• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Linking Spaces with Places: Examples from thePastPlace Project
 

Linking Spaces with Places: Examples from the PastPlace Project

on

  • 383 views

This presentation was given to the seminar on “Integration of onomastic data into geo-spatial infrastructure” in Tallinn, Estonia, on September 19th 2013. This meeting was organized by the Baltic ...

This presentation was given to the seminar on “Integration of onomastic data into geo-spatial infrastructure” in Tallinn, Estonia, on September 19th 2013. This meeting was organized by the Baltic and Northern Divisions of the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN), and the UNGEGN Working Group on Toponymic Data Files and Gazetteers.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
383
Views on SlideShare
383
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Linking Spaces with Places: Examples from thePastPlace Project Linking Spaces with Places: Examples from the PastPlace Project Presentation Transcript

    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Linking Spaces with Places: Examples from the PastPlace Project Humphrey Southall & Paula Aucott (University of Portsmouth/ Great Britain Historical GIS)
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Structure of Presentation: • Limitations of mainstream geospatial systems – When applied to historical contexts and textual content • Alternative more textual – geosemantic – methods – Most people find out about places by searching using placenames, not coordinates, and these days they use search engines, so where do they end up? – Looking online for information about ―Tallinn‖ – Exploring the Linked Data web, and Vision of Britain • Introducing Pelagios and PastPlace – Pelagios 3 is new project linking my team with the Pleiades gazetteer of the ancient world, based at New York University, and the China Historical GIS at Harvard – PastPlace is a rebranding and extension of Vision of Britain 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Mainstream geospatial systems • ―Geographical Information Systems‖ – Raster GIS • E.g. IDRISI, ERDAS Imagine • Mainly for satellite data, etc, so not discussed further – Vector GIS • E.g. ArcGIS, MapInfo • Separate spatial data and attribute data • Spatial data = points, lines and polygons • Geospatial Database Management Systems – Implemented as extensions to (object-)relational database systems • E.g. Oracle and Oracle Spatial, Postgres and PostGIS • Geospatial databases can organise data as spatial+attributes, but permit other approaches 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Limitations of ArcGIS, etc • Everything else exists as attributes of points, lines or polygons, so hard to work with information about unknown or uncertain locations • Toponyms treated as ―labels‖, and fiddly having more than one per geospatial object • ArcGIS data model works in terms of layers or coverages, which is fine for different kinds of feature but a very bad way of representing time 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Gazetteer data standards • ISO 19112, ‗Geographic information — Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers‘ – Very general; e.g. does not require coordinates • Open Geospatial Consortium: Web Feature Server Gazetteer Service Profile (WFS(G)) – Is this still being actively developed? – OGC now discussing a different approach, OpenPOI • Alexandria Digital Library: – Gazetteer Service Protocol – Gazetteer Content Standard www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/gazetteer/ContentStandard/version3.2/GCS3.2guide.htm – Gazetteer Feature Type Thesaurus: www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/~lhill/FeatureTypes/ver070302/index.htm 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time ADL Gazetteer Content Standard • Standard allows for many optional elements, but four compulsory elements: • A unique identifier – Usually a number • A name – May well be duplicated elsewhere – Standard optionally allows for many additional variant names • A footprint – A point, line or polygon • A feature type – To achieve interoperability with other gazetteers via the Gazetteer Service Protocol, the feature type must be taken from the ADL Feature Type Thesaurus 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Issues with “geographical features” • Most major digital gazetteers are derived from GIS systems constructed by national mapping agencies – i.e. databases of points, lines and polygons • BUT: – Very hard to agree on a single standard classification of geographical features • Most existing thesaurii heavily influenced by symbologies of US Geological Survey – Real people don‘t care about features • Problem for crowd-sourcing gazeteers, e.g. in Geonames – Over historical time, individual features are ephemeral while ―places‖ endure • They have built a bridge in Oxford! 19th September 2013 Part of the ADL Feature Type Thesaurus
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Feature typing may be “standard” but it is not natural: • CLUN, a river, a small town, a parish, a sub-district, a district, and a hundred in Salop. The river rises near the boundary with Wales; and runs 11 miles eastward, and 7 southward, to the Teme, near Leintwardine. The town stands on the river, 3 miles W of Offa's dyke, 5½ SSW of Bishops-Castle, and 6½ N by E of Knighton r. station; is a polling-place, and a nominal borough, …. (from Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales, 1872) • So how do we work with ―place information‖ in the real world? 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Googlingoffor TallinnProject: most people find out about places – how A Vision Britain though Time 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Wikipedia for Tallinn: English language 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Wikipedia for Tallinn: Estonian language 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Wikipedia for Tallinn: Estonian language How do we know the two Tallinn articles are about the same place? 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Wikidata for Tallinn: web view • Created partly to just link the different language versions 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Wikidata for Tallinn: RDF view • Created partly to just link the different language versions 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Geonames for Tallinn 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Geonames for Tallinn 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Geonames for Tallinn: RDF 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Geonames for Tallinn: RDF 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Vision of Europe for Tallinn 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Vision of Europe for Harjumaa 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical Scrolling down the GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time same page … Vision of Europe for Harjumaa 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Modelling the history of Estonia 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Part of the AUO Typology Thanks to Vojtech Kupca (Umea U.) for these visualisations of the ontology 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Part of the AUO Typology Thanks to Vojtech Kupca (Umea U.) for these visualisations of the ontology 19th September 2013 But why does a UK researcher have all this information about Estonia?
