, 33rowsPivotTableshiding, 120organizing, 112–113worksheets. See also cells; columnscontext menu, 13converting from columns, 60–61grouping, 12–13groups of. See rangesheadings, printing, 189hiding, 12–13, 227outlining, 12–13R-squared statistic, 142rules for data entry, 6–7Ssample variance (VAR) function, 125saving workbooks asalternate file formats, 184–185templates, 182–183text files, 205Scenario Manager, 128–129scenarios, 128–129scientific view, calculators, 44searching. See findingsecuritylocking worksheets, 180–181worksheet passwords, 180–181Send to Back option, 173sepia tones, photographs, 171shading fills, 162–163shadowsphotographs, 170–171text, 168–169shapescharts, 139worksheets, 166–167, 197sharing workbooks, 184–185shortcuts. See automationsimple filters, 86–87simple sorts, 86–87SKEW (skewness) function, 125.slk file extension, 205SMALL (Nth smallest value) function, 39snapshots of worksheets. See pictures, of worksheetsSort By Value dialog box, 121Sort dialog box, 88–89sortingascending versus descending order, 86–87case sensitivity, 89by cell color, 90–91complex sorts, 88–89by conditional formatting, 90–91copying sort levels, 89customized sorts, 20–21dates, 88default direction, 91deleting sort levels, 89by font color, 90–91by icon, 90–91moving sort levels, 89nesting sorts, 90numbers, 89PivotTables, 121simple sorts, 86–87within a sort, 88–89subtotaling sorted data, 96–97tables, 104text, 89sound options, 19Speak Cells buttons, 18–1913_126745 bindex.qxp 6/5/07 7:19 PM Page 241
    • Index242special characters, 10–11. See also symbolsspeech capability, 18–19spell check, 19spreadsheets. See workbooks; worksheetsSQL (Structured Query Language), 208SQRT (square roots) function, 46–47square roots, 46–47stacking order, 172–173standard deviation, in charts, 146–147standard deviation (STDEV) function, 125standard error (STEYX) function, 125statistical data, online sources for, 199statistical functionsadd-ins, 127Analysis Toolpak, 127AVERAGE (mean), 125calculators for, 44CORREL (correlation), 126–127Correlation tool, 127correlation versus causation, 126–127COUNT (count), 125KURT (kurtosis), 125MAX (maximum), 125MAX-MIN (range), 125MEDIAN (median), 125MIN (minimum), 125MODE (mode), 125overview, 124–125SKEW (skewness), 125STDEV (standard deviation), 125STEYX (standard error), 125SUM (sum), 125summary table of, 125VAR (sample variance), 125STDEV (standard deviation) function, 125STEYX (standard error) function, 125Stop Error Alert messages, 7Structured Query Language (SQL), 208Style gallery, 68–69styles. See also formatscopyingwith Format Painter, 69between workbooks, 70–71creating, 68–69naming, 71tables, 106–107subtotalsPivotTables, 116–117sorted data, 96–97subtraction. See calculations; formulas; functionsSUM (sum) function, 78–79, 125. See also SUMIFsum of valuesautomatic, 25SUM (sum) function, 78–79, 125SUMIF (conditional sums) function, 42–43SUMIF (conditional sums) function, 42–43. See also SUMsummary statistics, 116–117symbols. See also special charactersin calculations, 11currency, 10–11in formulas, 10non-English, 11Ttables. See also Access databases; PivotTablesadding columns to, 107blank cells, 104converting to/from cells, 104–105formatting, 106–107sorting, 104styles, 106–107transposing rows and columns, 60–61from Word documents, 200–201tabular PivotTable form, 114templates, 182–183textbevels, 168–169bold, 167centering across cells, 160–161changing fonts, 167chartshorizontal, 151text boxes, 139vertical, 151converting to numbers, 58–59glows, 168–169graphical, 169indenting, 167italics, 167orientation in cells, 160–161reflections, 168–169rotating, 167shadows, 168–169in shapes, 166–167sorting, 893-D rotations, 168–169transforms, 168–169underlining, 167wrapping, 160–161Text (Macintosh) format, 184Text (tab delimited) format, 184text boxesalignment, 168–169charts, 139column format, 169font size, changing, 168–169formatting, 168–169moving, 168–169naming, 172–173resizing, 168–169rotating, 168–169stacking order, 172–173Text Import Wizard, 202–2053-D charts, 136, 138–1393-D text, rotating, 168–169time. See date and timetitles, in charts, 134, 139Top Align button, 161top N values, 38–39, 93totalsPivotTables, 116–117sorted data, 96–97tracing formulas, 56–5713_126745 bindex.qxp 6/5/07 7:19 PM Page 242
    • 243tracking changes, 16, 76–77transforms, text, 168–169TRANSPOSE (transpose rows and columns) function, 61TREND (trend) function, 143trendlines, in charts, 142–143, 147trends, charting, 98–99, 140–141.txt file extension, 205Uunderlining text, 167Unicode, 11Vvalidating datadata entry rules, 6–7error messages, 6–7formulas, 54–55Information Alert messages, 7input messages, 6–7reading back data, 18–19spell check, 19Stop Error Alert messages, 7validation lists, 4–5Warning Alert messages, 7validation lists, 4–5#VALUE (wrong argument or operand) error messages, 55value not available (#N/A) error messages, 55values. See data; numbers; textVAR (sample variance) function, 125vertical color bands, 162–163vertical text in charts, 151VLOOKUP (data lookup) function, 102–103WWarning Alert messages, 7Watch Window, 57Web dataquery definitions, 199querying, 198–199state and municipal statistics, 199statistical data, 199U.S. federal statistics, 199what-if analysis, 128–129width adjustmentcells, 155columns, 64–65Word documentsembedding worksheets, 194–195as Excel comments, 197linking to worksheets, 192–193tables, copying into Excel, 200–201workbooks. See also worksheetsbackward compatibility, 185CSV (comma delimited) format, 184exporting to Access, 214–217file extension, 182hyperlinks, 196–197saving asalternate file formats, 184–185templates, 182–183text files, 205sharing, 184–185Text (Macintosh) format, 184Text (tab delimited) format, 184XML layout, displaying, 185workday calculation (NETWORKDAY) function, 50workdays between two dates, 50–51worksheets. See also workbooksbackground images, 174–175backward compatibility, 185consolidating, 78–79custom views, 227embedding in Word or PowerPoint, 194–195linking to Word or PowerPoint, 192–193locking, 180–181in multiple windows, 226–227passwords, 180–181paste link, 192–193splitting, 226–227Wrap Text button, 160wrapping text, 160–161wrong argument or operand (#VALUE) error messages, 55X.xls file extension, 184.xlsx file extension, 182XML layout, displaying, 18513_126745 bindex.qxp 6/5/07 7:19 PM Page 243
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