Grammar

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Grammar

  1. 1. ☆The project of grammar☆ ΩTense ΨDirect/indirect sentence §Active voice / passive voice ∮pronouns and relative clases φGerunds and infinitives Please choose a topic
  2. 2. Present Past Future ☆The project of grammar☆ ΩTense ΨDirect/indirect sentence §Active voice / passive voice ∮pronouns and relative clases φGerunds and infinitives
  3. 3. Active voice passive voice ☆The project of grammar☆ ΩTense ΨDirect/indirect sentence §Active voice / passive voice ∮pronouns and relative clases φGerunds and infinitives
  4. 4. Reported question Indirect sentence ☆The project of grammar☆ ΩTense ΨDirect/indirect sentence §Active voice / passive voice ∮pronouns and relative clases φGerunds and infinitives
  5. 5. who relative clauses which whose ☆The project of grammar☆ ΩTense ΨDirect/indirect sentence §Active voice / passive voice ∮pronouns and relative clases φGerunds and infinitives whom
  6. 6. gerunds inf. ☆The project of grammar☆ ΩTense ΨDirect/indirect sentence §Active voice / passive voice ∮pronouns and relative clases φGerunds and infinitives
  7. 7. Present now past future Simple present present continuous content
  8. 8. Past now past future Simple past Past continous present perfect continuous past perfect present perfect past perfect continuous content
  9. 9. Future now past future Simple Future Future continuous Future perfect Future perfect continuous content
  10. 10. Simple present present continuous now past future content uses examples Facts/truth The sun rise from the east. Habitual action We eat dinner at 7:00 everyday. Momentary action He wins the match. Talking about the future The TV programme starts at 8:00.
  11. 11. present continuous Simple present now past future content Uses Examples Description of actions happening now It’s raining Indicating change My father’s hair is falling out! Talking about temporary situation Jill’s working in hotel for the summer. Talking about the fiture What are you doing on Saturday?
  12. 12. now past future Simple past content Past Uses Examples Finished events(usually specific time) When i was young, I hated school. Repeated actions in the past Every day last week we had a Maths test
  13. 13. now past future Past continous content Past Uses Examples Temporanry actions in progress in the past It was raining yesterday morning. A simultaneous continuous action +when We were laughing when he saw us.
  14. 14. now past future present perfect content Past Uses Examples Recent past with indefinite adverbs of time It’s just started to rain. Past events without a specifictine I’ve been to China three times.
  15. 15. now past future past perfect content Past Uses Examples For the earlier of two past actions When I arrived, they ferry has gone. In reported speech Sally said she’d seen a ghost.
  16. 16. now past future past perfect continuous Past Uses Examples Describing an action in progress in the past befpre another action He had been waiting for an hour when i arrived.
  17. 17. now past future present perfect continuous content Past Uses Examples Continuous past action----finished or continuing They’ve been sitting down all day. I’ve been studying English for seven years.
  18. 18. Simple Future1 now past future future Uses Examples Making decisions/threats/promises I think I’ll go to bed now. Expressing opinions I know you’ll pass.
  19. 19. content Simple Future2 now past future future Uses Example Making offers, requests, suggesrions Will you meet me later? Stating intentions/plans/predicionas We’re going to have a picnic next week. She’s going to have a body.
  20. 20. content Future continuous now past future future Uses Examples Describing future events, plans or intentions This time tommorow we’ll be leaving. Expressing expectations Their plane will be landing soon.
  21. 21. Future perfect now past future future Uses Examples Talking about actions that we know will be completed by a certain time in the future Next year, I’ll have been in Hong Kong for ten years. Talking about actions that we think will be completed by a certain time in the future They will have arrived by now.
  22. 22. Future perfect continuous now past future future Uses Examples Talking about the duration of a continuous action or event up to a future point of time By the end of month, he will have beem working here for ten years.
  23. 23. Active voice Uses If we use the active voice, it is the person or thing that does an action that is important. Example Mr Tse coaches the football team. Notice In this sentice, we are talking about Mr Tse, so it is natural to use the active voice and say what he does.