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time GBH GIS / Vision of Britain / QVIZ / PastPlace • Original GB Historical GIS project: 1994-2000 – Built conventional ArcGIS-based system (OSGB coordinates) • Vision of Britain Mark 1: 2001-4 – Funded by UK National Lottery; New architecture – Support from UK archives crucial – needed authority list • QVIZ project: 2006-8 – EU FP6; led by Umea; incl Estonian & Swedish Nat. Archives • Vision of Britain Mark 2: 2007– Funded by JISC but used QVIZ infrastructure – So covers all of Europe (ETRS-89), in varying detail • PastPlace/Pelagios: 2013– Re-branding, global (WGS-84 coordinates) – Major focus on exposing our information as Open Linked Data 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Original Inspiration: F. Youngs’ Local Administrative Units of England (Royal Historical Society, 1979 and 1991) We did not ―computerise‖ the pages Instead, we used information from Youngs, etc, to build a new database But how? One of most complex books ever 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Administrative Unit Ontology E-R Diagram g_rel g_legal_rel PK,FK1 g_unit_type g_rel_type g_rel_unit_type notes created_by g_seq FK1 g_unit g_rel_to g_rel_type g_part g_part_area g_part_area_measure c_date_1 c_pop_1 c_hous_1 c_date_2 c_pop_2 c_hous_2 g_duration im_auth im_note ul_auth ul_note created_by notes g_unit_type FK2 g_unit_type PK g_unit_type FK1 FK2 g_type_level g_jurisdiction g_type_period g_duration g_foot stat_only n_language n_label n_label_plural n_description n_full_description n_label n_label_plural n_description n_full_description n_short_label g_label g_label_plural g_description g_full_description g_short_label notes created_by g_type_function FK3 FK3 PK FK1 g_language g_label g_description g_full_description 19th September 2013 g_unit g_foot g_duration im_auth im_note ul_auth ul_note use_for_search use_for_stat_map use_for_bound_map FK1 g_rel_type g_jurisdiction g_label preferred_language email_address notes postal_address telephone_number g_status g_unit_type n_language n_label n_short_label n_description n_full_description g_label g_short_label g_description g_full_description notes created_by g_language FK2 PK g_status_type FK1 FK1 g_jurisdiction g_auth_type g_auth_title g_auth_creator g_auth_creator_forename g_auth_publisher g_auth_pub_place g_auth_date g_auth_identifier url_works g_auth_rights g_auth_rights_string g_auth_description notes PK g_hint g_unit_type g_centroid g_place g_duration im_auth im_note ul_auth ul_note created_by notes g_language g_label g_authority g_language_iso notes g_jurisdiction g_type_function g_auth_type PK g_type_function_label PK,FK1 g_name g_auth_type g_language g_type_function FK2 g_language g_label g_description g_full_description g_label g_seq g_unit g_name g_name_status g_language g_duration im_auth im_note ul_auth ul_note created_by notes notes notes PK,FK1 PK,FK2 FK1 g_type_function g_auth_type g_auth_type_level PK PK g_name_status g_status g_seq FK1 FK2 g_authority notes created_by g_unit PK g_type_level PK g_rel_type PK PK g_adl_ft PK,FK1 g_authority g_seq g_label rev_label created_by PK g_type_level g_type_level_label g_rel_type g_language PK FK1 PK,FK1 PK,FK2 g_unit g_type_level PK g_foot g_rel_type_label PK g_unit g_status g_duration im_auth im_note ul_auth ul_note created_by notes g_name_status im_auth sort_order g_name_status_label PK,FK1 g_name_status FK2 g_language g_label FK2 g_place PK g_place g_seed g_name g_container g_centroid created_by 27
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Frequency of different languages for place names in Vision of Britain/PastPlace English Swedish Estonian German Welsh French Italian Turkish Other 0 19th September 2013 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 160,000
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time “Places” and Units in the PastPlace data model • Places are ―above‖ units because units are named after places • There is only one ―names‖ table • Currently 22,371 places versus 81,886 units; 26,520 units not assigned to places, but only 5,492 of these in Britain, while 2,944 places have no units 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Place names for Chester-leStreet 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Source of first ranked results from searching google.co.uk for “history of <name>“ for all Herefordshire ancient parishes • Domination of placename search results by Wikipedia is not inevitable! • Surprising how little interest most academic and heritage sector projects have in good results in search engines • FINDABILITY 120 100 80 No. of parishes (N=188) 60 40 20 0 Wikipedia 19th September 2013 Vision of Britain Other noncommercial Commercial
