Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme

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Many thanks to The Health Education Unit under the Ministry of Health in Zambia, which has been helpful with professional advice on the topics related to health and to the Zambian National Farmers …

Many thanks to The Health Education Unit under the Ministry of Health in Zambia, which has been helpful with professional advice on the topics related to health and to the Zambian National Farmers Union and Agriculture department in Monze, who have been helpful as regards to the topics related to the environment, tree planting and farming. We are also thankfull to the International Movement Humana People to People for technical assistance.

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  • 1. Village Action Group Manual Food Security, Health and Human Rights. DAPP – Development Aid from People to People CHILD AID AND ENVIRONMENT E-mail: Member of the International HUMANA Peple to People Movement
  • 2. 2 Introduction Dear reader. This manual is written to group leaders and member of Village Action Groups in the DAPP programme, but it is our hope that many other people will find it useful in the noble task of development. It contains basic information within health, environment and production as well as inspiration on how to facilitate the various topics. The manual is written by DAPP project leaders from various parts of Zambia, with many years of experience within integrated development work. Many thanks to The Health Education Unit under the Ministry of Health in Zambia, which has been helpful with professional advice on the topics related to health and to the Zambian National Farmers Union and Agriculture department in Monze, who have been helpful as regards to the topics related to the environment, tree planting and farming. We are also thankfull to the International Movement Humana People to People for technical assistance. Illustrations and information have been achieved from the following publications, which as well is recommended for further information on the topics in the manual: ? Where there is no doctor by David Werner. ? Facts for Live published by UNICEF, WHO and UNESCO. ? First Aid in the community published by the international federation of Red Cross and Crescent Societies. ? Conservation farming handbook published by Conservation Farming Unit ? Conservation farming by Brian Oldrive ? Natural pest and disease control by Henry Elwell and Anita Maas. Published by Natural network Zimbabwe ? Vitiver grass - the hedge against erosion published by The World Bank. ? 10 rules of survival – by Humana Medical Headquarter For comments, questions and ideas please contact: DAPP in Zambia Box 70505, Luneta Road 10, Ndola. Tel/ fax: 095-850284 E-mail: Fourth edition August 2006
  • 3. 3 CONTENT Page Introduction 2 Description of the start up programme 4 Faciliation skills 5 Team work and leadership 6 1st Month: Saniation and hygiene Introduction 11 Hygiene 13 Diarhoea 17 Birharzia 19 Malaria 21 2nd Month: Environment Introduction 23 Wells and boreholes 27 Tree planting 29 Stove construction 39 3rd Month: Child Care Introduction 42 Children’s rights and needs 45 Child growth and nutrition 47 Immunisation 51 Child development 53 Family planning 54 4th Month: Improve income Introduction 59 Vegetable and crop farming 62 Budgeting 79 Storage 80 Domestic animals 82 Business ideas 88 5th Month: HIV/ AIDS Introduction 90 HIV/ AIDS 93 Positive Living – 10 rules 99 6th Month: Human Rights and Gender Introduction 102 Background knowledge 105 7th Month: Health Care Introduction 112 First aid 114 Drug and alcohol abuse 124 Human torso 127
  • 4. 4 Welcome as a member of the Village Action Group. You will as a member of the Village Action Group learn many things in order to improve your life and improve the living conditions for members of you family. If you use the knowledge gained, if you let yourself have dreams and visions – and believe in and work to fullfill them – you will succeed. We expect you as a member of the village action group to work for the benefit for not only yourself and your own family – but to work together with the members of the group and the community as a whole in order to carry out development and brick by brick to take part in building a good future for all of us. Description of a Village Action Group. ? The Village Action Group consist of interested members in one village. Each member represent one family. The Village Action Groups should prefarably be between 10 to 35 member. If more than 35 members it will be better to form two groups. ? Each group elect a chair person, secretary and treasurer as well as 2 group leaders (one man and one woman) to spearhead the activities in the group. ? The groups additionally chose members to participate and spearhead community programmes such as community WASHE committees, community orphan committees, community nutrition committees, run village tree nurseries and similar initiatives. ? Each group will meet every week in the start up phase - same time and same day of the week, in order to learn, discuss and carry out actions. The first year the members will go through a curriculum, consisting of 25 lessons described in this manual and will in the end pass a people’s examination and receive a certificate if passing the examination. The following years the groups will make action plans in which they continue to learn and spearhead development in their respective village. ? The village action groups will work in close cooperation with the Village Headmen and other key players in development in their reseptive community. ? The group leaders will receive basic training in leadership and facilitation skills. However it is the intention with the manual that many must be involved in facilitating the various lessons. The group leaders can organise local government exension staff as facilitators, clinical personal, community health workers, various members of the group with special knowledge and experience etc. ? In the end of the manual you will find a attendance register as well as the household result list. These forms shall be used to follow the results of the start up programme within the participating households.
  • 5. 5 THE START UP PROGRAM The first year new members will go through the start up program - every headline will take 1 month 1) HOME IMPROVEMENTS- WATER AND SANITATION Learn how diseases spread, how to improve sanitation in the homes, how to treat malaria and diarrhea. Implement basic sanitation improvements such as establishment of latrine, dish rack, garbage system, and hand wash system, clean and orderly surroundings… 2) HOME IMPROVEMENTS - CREATE A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT Discuss and decide ways to improve the homes such as the construction of firewood saving stoves, the planting of trees and flowers, the establishment of vegetable gardens and orchards. 3) IMPROVE FOOD SECURITY THE ECONOMY OF THE FAMILY Discuss and decide ways to improve the economy. Learn about improved crop and animal husbandry. Carry through improvements on household and communal level such as improved farm husbandry, cooperative sale of crops, budgeting etc. 4) HIV / AIDS Learn about this disease. Learn how to avoid the disease or how to live positively with the virus and how to support those sick from it. Carry out campaigns and discussions in the community in order to minimize the spread. 5) CHILD CARE Learn about family planning and how to take good care of infants and children. Implement family planning. Improve child care - including nutritious food, vaccination and use of the ante natal clinic. 6) CIVIL RIGHTS Learn about human rights and take many discussions about how women and men can participate equally in development of the community. Get to know basic civil rights and laws. 7) GENERAL HEALTH Learn about basic first aid, the danger of drug and alcohol abuse, TB and Pneumonia. Discuss and decide ways in the community to improve the general health standard. 8) PEOPLE’S EXAMINATION The program ends with a People’s examination, in which the members of the program evaluate the results of each other. A certificate is given to prosperous members. 9) ACTION PLAN FOR THE COMING YEAR. The group will make an action plan for the coming year including how the group want to be organized, what the members want to learn, which actions and activities it want to carry out.