  24. 24. passive voice Uses If we use the passive voice, the person or thing that does the action is not so important. Example The football team is coached by Mr Tse. Notice In this sentice, we are talking about the football team, so it is natural to use the passive voice. This sentence might be part of a longer paragraph where Mr Tse isn’t quite so important
  25. 25. Indirect sentence The point of forming indirect sentence 1.Use that to connect the stagement 2.Change pronouns 3.Change the tenses usually. (Look at the table ) 4.Sometime stay the tense as the reported stagement is always true or still true. 5.Tence is tayed also whaen the verb of speech is in the present tense. 6.infinitives stay the same.
  26. 26. Example please choose a column of a table Reported question Direct speech Indirect speech Simple present -> Simple past Present continuous -> Past continuous Simple past -> Past perfect Present perfect -> Past perfect/past Past countionous -> Past countinuous/ Past perfect countinous Past perfect -> Past perfect Will/ shall -> Would/ should Can/ may -> Could/ might Could/ ought to / might/ should/ would -> Could/ ought to. Might/ should/ would/ must -> Must/ had to
  27. 27. Example I like milk. Present tense Pronoun need to be change He said that he liked milk. Reported question Direct speech Indirect speech Simple present -> Simple past Present continuous -> Past continuous Simple past -> Past perfect Present perfect -> Past perfect/past Past countionous -> Past countinuous/ Past perfect countinous Past perfect -> Past perfect Will/ shall -> Would/ should Can/ may -> Could/ might Could/ ought to / might/ should/ would -> Could/ ought to. Might/ should/ would/ must -> Must/ had to
  28. 28. Example I’m listening. Change tense Present con. -> past con. Change pronoun He said that he was listening. Reported question Direct speech Indirect speech Simple present -> Simple past Present continuous -> Past continuous Simple past -> Past perfect Present perfect -> Past perfect/past Past countionous -> Past countinuous/ Past perfect countinous Past perfect -> Past perfect Will/ shall -> Would/ should Can/ may -> Could/ might Could/ ought to / might/ should/ would -> Could/ ought to. Might/ should/ would/ must -> Must/ had to
  29. 29. Example I didn’t do it. Change tense Simple past -> past perfect Change pronoun He said he hadn’t done it. Reported question Direct speech Indirect speech Simple present -> Simple past Present continuous -> Past continuous Simple past -> Past perfect Present perfect -> Past perfect/past Past countionous -> Past countinuous/ Past perfect countinous Past perfect -> Past perfect Will/ shall -> Would/ should Can/ may -> Could/ might Could/ ought to / might/ should/ would -> Could/ ought to. Might/ should/ would/ must -> Must/ had to
  30. 30. Example You’ve eaten my moon cake. Change pronoun Change tense Present perfect -> Past perfect He said that he had eaten his moon cake. Reported question Direct speech Indirect speech Simple present -> Simple past Present continuous -> Past continuous Simple past -> Past perfect Present perfect -> Past perfect/past Past countionous -> Past countinuous/ Past perfect countinous Past perfect -> Past perfect Will/ shall -> Would/ should Can/ may -> Could/ might Could/ ought to / might/ should/ would -> Could/ ought to. Might/ should/ would/ must -> Must/ had to
  31. 31. Example I was sleeping. Change pronoun Change tense Past con. -> past perfect con. He said that he had been sleeping Reported question Direct speech Indirect speech Simple present -> Simple past Present continuous -> Past continuous Simple past -> Past perfect Present perfect -> Past perfect/past Past countionous -> Past countinuous/ Past perfect countinous Past perfect -> Past perfect Will/ shall -> Would/ should Can/ may -> Could/ might Could/ ought to / might/ should/ would -> Could/ ought to. Might/ should/ would/ must -> Must/ had to
  32. 32. Example Change pronoun ‘ I hadn’t realised that he was only joking.’ Change tense Past & psdt perfect -> past perfect He said he hadn’t realised that he had only been joking. Reported question Direct speech Indirect speech Simple present -> Simple past Present continuous -> Past continuous Simple past -> Past perfect Present perfect -> Past perfect/past Past countionous -> Past countinuous/ Past perfect countinous Past perfect -> Past perfect Will/ shall -> Would/ should Can/ may -> Could/ might Could/ ought to / might/ should/ would -> Could/ ought to. Might/ should/ would/ must -> Must/ had to
