Measurement of aerosol size distribution, PM concentration and lung deposition calculation at different cities of Pakistan
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Measurement of aerosol size distribution, PM concentration and lung deposition calculation at different cities of Pakistan

on

  • 2,264 views

Pollution can be defined as an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the air, water or land that can affect health, survival or activities of humans or other ...

Pollution can be defined as an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the air, water or land that can affect health, survival or activities of humans or other organisms.
Air pollution is a serious problem in many developing countries especially for those in the process of rapid industrialization, urbanization with increasing populations.
Air pollution is a serious problem in Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi and Peshawar and many other cities of Pakistan, which are usually characterized with high ambient concentrations of particulate pollutants.
Regular monitoring of ambient air quality is still not systematic in Pakistan. All the available information is based on random and short-term sampling conducted to assess the concentrations of various pollutants.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,264
Views on SlideShare
2,264
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
42
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Trachea is also know as windpipe. Trachea and Bronchial are cover with a mucus layer that capture particle. The layer move upward and dispose of the particle into the digestive system.
  • The flow in the alveolar is much lower than in bronchial so there will be more residence time

Measurement of aerosol size distribution, PM concentration and lung deposition calculation at different cities of Pakistan   Measurement of aerosol size distribution, PM concentration and lung deposition calculation at different cities of Pakistan Presentation Transcript