  • 6. 6 GOOD FACILIATION AND TEACHING METHODS. Teaching people is not just about giving the message. It’s about making people understand. It’s about giving people the inspiration and tools for them to go ahead. ? Take people to a place where you can see, what you are going to learn about. ?? If you teach learn about vegetable growing - learn it in a good garden. ?? If you shall teach about hygiene and home sanitation - go a see a good home and a bad home ?? If you shall teach about chicken rearing - go to a farmer keeping chickens already. ? You can learn from the good methods and even from the bad methods as it give a good background for discussing. ? Make sure people get involved. ?? Brain storming (ask a question and write all the answers on the board), discussions, group work, practical demonstrations, asking frequent questions etc. ? Use practical exercises. ?? If you shall teach about washing hands - demonstrate how to do it. Using a jar and a basin, demonstrate a small hand wash system etc. ?? If you shall teach about growing tree seedlings in a nursery - bring all needed materials. Let the participants fill the pots - and explain which are filled in correctly. Show how to pre-treat the seeds etc. ? Use guest speakers and use the knowledge among the participants. A facilitator is not expected to know everything. Ensure that all the knowledge in your group is utilized - everybody knowing something about the topic should speak up. Get a guest speaker from outside such as the community health worker, when convenient. ? Plan and follow up. ?? Let the students plan and commit themselves to any development and work they wish to carry out. Follow up later if the plans were accomplished - find out the problems and make new plans with them. ? A very common statement for a facilitator is: “It DID tell them this - but they don’t do it!” You must then ask yourself: Was my lesson all that good - or could I do it better. Perhaps I did not demonstrate the methods well, perhaps we did not discuss enough and how could I motivate people better? I hear and I forget I see and I remember I do and understand RIGHT WRONG
  • 7. 7 BENEFITS OF WORKING IN A GROUP: It encourages cooperation between people in the community and enables us to accomplish things, which we would not be able to do alone. This means that if the group works well together, it can achieve big results and solve big problems - which each member alone cannot do. For example repair of the broken down water pump, establish a village tree nursery, renovate the primary school, etc. It provides contact with many people so that each of us can increase their knowledge and experience The group consists of many different people with different knowledge and backgrounds. Some know much about health care, others have big interest and knowledge about vegetable growing etc. It encourages participation and involvement in solving common problems The group will identify and analyze problems and possible solutions in order to solve these problems. The group will organize and encourage each other to take actions in order to accomplish development. The members of the group should spread the gained knowledge to the entire community. It develops the skills and talents of the individual members If every member of the group takes - and is given responsibilities within the group - each individual member will develop, through the lessons learned and through taking a stand in discussions carried out. She will also learn to express her self and to organise and take action. Alone we are weak - together we are strong. Filling the jar of knowledge
  • 8. 8 TEAM WORK A group has to work as a team. A very well known team is the soccer (football) team. Here you will see a group of 11 people who work for a common goal - namely winning the game. Every player has a certain task within the team: You have the goalkeeper, the center forward etc. The coach finds the correct space for each player where they can contribute the most - and train the team in good teamwork. Our team must work in the same way. Every person on the team is important. Imagine a person in the football team just standing on the ground looking at his friends’ performance. It would do more harm than if this person was not even on the team. It is the same way with your team. A person who does not contribute is doing more harm than good. Every person in the group must speak out, discuss, participate in decision making and carry out practical exercises. As with the football team - the group members must take individual tasks upon themselves. There will be enough for everybody in the group: The coach - that is the group co-ordinators, who will be trained by DAPP. The chairperson secures good meetings, the secretary keeps records and minutes and the treasurer keeps group funds. Other members of the will take responsibilities such as running a village tree nursery, be an HIV advocate, take special responsibility for orphans in the village etc. Forming a good group needs time: Just after having formed the group, members might all be enthusiastic about the program. They are probably shy and everybody will try to please each other. After some time problems will come: Some members might not take responsibility or do not fulfill promises. Some members are dominant and will not listen to other members and so on. If these problems are not tackled, discussed and resolved - the group might break up or members will leave. Rules of the group: To assist the group it needs a set of rules = the constitution The constitution should include: * What is the objective of the group (Why do we form the group and what will be achieved) * Who can become members? * How to terminate memberships (e.g. those not active) * How and how often to choose executives (chairman, group coordinators, secretary) * Financial commitment and rules. * How often does the group meet?