  33. 33. Example I’ll find them Change pronoun Change tense will -> would He said that he would find them Reported question Direct speech Indirect speech Simple present -> Simple past Present continuous -> Past continuous Simple past -> Past perfect Present perfect -> Past perfect/past Past countionous -> Past countinuous/ Past perfect countinous Past perfect -> Past perfect Will/ shall -> Would/ should Can/ may -> Could/ might Could/ ought to / might/ should/ would -> Could/ ought to. Might/ should/ would/ must -> Must/ had to
  34. 34. Example Change pronoun I can’t hear you. Change tense can -> could He said that he couldn’t hear me. Reported question Direct speech Indirect speech Simple present -> Simple past Present continuous -> Past continuous Simple past -> Past perfect Present perfect -> Past perfect/past Past countionous -> Past countinuous/ Past perfect countinous Past perfect -> Past perfect Will/ shall -> Would/ should Can/ may -> Could/ might Could/ ought to / might/ should/ would -> Could/ ought to. Might/ should/ would/ must -> Must/ had to
  35. 35. Example ‘ You ought to go there.’ He said that I ought to go there. ‘ I would do if I could.’ She said that she would do it if she could. Change pronoun No change No change Change pronoun Reported question Direct speech Indirect speech Simple present -> Simple past Present continuous -> Past continuous Simple past -> Past perfect Present perfect -> Past perfect/past Past countionous -> Past countinuous/ Past perfect countinous Past perfect -> Past perfect Will/ shall -> Would/ should Can/ may -> Could/ might Could/ ought to / might/ should/ would -> Could/ ought to. Might/ should/ would/ must -> Must/ had to
  36. 36. Example ‘ You must do it.’ He said that I had to do it. Change pronoun No change Reported question Direct speech Indirect speech Simple present -> Simple past Present continuous -> Past continuous Simple past -> Past perfect Present perfect -> Past perfect/past Past countionous -> Past countinuous/ Past perfect countinous Past perfect -> Past perfect Will/ shall -> Would/ should Can/ may -> Could/ might Could/ ought to / might/ should/ would -> Could/ ought to. Might/ should/ would/ must -> Must/ had to
  37. 37. Reporting questions In reported question, you should remember that the question need to change into the sentence form that: The subject comes before the verb. Do is not used Question marks are not used If and whether are used with Yes/No questions that do not have a word likes who, how, where to introduce them. “ what are you drinking ?’ -> He asked what I was drinking . Change pronoun ‘ Have you finished your homework?’ -> He ask me if I finished my homework. Change tense Presene perfect -> past
  38. 38. relative clauses Relative clauses have two used: 1.join clauses together 2.except for whose, they act as the subjects or objects of clauses. Main relative pronouns Used Which Animal or thing Who People Whom People object whose To explain a people
  39. 39. which relative clauses Generally we use ‘which’ when we need to explain some animals or tings. example I’ve got the answer. You were looking for it. Same object =which I’ve got the answer which you were looking for.
  40. 40. who relative clauses We use ‘who’ for the explain or combine two sentence which talking about same subject as an person example The man is very generous. The man lives next to us. Talking about the same man = who The man who lives next to us is veru generous.
  41. 41. whom relative clauses The ‘whom’ is similiar to ‘who’ but ‘whom’ must used as a object. example He is a man. I like him. Object/people = Whom/who He is a man who/whom i like.
  42. 42. whose relative clauses Whose has two used: It joins claused together. It replaces his, her, its or their. example An orphan is a child. His parents have died. His ↓ whose An orphan is a child whose parents have died.
  43. 43. gerunds Gerunds is the –ing form which used as a noun. Gerunds can used as a subject or object. Gerunds can also have their own objects. Gerunds can used after preposition. e.g. Eating too much makes you fat. I don’t like reading . object subject Eating fried food makes you fat. I don’t like reading history books . object Undo your shoelaces before taking off your shoes. I look forward to meeting you.
  44. 44. inf. Sometime we can’t use gerund to followed some very but infinitive.There are some common verbs: They have agreed to get married next year. Don’t pretend to be something that you are not. Melanie promoised to keep the news a secret, but she didn’t. Afford Agree Appear Arrange Attempt Decide Fail Forget Hope Learn(how) Manage Offer Plab Retend Promoise Refuse Seem Tend Threaten

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