  • * Khan Alam & ** Hussain Majid *Department of Geography and Geology, University of Salzburg **Department of Bio-Physics University of Salzburg Measurement of aerosol size distribution, PM concentration and lung deposition calculation at different cities of Pakistan
  • Part 1
    • Measurement of aerosol size distribution, PM concentration and calculation at different cities of Pakistan
  • The part will cover
    • Introduction
    • Instrumentation and Techniques
    • Aerosol volume size distribution
    • Aerosol mass size distribution
    • Variability in particulate matter
    • Conclusion
  • Introduction
    • Pollution can be defined as an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the air, water or land that can affect health, survival or activities of humans or other organisms.
    • Air pollution is a serious problem in many developing countries especially for those in the process of rapid industrialization, urbanization with increasing populations.
    • Air pollution is a serious problem in Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi and Peshawar and many other cities of Pakistan, which are usually characterized with high ambient concentrations of particulate pollutants.
    • Regular monitoring of ambient air quality is still not systematic in Pakistan. All the available information is based on random and short-term sampling conducted to assess the concentrations of various pollutants.
  • Aerosol????
    • Types
    • Natural Aerosol
    • - Soil Dust
    • - Sea Salt
    • - Volcanic Dust
    • - Oceanic Sulphates
    • Anthropogenic Aerosol
    • - Industrial Sulphates
    • - Soot (Black carbon)
    • - Organic particles
    • Aerosols are minute solid or liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere.
    Over 4000 species in gaseous, vapour and particle form are emitted from motor vehicle exhaust NO HC CO 2 CO SO 2 Dust Smoke Fume Mist Clouds Pesticides
  • Effects of aerosols on climate
    • Direct effect
    • 2. Indirect effect
    • 3. Semi-direct effect
  • Direct radiative forcing by aerosols (Direct effect) Solar radiation absorbed (Warming) Solar radiation scattered to space (Cooling) Absorbing aerosols Scattering aerosols e.g. Black carbon, mineral dust e.g. Sulphates, nitrates, organics Most aerosols both absorb and scatter!
  • Indirect aerosol effect (I) Few aerosols Low droplet concentration Less reflective cloud Numerous aerosols High droplet concentration More reflective cloud (Cooler climate)
  • Indirect aerosol effect (II) Smaller droplets Lower Precipitation rate Clouds are longer lived and retain higher liquid water content
  • The semi-direct aerosol effect
    • Aerosols absorb solar
    • radiation
    • Evaporation of the cloud!
    Absorbing aerosols in and around a cloud
    • Absorbing aerosols may reduce low cloud cover
    • This would warm the climate as low clouds scatter solar radiation back to space.
  • Classification of Particle Sizes
    • Generally, the sizes of aerosols are in the range from 0.001 to 100  m
    • Fine particles < 2.5  m
    • ultra fine particles < 0.1  m
    • submicrometer particles < 1  m
    • Coarse particles > 2.5  m
  • Formation mechanisms of Aerosol particles
    • Primary particles: emitted directly from sources
      • Example: nitric oxide and hydrocarbons
    • Secondary particles: formed in the atmosphere by chemical interactions among primary aerosol particles and normal atmospheric constituents
      • Example: ozone, photochemical aerosol
  • Standards for particulate matter
    • TSP
      • Total Suspended Particles
    • PM 10
      • Mass concentration of particles with aerodynamic diameter < 10  m
    • PM 2.5
    • Mass concentration of particles with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5  m
    • PM 2.5 often called fine particles
  • Sampling sites
    • In order to analyze the aerosol concentration in term of size distribution and mass distribution mode
    • We selected 4 big cities of Pakistan, namely Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Lahore and Karachi
    • These cities are highly populated and industrialized.
  • Instrumentation
    • Grimm 1.109, Aerosol spectrometer (Ainring, Germany) was used.
    • It is portable optical particle counter, which uses light scattering technology for single particle counts.
    • Flow rate 1.2 Litre/mint
    • The instrument collects sample in 31 different size channels (0.25 to 32 μ m)
    • Operate in 4 mode (Environmental, occupational health, mass distribution and count distribution)
  • Method
    • The data used in this study was collected in count distribution mode to obtain aerosol number concentration
    • We convert the number concentration to mass concentration using mathematical expression
    • Where i is the channel number; dpi is the arithmetic diameter of upper and lower boundaries for channel i; M(dpi) is the mass concentration; N(dpi) is the no. concentration and C F is the correction factor.
  • Cont. Method
    • The PM 10 and PM 2.5 also calculated with the following
    • expression
    • Where f(dpi) is the fraction of PM 10 or PM 2.5 at dpi.
  • Results
  • Particle number and mass size distributions
  • Mass variation in different cities
  • PM concentrations
  • Particulate matter concentration Min.= minimum, Max.= maximum, Avg.= average No Site TSP(µg/m 3 ) PM 10 (µg/m 3 ) PM 2.5 (µg/m 3 ) PM 1.0 (µg/m 3 ) Min. Max. Avg. Min. Max. Avg. Min Max. Avg. Min. Max. Avg. 1. Peshawar 3467 92399 21924 119 1751 618 38 337 189 28 281 129 2. Rawalpindi 6907 82461 27131 216 1037 489 70 300 159 45 261 121 3 Lahore 3482 23896 6759 146 284 204 64 98 76 47 60 52 4. Karachi Suparco 2372 11508 5941 126 399 270 51 289 151 32 216 114 Saddar 5522 38765 14438 284 860 462 115 320 197 79 267 155 Sea View 794 11223 2308 74 127 93 51 84 64 33 48 38
  • Chemical Analysis Site Al Ca Cu Fe K Mg Na S Si Zn B Ba Cr Mn Ni P Sr Ti Zr Peshawar 7385 34569 688 8650 2676 4044 5314 2650 3062 1454 20 48 556 199 561 365 110 205 75 Pindi 10766 74955 4984 15026 7437 5981 13249 4413 21809 5032 155 152 787 375 1475 958 296 580 93 Lahore 9521 20675 657 8244 2866 3233 5531 5420 3323 1637 50 100 218 205 360 414 72 207 32 Karachi Suparco 4188 13442 273 3390 1211 1241 2384 2683 1486 757 7 27 156 96 230 133 47 75 11 Saddar 19916 74385 1146 16867 8574 7299 17839 9045 7547 2834 78 180 501 471 545 1557 243 527 42 Sea View 5571 17954 938 7344 1995 2589 11252 5469 1022 1638 21 79 616 162 474 248 58 103 23
  • WHO AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 2000 Compound Guideline [ u g m -3 ] Averaging Time Carbon monoxide 100 000 15 min 60 000 30 min 30 000 1 hour 10 000 8 hours Nitrogen dioxide 200 1 hour 40 1 year Ozone 120 8 hours Sulphur dioxide 500 10 min 125 24 hours 50 1 year Lead 0.5 1 year 2006 100 20
  •  
  • EFFECTS OF AIRBORNE POLLUTANTS
    • Effects on atmospheric properties
      • Visibility reduction
      • Fog formation and precipitation
      • Solar radiation reduction
      • Temperature and wind distribution alteration
    • Effects on materials
    • Effects on vegetation
    • Effects on health
  • Health effects of airborne pollutants
    • Allergy and other effects on the immune system
    • Cancer and effects on reproduction
    • Respiratory effects
    • Irritative effects on skin and mucous membranes of eyes, nose and throat
    • Sensory effects on nervous system
    • Effects on cardiovascular system
  • Health effects of selected contaminants
    • Carbon monoxide : ranging from fatigue to death