  • 9. 9 good group member should: ? Work together ? Share responsibilities ? Listen to each other ? Give each other advice ? Teach each other. ? Respect each other. ? Participate in all the weekly meetings. ? Take active part in discussions and decisions. ? Take responsibility ? Carry out practically, what they have learned and agreed. ? Keep promises ? Be honest and reliable ? Be punctual good group leader should: ? Lead the group to have visions for the future. ? Be in the forefront as a good example within all the above tasks for members. ? Prepare the weekly meetings well in advance. ? Facilitate topics in a way which involve all members ? Lead discussions ? Promote co-operation in the group ? Promote co-operation with other organisations and key players in the area. ? Lead the group in analysing, planing and actions. To the group leaders - this is a poem for you: Go in search of Your People: Love them; Learn from Them; Plan with Them; Serve Them; Begin with what They have: Build on what They know. But of the best leaders when their task is accomplished, their work is done, The People all remark: “We have done it Ourselves.” A A
  • 10. 10 Analyse, plan, take action The group should first ask: How is the situation? ? Knowing how many in the village have latrines. ? How many children in school age do not go to school ? How many children are malnourished and so on. This knowledge can be achieved through one person/ more people in the group carrying out inspection in the village. Through visit to the health centre, questions put up within the group etc. Secondly the group should ask: Why is the problem there ? ? Do people have no latrines because they do not find it important, because of lack of funds, or because of no knowledge of how to construct one or because ....? ? Do the children not attend school because the family has no money for school fee, because the children do not want to go to school, or because .....? ? Are the children malnourished because the family have no means - because the mother does not know how to make a cheap and nutritious diet or because .....? The actions to be taken, would be very different depending on the reasons found: ? Do people need information ? ? Is technical or material support needed ? ? Is it question about organising ? ? Do people need be sensitised in order to take the problem serious ? Thirdly the group should put up a plan of action. The plan must include: WHAT has to be done. WHO shall do it - and who shall be responsible. WHEN shall it be done. The plan must be very concrete - and reflect the wish and interest of the group. It must be written down - for the group to remember and follow up on decided tasks. When the plan is done - the work completed - we will start all over again. The group will ask again: How is the situation? ? Before we had so many latrines in the village - now we have so many. Are we satisfied ? ? Before so many children were malnourished - now only so many. Are we satisfied ? ? This is what we did. This is what we achieved - did we follow our plan. What was the problems. The group will ask again: Why is the problem there ? ? In spite of the actions taken - the problem is not solved. Why? ? People have the knowledge - but do not take action. Why ? Thirdly the group will make a new plan of action. ? Using our experiences we will do this in another way ? We really did this well - but still need to ....
  • 11. 11 FIRST MONTH OF THE STARTING UP PROGRAM STARTING THE PROGRAM. NOTES TO THE GROUP LEADER. The group leaders should first explain details about the program and give chance to members to ask question and put up discussion of the importance of the program. The groups should make a constitution and write minutes. Election should be done of the executive members. The group should end up deciding the weekly meeting day and time - as well as the meeting place for the coming week meeting. HOME IMPROVEMENTS - SANITATION AND HYGIENE. NOTES TO THE GROUP LEADER. Under this headline the group will go through the following lessons in the manual: ? Hygiene and diarrhoea. ? Bilharzia. ? Malaria. The most important is that all members understand how various diseases spread. They should know about bacteria, worms etc. and how they spread in various ways: Some through contaminated water, some through human faeces, some though a mosquito bits and so on. When people understand the theory of how diseases spread, they can themselves find ways of avoiding the spread. The members should also understand the danger of diarrhoea and malaria and basic treatment. Remember that your as the group leaders should be good examples and must therefor be the first one to improve on sanitation in your home. As well be in the forefront of teaching your entire family about hygiene and sanitation. First lesson How diseases spread through bad hygiene and how to prevent this: Use pictures in the manual to explain how germs spread through bad hygiene. Let the participants comment and put up questions. Hereafter the group should walk together to a home and look into danger points - which means things, which are not in order and which can spread diseases. Discuss together methods for improvements.
  • 12. 12 Second lesson Diarrhoea, bilharzia and home improvements. ? Revision and follow up. First the group will discuss which actions have been carried out by the members since last week and encourage to continue home improvements. The secretary will in the coming week work on filling in a form with information about sanitation among all members in the village. ? Diarrhoea: The group leader present knowledge from the manual about diarrhoea. Points for discussions after the presentation: A) How often do the members experience diarrhoea - among adults and children. B) How is the traditional treatment of diarrhoea. C) Which influence should the new knowledge have for the treatment of diarrhoea. D) Why is dehydration so dangerous and how to avoid it. ? Bilharzia: The group leader present knowledge from the manual about Bilharzia. - Discuss methods in the group to avoid Bilharzia. This would include - Not to use water from Bilharzia infected source, how to avoid children playing in the water .... Third lesson Malaria, action plan. Malaria ? The group leader present knowledge about malaria from the manual ? Points for discussion: ? A) Traditional believes about malaria - which are correct and which are wrong. ? B) Share methods of minimising the breading of mosquitoes - and chasing away mosquitoes ex. through burning leaves etc. ? C) Why is it so important with early treatment of Malaria. Analysing the sanitation situation in the village The secretary present his/her findings. So many with latrines, so many with dish racks, so many with refuse pits etc. The group discuss where the village need improvements and what could be done. A concert plan should be drawn.
  • 13. 13 Background knowledge Hygiene Illnesses can be caused by germs getting into your mouth via contaminated food and water ? Washing hands with soap and water removes germs from the hands. This can stop germs from getting onto the food and into the mouth. ? It is especially important to wash hands : ? After you have visited the latrine ? After cleaning the bottom of a baby or a child ? ? A child often puts the fingers into the mouth. Therefore it is important to wash a child's hands several times a day. Illnesses can be prevented by using latrines ? Many diseases, especially diarrhoea, come from germs found in faeces. People can swallow the germs, if germs get into water, onto food, onto the hands or on kitchen utensils like pots and plates.Therefore it is very important to dispose of faeces safely. It is done by : ? Always using a latrine, also children ? Faeces from babies and small children are especially dangerous. Their faeces should be cleared up immediately and thrown into the latrine or buried ? Faeces from animals must be kept away from the home and away from water sources. ? Keep animals out of the house and out of the kitchen.