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Tallinn in PastPlace RDF 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical Open Linked GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Data as a lingua franca for the (semantic) web • Gazetteers act as hubs: – – – – • Wikipedia Geonames Open Street Map OS Linked Data NB diagram has not been updated since September 2011 as became too big 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Pelagios 3: Early Geospatial Documents • 2 year project Sep 2013-Aug 2015 – funded by Mellon Foundation • Principal Investigators: • Leif Isaksen (Southampton Univ, UK) • Elton Barker (Open Univ, UK) • Rainer Simon (Austrian Inst of Tech) • Plus many partners: • • • • • • • • British Library: Kimberly Kowal Drew Univ Shannon Bradshaw, Martin Foys Harvard Univ: Lex Merrick Berman Indep: Johan Åhlfeldt, Tony Campbell, Mia Ridge New York Univ: Tom Elliott, Sean Gillies Queen Mary, London Univ: Yossef Rapoport Edinburgh Univ: Kate Byrne Portsmouth Univ: Humphrey Southall 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Pelagios 3: Project and rationale • Project will annotate, link and index place references in digitized Early Geospatial Documents (EGDs) • EGDs are documents that use written or visual representation to describe geographic space prior to the European discovery of the Americas in 1492 – This event both radically transformed beliefs about the globe, and triggered the development of several standardising global cartographic conventions, including the Werner, Bonne and Mercator projections • EGDs include ancient and medieval geographic descriptions (geographiae and chorographiae and itineraries) world maps (mappaemundi) and portolan charts 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Pelagios Data Model for Annotations • Linking related resources via Open Annotations • Six items of information form an annotation: 1. Target. A segment of the text or image identified as a place reference, expressed as a URI • Target URIs will be additionally annotated with relevant document metadata where known, including the author, date-range, provenance, language. 2. Toponym: the string of characters used by the author to identify a place 3. Place Identifier: linking the place to a URI based gazetteer 4. Source: of the identification between toponym and place 5. Annotator: The person who produced the annotation. 6. Confidence: a traffic light scheme: probable, possible, or unknown 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Gazetteer Infrastructure • Pelagios aims to create a ―Gazetteer ecosystem‖: – URI-based gazetteers that are specific to a spatial, temporal or cultural milieu and maintained and curated by their respective research communities, but aligned through the principles of Linked Data and a common, overarching referencing framework • Two key challenges in creating such an ecosystem: – A common, generic gazetteer data model needs to be identified which suits the needs of the different individual stakeholders involved • All gazetteers in this ecosystem will be primarily of ―places‖, not geographical features – Referencing frameworks need to be agreed, through which different gazetteers can cross-link to each other 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Participating Gazetteers • Project will re-use, and contribute to, three existing gazetteer platforms: – Pleiades (Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, NYU) – PastPlace/Vision of Britain (GBHGIS, University of Portsmouth) – China Historical GIS (CGA, Harvard) • All three gazetteers are more about ―places‖ than geographical features • Pleiades+CHGIS mature: few new places needed • PastPlace ―will be significantly augmented with contemporary and historic settlements extracted from open gazetteer services‖, beyond UK – Decided last week this would be based on Wikidata 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Pelagios 3 Content Work Packages No Name Example EGDs Gazetteer 1 Latin Tradition Antonine Itineraries, Ravenna Cosmography, Bordeaux Itinerary, Natural History (Pliny) Pleiades 2 Greek Tradition Geography (Strabo), Armenian Geography, Suda, Manual of Geography (Ptolemy) Pleiades 3 Early Christian Tradition Gough Map; Description of the World (Marco Polo), Fra Mauro Map, De Virga world map, Vesconte World Map, approx. 