    • Nitrogen oxides : trigger of asthma attacks and long term effects on respiratory system
    • Lead : mental retardation
    • Ozone : eye irritation, damage to sensitive tissue and exacerbates asthma
    • Radon : increased risk of lung cancer
  • Conclusion
    • The current study analyzed findings on TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 loading in the ambient air of four major cities in Pakistan (Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi and Peshawar) .
    • Data were collected at three points in Karachi, one point each in Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar.
    • Highest average mass concentrations were observed all the cities investigated.
    • Highest mean TSP, PM10,PM2.5 and PM1 values were recorded for Peshawar followed by Rawalpindi, Karachi and Lahore.
    • The current air pollution problems in Pakistan are challenging for local and state authorities to take timely action and develop a control strategy that is enforced and implemented.
  • Part 2
    • Particle lung deposition calculations and its importance
  • The part will cover
    • Why deposition calculation is important
    • Human lung structure
    • Lung deposition mechanisms
    • Particle clearance from the lung
    • Stochastic lung deposition model
    • Lung deposition calculations
    • Conclusions
  • Why is this important?
    • Evaluating efficiency of dose deliverance i.e. how much and how long particles will remain in the lung.
    • Pulmonary drug delivery
    • Assessing toxic effects of airborne pollutant depositing in certain region of the lung.
    • Estimation for the location of probable induced cancer due to exposure in radiation environment.
  • Tracheaobronchial (TB) Trachea direct air into the lung Bronchial tree is the first part of the lung. This part directs air in the lung Each branch in the tree split into 2 part Bronchial tree can be divide into 5 segment that use to characterize the lung airway Head airway (HA) Air and aerosol enter from here and used to remove dust and other particles from entering the respiratory Humidify the air before entering the lung Separate out food to digestive system Human lung structure Parent Branch Major daughter Minor daughter Bifurcation Trachea Bronchial Tree Mouth Pharynx Larynx Nose
  • Alveolar or Pulmonary (AV) Alveoli are located at the end of the bronchial tree Gas exchange occur at the Alveoli If particle deposit in this region it can directly enter the blood stream alveoli Alveolar duct Alveolar entrance rings 100µm 100µm Alveoli
  • Airway Generation
    • Lung is made up of airway call generation. Trachea is generation 0 (G0), this is a straight duct with ring structure
    • The upper bronchial consist of generations 1 to 16. This is a series of branching “smooth” tube. High flow in this region with large airway.
    • Alveoli start appearing at generation 17. Airways are much smaller and the wall with alveoli is no longer smooth. This is a region of low flow and high residence time
    Modelling and Simulation of Particle Deposition in the Human Lung
  • Deposition Mechanisms Involved Major: Minor: Diffusion Sedimentation Impaction Interception Electrostatic Naso-pharyngeal: impaction, sedimentation, electrostatic (particles > 1 μm) Tracheo-bronchial: impaction, sedimentation, diffusion (particles < 1 μm) Pulmonary: sedimentation, diffusion (particles < 0.1 μm)
  • Diffusion Cause by Brownian motion Diffusion is the deposition mechanism for small particles. Diffusion depends increases with decreasing particle size and flow rate. More deposition occurs in the alveoli region because longer residence time and smaller airway.
  • Sedimentation
    • When gravitational force act on the particle
    • Particles will settle to the lower surface of the airway. This occur more in the lower generation where the velocity is much lower and the airway is smaller
    • Lung airways have different orientation so deposition of particle will be different depending on the direction of the particle flow and direction of gravitational force
    Force Force
  • Impaction Particle cannot follow the trajectory due to its inertia and hit the wall called impaction. Impaction increases with particle size and flow rate. This type of deposition occur through out the lung. This is important, especially in the head airway where most of the large particles are screened out Impaction occurs mostly in the upper generation airways due to high velocity
  • Factors that Effect Deposition
    • Aerosol property
    • Air Flow property
    • Respiratory tract
    Size distribution (MMD, AMD. Etc) Concentration Particle hygroscopicity Gas particle interaction Chemical reaction Particle surface charge Lung structure and morphology Model uses: Weibel, Raabe, and Horsfield Lung capacity Breathing frequency Tidal Volume
  • Particle Clearance
    • Getting rid of deposited particles from the lung is called clearance
    • The muco-ciliary escalator operates in the tracheobronchial region for clearance predominantly up to generation 12 and fading out at generation 16
    Particle Clearance mechanisms : The Naso-pharyngeal Compartment: • mucociliary clearance (transport back to nasopharynx ) • mechanical clearance (sneezing, coughing, swallowing) • absorption into circulation (soluble particles). The Tracheo-bronchial Compartment: • mucociliary clearance (transport to oropharynx) • endocytosis into peribronchial region (insoluble particles) • absorption into circulation (soluble particles) The Pulmonary Compartment: • alveolar macrophage mediated clearance • endocytosis by lung epithelial cells into interstitum • absorption into circulation (soluble particles)
  • Stochastic Lung Model
    • Deposition fraction and distribution within airways generations are found by stochastice lung mod
    • Particle inhalled follow random path in the lung
      • Random selection of actual path out of millions of possible pathway by tracing histories of large number of smiulated particles
    • The model uses asymmetric nature of branching pattern of the lung.
      • Variability of lenghts and diameter of airways are described by log-normal frequency distribution
    • Analytical (deterministic) formulas are used for computing deposition by diffusion, sedimentation and impaction
    • Monte Carlo process continues even after depsition of particle within airway by decreasing statistical weights of particles
  • Deposition patterns of 0.25-10 µm particles under light exercise breathing condition (V T = 500 mL, t = 4s) for three different days at Karachi, Sadar near a road crossing Deposition is normalized to the number of particles entering the trachea. Particle deposition in lung
  • Deposition patterns of 0.25-10 µm particles under light exercise breathing condition (V T = 500 mL, t = 4s) for two different days at Rawalpindi, near a road crossing Deposition is normalized to the number of particles entering the trachea. Particle deposition in lung (cont..)
  • Conclusions
    • Estimation of aerosle deposition patteren in the lung play key role for dose assesment.
    • Intersubject variability of lung morphometry, breathing patterens, local inhomogeneties of particle deposition and muco-ciliary clearance are the critical paramenters in lung dosimetry for the inhaled particles.
    • Calculation of aerosol deposition fraction can help to find the particulate mass enhaled by the workers in a particular environment and its ultimate effects on their health.
  • Thank You