  • 14. 14 Illnesses can be prevented by using clean drinking water ? The best is to get drinking water from a safe source like a mono pump or a protected well. ? If the water comes from an unsafe source like an unprotected well, a river or a dam - it must always be boiled before drinking. Boiling the water kills the germs. ? It is important to store the water safely at home : ? Store the drinking water in a clean and covered container, bucket or jar. ? Always use a clean cup, when taking water out of the container. The cup shall only be used for taking drinking water. ? Don't allow anybody to put their hands into the container or to drink directly from the container with drinking water. Illnesses can be prevented by keeping food clean ? Germs grow in areas of dirt. Keep kitchen utensils and the table / surface where the food is prepared very clean. Use a rack for dishes to dry the kitchen utensils in a clean and safe place. ? Raw food is often dangerous, because it usually contains germs. It is best to cook the food. ? Cooked food should be eaten straight away - not left to stand, because it might be contaminated. ? It is best not to save cooked food. But in case left over are going to be used, it is very important to re-heat it again all the way through.
  • 15. 15 Illnesses can be prevented by using a refuse pit ? Germs can be spread by flies. Flies like to breed in refuse like food left over or peelings from vegetables and fruits. ? The family should have a refuse pit where household refuse is buried or burned every day. ? The refuse pit should be dug 2 meter deep and situated 20 meters from the house in order to keep flies away from the home ? It is best to have 2 refuse pits. One refuse pit for things ,which can rot and decompose like food, ashes, grass and plants. This compost can be used in the vegetable garden or in the field as manure. Another refuse pit for things, which cannot decompose like plastic, paper, iron or glass. Illnesses can be prevented through a good personal hygiene ? Good personal hygiene includes : - Bathing and cleaning the teeth every day - Keeping the fingernails short - Wearing clean clothes and using clean bedding What the family must do: Use a rack for dishes Boil drinking water or collect it from a safe source Use a refuse and a compost pit Keep the children clean and tidy. Keep the home and surrounding clean and beautiful. Keep drinking water and food covered Use a latrine Use a simple hand washing system after toilet visit. Wash hand before eating and before preparing food.
  • 16. 16
  • 17. 17 Background knowledge Diarrhoea Diarrhoea is dangerous ? Many children, who get diarrhoea will die from it. ? Diarrhoea can kill by draining too much water from the body. Therefore it is very important to give a child or an adult with diarrhoea a lot to drink to replace the liquid being lost. ? Diarrhoea can lead to serious malnutrition. Therefore it is very important to encourage a child with diarrhoea to eat. A person with diarrhoea needs lots of liquids and foods ? A person and especially a child with diarrhoea needs a lot to drink. Suitable drinks to prevent dehydration include: ? Breast milk ? Gruel's (mixture of cooked cereals and water ) ? Fruit juices ? Weak tea ? Clean water ? Oral dehydration salts solution. ? It is important, that a person with diarrhoea continues to eat to get more energy. Diarrhoea can lead to malnutrition especially in children. Even if a person or a child with diarrhoea has less appetite, he or she must be encouraged to eat as often as possible. Give small amounts of food, that the person likes most. ? When a breast fed child has diarrhoea, it is very important to continue breast feeding. ? A child, who is recovering from diarrhoea needs an extra meal every day for at least 2 weeks. This will help the child to catch up on the food "lost" while the child was ill. It can be necessary to go to the clinic or hospital because of diarrhoea ? A child or an adult shall be brought to the clinic if he or she: - has a fever - is extremely thirsty - vomits frequently - passes several watery stools in one or two hours - passes blood in the stool - if the diarrhoea continues for more than two weeks ? Some diarrhoea diseases such a cholera and dysentery are very dangerous. A person can die from cholera if untreated in 2 days. Therefor it is very important to go to the clinic if a person has severe diarrhoea. ORS drink can save lives ? diarrhoea shall be given ORS drink. ORS drink replaces both liquid and salts to the body. ? ORS drink prevents and treats dehydration. ? ORS drink is made by mixing one litre (2 big cups) of clean water with four level tea spoons of sugar and half a level teaspoon of salt. Or by mixing one ORS packet, which can be obtained from the clinic with 1 litre (2 big cups) of clean water.
  • 18. 18 Diarrhoea can be prevented ? Diarrhoea is caused by germs from faeces. These germs can enter the mouth mostly through dirty water and dirty foods. ? The most important ways to prevent diarrhoea are : - always use a latrine - bury or put children's faeces into the latrine immediately - use clean drinking water - wash hands with soap before cooking and eating - wash hands after visiting the toilet - give breast milk alone for the fist 6 months of the baby's life (breast milk helps to protect against diarrhoea and other illnesses.) - keep the food clean - always warm up left over before eating - use a refuse pit Signs of severe dehydration ? A child, who has any of these signs of severe dehydration shall be given ORS drink and taken to the clinic immediately: - Sunken fontanel - Dry mouth and tongue - Sunken tearless eyes - Loss of elasticity of the skin What the family must do ? Know how to prepare an ORS drink ? Follow all the hygiene rules explained under Hygiene. Lift the skin between two fingers, like this If the skin fold does not fall right back to normal. The child is dehydrated
  • 19. 19 Background knowledge Bilharzia. What is Bilharzia ? Bilharzia is caused by a kind of worm, that gets into the blood stream of human beings. It is very important to seek medical help. Organs like kidney and liver can be destroyed and cause death, if Bilharzia is not treated. The life circle of Bilharzia MAN - WATER- SNAIL - MAN ? Infected person urinates in the water (river, dam etc.) ? Urine has worm eggs in it ? Worm eggs hatch and enter water snails ? Young worms leave snail and go into another person, who is washing or swimming in the water. ? In this way somebody who washes or swims in water, where an infected person has urinated also becomes infected.