320 sundry EGDs from the British Library PastPlace 4 Early Maritime Trad. Le Liber (portolano), Lo Compasso (portolano), c. 180 Portolan charts PastPlace 5 Early Islamic Tradition Image of the Earth (Al Khwarizmi), al-Kashgari World Map, Tabula Rogeriana (al- Idrisi) Book of Curiosities, Maps of the Balkhi School PastPlace 6 Early Chinese Tradition Yujitu (‗Map of the Tracks of Yu‘), Songhuiyao, Chinese Buddhist Temple Gazetteers, ‗Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms‘ CHGIS 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Pelagios WP3: Early Christian Tradition • Maps and geographic texts from medieval ‗Christendom‘ • Mixture of maps and texts e.g.: • Mappaemundi and T-O maps • Gough Map • Description of the World (Polo) • Vesconte World Map • Past Place gazetteer • May work back from modern translations using Edinburgh geoparser using tools developed by DM project and use toponym detection 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Pelagios WP4:Early Maritime Tradition • Portolanos (texts) and portolan charts • Approximately 180 maps available from work of Ramon Pujades (2007) • Past Place gazetteer • Use toponym detection and gazetteer and identification work and gazetteers of Tony Campbell and Ramon Pujades 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Pelagios WP5:Early IslamicTradition • Maps, texts and gazetteers in Arabic up to approx. 1492. • Maps and texts e.g. • Al-Khwarizmi • Book of Curiosities • Balkhi School • Tabula Rogeriana • Past Place gazetteer + Pleiades • Use toponym detection and gazetteer and identification work of Yossi Rapoport, Emily Savage-Smith, Kennedy & Kennedy and others 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Geo-semantic methods are inferior to Geo-spatial … • You can derive that B is in A, or C is near B, from the map, but you cannot derive the map from the text … except when • We are working with the past – Textual descriptions are often all we have – Old maps are very inaccurate • We are working with the web – The web is a textual structure linked by explicit relationships • We are working with people – People think about geography through named places not coordinates defining spaces • NB Vision of Britain/PastPlace has plenty of geospatial functionality 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Web sites, etc • Vision of Britain: www.VisionOfBritain.org.uk • Great Britain Historical GIS: www.gbhgis.org www.port.ac.uk/research/gbhgis • PastPlace (very preliminary site!): http://www.pastplace.org • Pelagios project http://pelagios-project.blogspot.co.uk • Contact us: gbhgis@port.ac.uk 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time 19th September 2013
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Count of number of names per language LANGUAGE NUMBER OF NAMES ENGLISH 62603 SWEDISH 7507 ESTONIAN 11973 GERMAN 5032 WELSH 1069 FRENCH 61 GREEK 3 ITALIAN 3 RUSSIAN 2 TURKISH 2 OTHER LANGUAGES WITH 1 NAME EACH 19th September 2013 26
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Unit relationships • All held in single table, allowing many-tomany relationships • Current system has 81,886 units but 260,602 relationships • Have dates, g_unit http://www.icpsr. authorities, etc umich.edu/DDI/ g_name • • • • IsPartOf SucceededBy (‗see also‘) AdministeredBy Boundary Changes – – – – – ReducedToEnlarge ReducedToCreate AbolishedToEnlarge AbolishedToCreate BoundaryChange (other unit unknown) g_rel_type http://www.icpsr. umich.edu/DDI/ g_rel http://www.icpsr. http://www.icpsr. umich.edu/DDI/ 19th September 2013 g_status umich.edu/DDI/
    • Great Britain Historical GIS Project: A Vision of Britain though Time Example of unit with many names • Newborough, Anglesey parish 19th September 2013