Zero waste solution of the city of Boras, Sweden - Hans Björk
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Zero waste solution of the city of Boras, Sweden - Hans Björk






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  • The slide shows the relation between the 3 first functions and the three top steps in waste hierarchy. This slide can emphasize the importance of waste source separation for having sustainable waste management.
  • Why should we perform MSW combustion? It is clear that this is necessary if the amount of landfilling are to decrease in a relatively short period of time. I have chosen three main categories to further describe the benefits with combustion: Treatment, Prevention and Production. With treatment means for example volume reduction (the volume of the solid waste will decrease with 90-95% when combusted). Preventions includes the prevention of more potent green house gases like methane which is formed in the landfills and even with modern techniques, it is difficult to construct a landfill where all produced methane is collected and utilized). But it can also be a mean to prevent water pollution by reducing the leakage (a smaller landfill is more easily controlled). Finally, it is possible to produce a useful product from MSW by combustion. This is when the liberated energy is transferred to an energy carrier (like steam) and hence the bonding energy within the MSW materials can be recovered to a high degree.
  • Here you can see the schematic of the MSW combustion facility in Borås. It is a fluidized bed boiler which mean that the material has to be pretreated before it enters (the incoming material must not be to large) but this on the other hand opens up for an efficient metal separation. After the combustion the hot flue gases passes through a number of heat exchangers where high pressure steam is produced (59 bar and 410°C). Finally gas cleaning occurs before the flue gases are released.

Zero waste solution of the city of Boras, Sweden - Hans Björk Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Zero waste solution of the city of Borås, Sweden Converting Waste into Value-added Products. Hans Björk Dean, School of Engineerng University of Borås Sweden
  • 2. Boråsgovernment university~11,000 students (6000 full time)~500 employees~40 full professors~20 Master programs~130 PhD students
  • 3. Borås105,000 inhabitants
  • 4. Closing the loops
  • 5. Ref.BEM brochure Waste Generation Waste Handling, Separation, Storage, and Processing at the source Collection Ref.BEM brochure Minimizing Reuse Recycle Energy Recovery Landfill
  • 6.  District heating District cooling Biogas Hydropower Waste management Drinking water production Waste water cleaning Producer of Electricity Services within waste management andeffective energy use
  • 7. Landfill reduction in Borås, From 1992 to 2012 1000 ton 120 Compare RIO + 20 100 80 60 40 20 0Total amount 420 kg/pers Landfilling ~0 % Today Recycling 27 % Biological treatment 30 % Incineration 43
  • 8. Long development toward zero waste in Borås• The first planning of biogas plant 1940• Investigation and planning 1986• Start of source sorting in 3000 households 1988• 10-years planning 1989-2000 1989• Full scale sorting with optical sorting system 1991• Anaerobic digestion and composting 1995• Interim storage of hazardous waste 1998• First collecting vehicle run with gas 2002• Waste plan 2001 - 2010 2003• First public gas station opened 2003• New digestor ready 2003• New incineration plant ready 2004• First bus inside the city run on biogas 2004• 39 buses inside the city run on biogas 2008• A second new gas station for private cars 2009• All 59 buses inside the city run on biogas 2010• A third new gas station for private cars 2011• Planning for a new energy complex 2011
  • 9. Waste collecting methods Waste from residential and commercial buildings in Borås and surroundings  Approximately 125 000 inhabitants.  4 methods – a complete solution towards our dream48.500 households 80 Recycling 5 Recycling 800 Containers–Waste separation stations , 7 centers, 30 for deliveryat home fractions fractions Mixed(expensiv)White and Black Paper, glas, Electronics, or separatedbags metal etc fridges, bulps etc
  • 10.
  • 11. Separation unit at Sobacken
  • 12. Burnable waste becomes district heating and electricity Burnable waste is separated Transport to Sobacken Preparation of combustible wasteWaste from households and Transport to Ryaverket companies is collected Combustible Waste The waste is stored District heating and electricity Incineration
  • 13. Why combustion of Wastes? • Treatment – Volume reduction • Prevention – Decrease green house gas emissions • Avoid methane formation – Control emissions – leakages • Production – Energy recovery • MSW can be a raw material and not only
  • 14.
  • 15. Combustion of
  • 16. Low Emission Emissions 1970-2006 Sulfur and Nitorgen oxides Fossil carbon dioxides3000 350000 3000002500 2500002000 2000001500 1500001000 100000 500 50000 Year 0 0 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 Sulfur Nitrogen oxides Fossil carbon dioxid Red CO2 Blue Nox Green SOx
  • 17.
  • 18. Energy and customersEnergy amountsDistrict heating (GWh) 632District cooling (GWh) 10Electricity (GWh) 132Number of costumersDistrict heating 4137District cooling 53[Amount 2009]
  • 19. Food waste becomes biogas Food waste is separated Transport to Sobacken Pretreatment of combustable wasteHousehold and company waste Biodegradable To the digester collected Waste Biogas is returned to our customers in Borås Bacteriums at work
  • 20.
  • 21. Biogas from wasteSOR1SOR2
  • 22. Biogas productionSubstrate [Ton] Gas production [Nm3]• Biogradable waste - 4 000 • Raw Gas 2 546 629Black bags (Household Borås) • Vehicle fuel 1 123 407 (11,2 GWh )• Biogradable waste (Household suburbs) 7 500 • Methane 308 976 (3,08 GWh)• Biogradable waste (Commercial) 2 464 gas for heating• Biogradable liquid waste (Commercial) 9 719 • Residual product 1982 Ton (fertilizer) 23683 [Amount 2009, metric ton]
  • 23. Waste at the recycling
  • 24. Stena Metall AB The Group in figures• Operations at 250 locations in 15 countries• Net sales 4 billion $US• Number of employees, 3500Stena Technoworld, WEEEStena Aluminium ABStena Recycling, AB, A/S, AS, OY• 10 car shredders• NF-plants• Cable Recycling plants• Plastics separation plants• Transformer / Capacitor recycling plant• Hazardous waste treatment plants• Paper recycling plants
  • 25. Driving forces1. Legislation (Environmental, Tax, Producer responsibility, etc.)2. Material value
  • 26. The Recycling ProcessSIS, Separate – Identify - Sort
  • 27. All competence on waste treatment in one organization:”Waste Recovery International Parnership” Plus: • Biogas System • F.O.V. Fabrics AB • KTH Architecture and the Built Environment • Läckeby Water AB Technical Research • Metso Power Institute • Navet Science Center ( for children ) • SAAB AB • Scandfiltet • Sweco Architects • Uponor • Sakab • Stena Metal • VA – Teknik ( SP ) • ….
  • 28. Collaboration model of”Waste Recovery -International Partnership” Waste Recovery in Sweden City Council Municipality Research Inst. Private University Companies Research & Vision Laws & Planning Projects & Competence Education implementations & Goals Legislation development City Council Municipality Research Inst. NGOs Private University Companies Waste Recovery in other countries
  • 29.
  • 30. The journey to realise our dream – from infrastructure to the environment 2009. Accumulator brought on-stream. Second public biogas filling station opened. 2006. Borås Energi 1984. Introduction och Miljö formed. of coal and biofuel. Coordination of1959. District energy and wasteheating introduced Borås. 1996. Local heating, 2005. Return to 1995. Bio-drier district cooling and waste brought on-stream. 1965. Completion biogas. incineration! of Ryaverket plant.