  • 20. 20 Signs of Bilharzia ? The most common sign of Bilharzia is blood in the urine, especially when passing the last drops. ? Pain in lower belly and between the legs can also occur - mostly at the end of urinating. ? Low body temperature and itching can occur. Treatment of bilharzia ? You should always go to the clinic or hospital, if have any signs of Bilharzia, because Bilharzia can be treated with medicine. ? It is also important to eat well and maintain a healthy diet, when you recover from Bilharzia. Prevention ? Never urinate in the water or near to the water. Always use latrines ? Always boil drinking water ? The small water snail, which is the carrier of Bilharzia worms is mostly found in stagnant water. Therefore you must NEVER wash or swim in stagnant water or in any water where you are not sure whether it has Bilharzia worms. ? Leave water for washing and bathing in the sun for two days before use. It can kill the Bilharzia worms. ? Pick and kill the water snails, whenever you see them. ? Use protective clothes, when irrigating or fishing in infected water.
  • 21. 21 Background knowledge Malaria Malaria is spread by the bite of a mosquito Care must therefore be taken to keep mosquitoes away especially from children IT CAN BE DONE BY: ? Using bednets ? Burning leaves or using mosquito coils ? Keeping doors and windows closed at night and closing all the cracks in the house ? Putting screen on doors and windows in the house ? Wearing trousers and shirts with long sleeves at night ? Planting strong smelling plants near the home such as lemon grass, Artemisia, wild Tagetes. IT IS IMPORTANT TO PREVENT MOSQUITOES FROM BREEDING It can be done by: ? Covering water ponds ? Removing tins, pots or other things, which can collect water ? Not planting crops near the house ? Slashing the grass near the house Using a refuse pit, leaving no refuse lying around SYMPTOMS OF MALARIA ARE: ? Headache, fever, muscle pains, diarrhea, stiffness of the neck ? You don’t need to have all the symptoms to have malaria. For example, continuos headache without fever can be caused by malaria TREATMENT OF MALARIA ? Malaria is a serious disease, which can cause death. ? A child with fever or other symptoms of malaria should immediately be taken to a health worker or to the nearest clinic ? An adult, who suspects that he/she has malaria, should also see a health worker or go to the clinic ? Follow the instruction from the clinic and finish the whole course of medicin given. If you are not feeling better after two days go back to the clinic. NURSING A PERSON WITH MALARIA: A person with fever must drink a lot of fluids. ORS drink is good because it replaces the salt and water lost through sweating.
  • 22. 22 It is dangerous for a person to have a very high fever. Bring the fever down by: ? Give medicine to bring down the fever. ? Aspirin or paracetamol works well ? Place the person in a cool place ? Remove clothing ? Sponge the person with cool (not cold) water, especially on the chest an forehead. ? Give cool water to drink ? A person recovering from malaria needs plenty to drink and eat WHAT THE FAMILY MUST DO TO PREVENT MALARIA ? No crops planted near to the house ? Grass has been slashed at least 30 meters from the house ? The yard around the house is swept ? No water ponds ? No refuse lying around ? Sleep under mosquito nets ? Regular treat the nets with insecticides ? Burn strong smelling leaves to chase away mosquitoes ? Plant strong smalling plants near the home
  • 23. 23 SECOND MONTH OF THE STARTING UP PROGRAM HOME IMPROVEMENT - ENVIRONMENT Inspiration for the group leader Introduction. Under this headline the group will go through the following lessons in the manual: ?Environment ?Water point maintenance ?Tree planting - forest management ?Firewood saving stove. The main aim with this topic is to make the members understand and appreciate the environment and to maintain the natural resources maintaining them. The members shall discuss and decide what they will like to embark on within the topics depending on the environment surrounding them. This headline is much linked to the headline for the first month - and references to the previous lessons and follow up on practical achievements is essential. Environment. 5th lesson. The group leader explain shortly what environment means using the information in the manual and lead hereafter a discussion in the group taking up the following questions: ?Which natural resources are important for us here in our village? ?Are any of these resources endangered - and if so what should be done to protect them (wild animals, over fishing, trees, streams, soil etc.)? ?Are there any actions, which the group will like to embark on within protection of natural resources? ?Is beautiful surroundings something important for us? ?What can be done to improve our home in terms environment. ?What can be done to improve public facilities. ?Are there any actions, which the group will like to embark on within improvement of the surrounding environment. The secretary should write down the ideas discussed in the group. End the session by visiting a home and look at the home improvements already carried out and discuss how this home could be improve the environment.
  • 24. 24 Tree planting - maintaining of the natural resources. 7th lesson. The group could start with a brain storming on all the uses of trees. Hereafter the group leader lead a discussion on the tree situation in the area, taking up the following questions: ?Are there enough trees around our village for firewood, poles and other uses? ?How has the development been within the past years - have you seen a decline in the number of trees? ?Is it needed to plant trees - or is it needed to protect the natural forest? ?What is the dangers of the forest (ex charcoal burning) - what could be done to improve the situation? ?Would it be good to plant trees around the homes to improve the environment - if so for which purposes (windbreak, shade, fruit etc.) ? ?Would the members like to plant trees - if so which type of trees? ?Discuss experiences of planting trees in the area - what has been tried already, what succeeded and what failed - why? If members of the group is interested in producing tree seedlings - the group leaders should explain how seedlings can be produced. Explain: Seed collection, seed treatment, nursery preparation, sowing and maintenance of the seedlings. Finally the group should decide if they want to grow seedlings individually, establish a village nursery - and if so who in the group should be the responsible for the nursery. Firewood saving stove . 8th lesson. This lesson need to be very practical. The best is if one in the group already has constructed a stove - so the group can see the stove in real. The person who have constructed the stove explain about the advantages of the stove and how it is constructed. If there are no stove constructed within the group - the group leaders should explain about the stove using the drawing the manual. Members explain if they will like such a stove - and if so the group decide an action plan for how to do the construction: The plan should include what the beneficiary should do (ex collection of anthill clay and sand) and who is the group should learn the skill to provide assistance to the group members. Follow up on sanitation and home improvements. The group fill in the monitoring form for the village - and discuss if the planned chievements have been achieved. If not discuss why? It could be because some people do not agree about the need for the achievements? - or they have not understood how? - or the person (people) responsible have not carried out the duties decided upon? - or the needed materials did not come as expected? A new plan is decided upon.
  • 25. 25 BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE ENVIRONMENT Environment is everything around us: It is the air, the rain, the soil, the grass, rivers, trees, wild and domestic animals, birds, insects and people. In the nature everything depends on each other in the big circle of life: Everything in nature is inter linked: ? Plants grow with energy from the sun, minerals from the soil, water from the rain and carbon hydrate from the air.. ? Plants produce oxygen in the growing process. ? Animals and people use oxygen, which they get from the air when breathing - and breath out carbon hydrates - which again is used by the plants. ? Animals eat plant - and some animals live from other animals. ? When animals die, they will decompose - and the minerals will again be used by plants to grow. We must take care of the nature. Look around you - and see how fantastic the nature has been created by God. As a gift for us and a gift for all living creatures on Earth. We should have respect for the nature and keep it as beautiful and well functioning as it was given to us.
  • 26. 26 Beautiful surroundings will give us beautiful thoughts: We can beautify our homes and our country by: ? Planting flowers, trees and hedges around our homes, schools and churches. ?? Keep the area around our homes clean and tighty. ?? Paint the houses with natural clay colors ?? Keep public areas clean - stop throwing refuse around. (Don’t though litter out of the bus windows). Protection of our natural resources will give us and the future generations an ever lasting reward. We should protect our natural resources, because once gone - they are gone for good. We should therefor: ? Protect the land against erosion. ? Maintain soil fertility ? Protect our forest - and not cut trees indiscriminately. ? Protect the dams and rivers from siltation by not cutting trees and not cultivating the land near river banks. ? Never catch fish or hunt birds and wildlife on times of breading. ? Do not catch fish with a small net - as you will catch fish which have just started growing. ? Never hunt protected species - as you will participate in eliminating these species from Earth. ? Use pesticides carefully
  • 27. 27 Back ground knowledge MAINTANANCE OF WELLS AND BORE HOLES CLEAN WATER IS IMPORTANT FOR A GOOD HEALTH Clean drinking water is very important for the family to keep themselves healthy. Many diseases are caused by unclean water. Safe water comes from a protected hand dug well, from a tube well with a bucket pump, or from a bore hole with a hand pump. If the hygienic rules for the water points are well kept - all these systems are good. The safest are bore holes with hand pumps. However, this cannot be installed everywhere because of the high costs. One bore hole costs the same as 10 wells. WATER COMMITTEES In order to construct and maintain a water point - any of the above mentioned, it is important that the community form a water committee. This committee consists of a chairman, a secretary, a treasurer and a few active members. The responsibility of the committee is to organize the committee about the construction of the water point and hereafter maintain and safeguard it. To protect it against vandalism and theft and to keep the area clean. The committee must every year after harvest receive contributions from the families, in order to be able to buy spares, cement and so on for the maintenance and repair. MAJOR RULES TO MAINTAIN A WELL ? Slash grass around the well ? Keep the drainage clean and the area clean by sweeping ? Keep animals away from the well : construct a fence ? Keep the bucket and rope/chain clean - it should never stand on the ground. ? Put on the lid after use ? Take in the windless, chain and bucket in at night or lock it MAJOR RULES TO MAINTAIN A BORE HOLE ? Slash grass around the bore hole ? Keep the drainage and the area clean by sweeping ? Fence the bore hole - this is important, because cattle can destroy the pump ? Check that children never play with the pump ? The handle must be operated smoothly ? The pump should be greased and bolts tightened monthly ? The well committee shall call for trained assistance if the pump breaks down, buy spares and pay the plumber for work done. The government might have a system for the repairing of hand pumps, but the community must know that they are the ones who will suffer, it takes a long time to repair the pump There are pumps in Zambia which have been broken down for 3 years. Therefore it is better for the welfare of the community to solve the problem locally
  • 28. 28 CREATE A GOOD ENVIRONMENT AROUND THE WATER POINT The community should make a nice environment around the water point. This can include: ?Living fence - for example using Euphorbia. A living fence looks beautiful - and at the same time the community does not need always to renew a pole fence. ?Shade trees. ?Flowers. ? USER FEE The committee should collect a user fee - monthly or yearly. In order to have funds for maintenance. THE WATER LADDER
  • 29. 29 Back ground knowledge FOREST MANAGEMENT AND TREE PLANTING TREES ARE IMPORTANT FOR OUR ENVIRONMENT The Environment is all that surrounds us, that is the soil, the water, the people, the animals, the birds, the insects etc. There exists a balance in nature, created through millions of years of develop- ment. The sun gives energy which is used by plants to grow. Plants give out oxygen for people and animals to breathe. Plants are also eaten by people and animals. The rain falls and trees play an important role in the rain cycle - as they get water from deep in the ground. This water evaporates from the leaves and will later fall as new rain. Trees are an important part of the natural cycle of life. PROTECTION AGAINST NEW DESERTS Deforestation (cutting down the trees) in combination with soil erosion (caused by overgrazing, mono cropping and other unsustainable agricultural methods) might result in the creation of new deserts. Once fertile farming lands are destroyed and nothing can grow there - a man made desert is formed. Every year big areas are turned into deserts. For example, the Sahara Desert expands by 10 km southwards every year. Trees assist to prevent the creation of new deserts. For example, the Sahara Desert expands by 10 km southwards every year. Trees assist to prevent the creation of new desert. FOR FENCING Living fences can be planted around the orchard, vegetable gardens and the homestead. Their main function is to eliminate the need to construct and replace dead fences every year or the cost of purchasing and maintaining wire fences. They need to be constantly trimmed in order to make many small branches which form a thick hedge. The living fence will effectively keep the crops and trees safe if it is well maintained. FRUITS Fruit trees will provide fruit, which will give much needed vitamins to the family. The orchard must have different varieties so that there will be fruits throughout the year. For example in Zambia one can harvest fruits like Mangoes (from November to February), Guavas (from March to June), Paw-paws (from May to November), Tamarind (from October to February), Mulberry (from September to November). RELISH Trees can also be planted to provide relish. Drumstick is one type which can provide the family with green tasty leaves for relish throughout the year. WIND BREAKING Plant trees around the orchard, yard, garden or field for wind breaking - mainly in the direction, of the strong winds (where the wind blows from). These trees can at the same time, be used for firewood, poles and as boundary markers. They will also be homes for birds and other small animals and insects which keep the natural balance in your yard, orchard and garden.
  • 30. 30 FOR MAKING INSECTICIDES Tephrosia vegelii. This shrub is a very good insecticide. You pound the leaves, branches and pods in water. This liquid can treat the steam borer in maize, it can be used to control ticks in cattle, etc. TO PLANT ON CONTOUR BOUNDS Plant trees on contour bounds to make them stronger. The roots from the trees will assist to bind the soil. FOR POLES, FIREWOOD, CHARCOAL, BUILDING MATERIAL, FURNITURE, PAPER, MEDICINE, MATCHES ETC. Households in rural areas ought to grow ex. 50 trees to provide the home with firewood and other tree material. FOR IMPROVING THE SOIL Trees can also be planted to improve soil, which has been exhausted. Plant a nitrogen fixing tree such as Sespania or Tephrosia closely in a field. Leave the trees to grow for around 3 years, then they can then be harvested. The land will have improved and can be used for growing other crops successfully for two years without using any fertilizer. Faidherbia Albida (Musangum) fertilizes the soil, and maize grows very well under them - because this tree drops its leaves before the rain season, and will therefore not shade the maize. The cattle love to find shade under this tree in the hot season and to eat the pods. This tree should therefore not be cut down, if it is found in the field. If you find many young trees try to transplant them throughout your fields. FOR INCOME GENERATING Families who have planted many trees will be able to make a good income from the trees. Poles, firewood, timber and fruits can be sold locally or be transported to town and sold. FOR FODDER Trees can be planted and be used as fodder for domestic animals. It is important to give the animals additional fodder in the dry season to keep them healthy. WE MUST PROTECT THE FOREST In some areas of Zambia there are waste forests, while the forests in other areas have been cut down. In areas without trees the villagers have problems in getting firewood, poles and other materials from the forest. This means extra work for the women, who use a lot of time collecting firewood - or extra expense for the household in order to transport the firewood and poles from far away places. In some areas the natural forest can be utilized wisely and will give enough wood for the community. In other areas the utilization of the forest must go hand in hand with planting fast growing species. CHARCOAL BURNING: Often charcoal burners clear the forest and leave the land bare. This should be discouraged. Thick forest can be used for charcoal burning - but using selective cutting only.
  • 31. 31 CUTTING TREES ON HILLS AND STEEP SLOPES: This must be discouraged, because the trees protect the land against erosion. If the slopes are left bare - the soil will be destroyed. CUTTING TREES NEAR RIVERS AND DAMS: This must be discouraged, because the trees protect the land from erosion. Keep on cutting and the result will be loss of fertile top soil - and siltation of rivers and dams. CHITEMENE SYSTEM: In the Chitemene system trees are cut down on a big area and burned in order to give ashes for a small field. This system works well - but the problem is that with the growing population, more and more land will be needed and more and more forest will be burned. The result will be, that there will not be enough time for the forest to regenerate. It is better to learn to use good and sustainable agriculture methods - so the same land can be used year after year. Uses of trees
  • 32. 32 HOW TO PRODUCE TREE SEEDLINGS INTRODUCTION Where tree seedlings are produced use the following methods: 1. Produce the seedlings in a tree nursery in polythene pots 2. Produce the seedlings in a nursery using seedbeds 3. Produce the seedlings from sowing the seeds on the site, where the trees are wanted 4. Find wildings (small seedlings under mature trees in the nature) and plant them 5. Plant cuttings. GROWING SEEDLINGS IN A TREE NURSERY Site selection A nursery should be located near a water source, on flat land. It should also have wind breakers and not be waterlogged. The size of the nursery depends on the number of tree seedlings to be produced. However, it does not need to be big. e.g. if you want 5000 seedlings 10m x 10m will be sufficient. Fencing The nursery must be fenced in order to protect the tree seedlings from animals. If there is a possibility of problems with chickens use grass and poles. Other places can be constructed with thorny bushes. For permanent nurseries, it is a good idea to establish a living fence around the nursery at the beginning of the rainy season. It is also good to plant a few shade trees in the nursery. It is also good to plant a few shade trees in the nursery Nursery Beds Make the beds 1 m wide with 60 cm between each bed as walkways. If you have polythene pots mark out the beds with material like natural stones, burnt clay bricks, poles, or simply dig the beds 5 cm deep. A bed which is 1 meter wide and 5 meters long can accommodate from 500 to 1000 seedlings- depending on the size of the poly pots. Type of soil to use The polythene pots or the seed beds can be filled with good top soil and the best soil is found under big trees (Faidherbia Albida) or near dams/rivers. If the soil has a lot of clay (easy to form a ball when wet), you should mix the soil with sand. If the soil is not very fertile you should mix it with manure. Never mix more than one part of manure to 10 parts of soil, because the manure can burn the tree seedlings. How to fill the polythene pots with soil The bottom layer must be pressed hard, the middle layer should be slightly pressed and the top layer quite loose. The soil is pressed hard at the bottom in order for the soil not to fall out during transportation. If you have no polythene pots you can use any available container, such as from Chibuku. Remember to perforate the bottom area so that excess water can run out.
  • 33. 33 HOW TO SOW THE SEEDS Cover the seeds with soil twice the size of the actual seed. This means the bigger the seeds are, the more soil will be needed for covering. Sow seeds directly in the poly pots and in seed beds. If you have a lot of seeds, it is better to sow at least 3 seeds per pot. Seeds can also be sown in seed beds for later transplanting to poly pots, or even directly to the field. It is also a good idea to have some seedbeds in order to transplant the small plants to poly pots, in cases where the seeds did not germinate. SHADING The seedbed or polythene pots should be covered with a thin layer of grass after sowing to protect against the sun and heavy rain storms. Too thick a layer of grass is bad for germination. When the seedlings have germinated you should build a shade at a height of around 60 cm above the seedlings. Seed collection Many seeds can be collected locally from existing trees, it is better if you collect seeds from good and healthy trees. Seeds from any ripe fruit that you have bought or collected can be washed, and afterwards can be sown fresh or dried in the shade. Seed treatment It is important that the seeds are treated correctly before sowing or it will take a long time to germinate, and germination will be very poor. There are basically two different treatments:
  • 34. 34 ?Cold water treatment: ?Leave the seeds in cold water overnight before sowing. This applies to most fruit tree seeds and some other soft seeds ?Hot water treatment: ? Boil water (the volume of the water must be twice the volume of the seeds. Soak the seeds into the hot water and leave them to soak over night. Watering While the seeds are germinating and the seedlings are small, they must be watered every day. Afterwards every other day is sufficient. Use a water can or sprinkler made from a plastic container or tin with small holes in it. Do not put too much water as it can cause fungal diseases Weeding Keep the polythene pots or seedbeds free from weeds at all times. Transplanting Seedlings can be transplanted from seedbeds, when they are 3 to 5 cm tall. Transplant them to poly pots or to another seedbed for bare root planting (distance 5 cm x 5 cm). Water the seedlings and water the pots. Lift the seedling and make sure that the root will not be disturbed. Make a planting hole with a finger or a stick. Make sure the hole is bigger than the root. Press the soil firmly around the plant. Irrigate again and give full shade to the seedlings for 3 days. Always sort out the pots which contain seedlings from the empty pots where seeds did not germinate or where transplanted seedlings died. Re-sow or plant in these pots. Root pruning Eliminate small roots protruding from the poly pots by simply lifting the pots and breaking the roots by turning the poly pot around or by cutting the roots with a knife. Without pruning the roots will grow under the poly pots which can cause difficulties during transplanting, as roots may be damaged or break. Before and after root pruning the seedlings must be well
  • 35. 35 irrigated. Give full shade to the seedlings for 2 to 3 days. PLANTING AND MAINTENANCE OF TREES Introduction Like any other plant in a field, trees need to be well cared for. A good tree is the result of good management starting from the time of seed selection up to the time the tree is ready for harvesting or for as long as the tree provides fruit HOW TO MAKE HOLES FOR PLANTING TREES Fruit trees: Dig a hole of 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm minimum – but better to make it 1 m x 1 m x 1 m. When digging, put the top soil on one side and subsoil on the other side. When filling the hole, mix the soil in the following manner: Fill the top- soil back into the hole and mix it with one bucket of kraal manure or compost, 1 cup of ashes and, if available, l handful of D-compound. Mix thoroughly. Fill up the hole with top soil from the surrounding area. Use the subsoil to make a basin in order to irrigate the tree. Leave to settle for at least 2 weeks. If there are any problems with termites you should mix chopped Euphorbia with the other substances and put into the planting hole. Other trees: For non fruit trees make a hole 30 cm deep and 30 cm in diameter. You can also plow the lines for planting trees. All trees will grow best if you mix manure, ashes and if possible a little fertilizer into the planting holes. Eucalyptus will not do well without manure or fertilizer. Plant early and plant correctly: Prepare the holes before the onset of rains - or just after the rain has started. Trees planted in the beginning of the rain season do much better than trees planted late in the rain season. It is therefore important that you start the nursery early - so the seedlings are ready to be planted when the rain starte. Measure the correct distance and place a small peg for every tree
  • 36. 36 HOW TO PLANT TREES Planting of seedling in a polypot: Remove or cut the poly pot carefully without disturbing the roots. It can best be removed by cutting with a razor blade. Plant the seedlings carefully so the soil will not be disturbed around the root. Plant the seedling at the same level as the surrounding land. Make a basin out of the subsoil for watering the plants. Press the soil firmly around the plant. Irrigate the plant with at least 5 liters of water (if it is not raining). Mulch the trees with dry grass or other plant materials. Make sure that the mulch does not touch the stem in order to avoid attracting termites. Planting of cuttings: Prepare the cuttings from mature branches. A coating shall be around 30 cm long. Place 10 to 15 cm down in the ground. Cuttings will easily make roots if the planting hole is prepared with compost or manure. Ensure that the cuttings receive water if it does not rain for a few days. Direct planting of tree seeds: Mangoes are normally raised from seeds and planted directly at the place to stay. Mango seeds easily germinate but for the future growth of the tree it is an advantage to prepare planting holes as described above. Most trees can be planted using the direct seed sowing method. You should always irrigate the germinating seedlings if it does not rain for a few days. lanting site and spacing You must select a good place where to plant trees. You must not plant too close to the house or under big trees. Always think of how big the trees will grow and allow enough space between them. If you plant many trees, it is an advantage to use a planting string. RECOMMENDED SPACING: Guava 6m x 4m Oranges 6m x 4m Papaw 3m x 2m Eucalyptus 2m x 3m Passion fruit 3m x 2m Gmelina 2m x 3m Avocado 6m x 12m Cassia 2m x 3m
  • 37. 37 Mango 6m x 12m HOW TO PROTECT YOUNG TREES ?Keep the area at least ½ m around the seedling free from weeds all the time. Weeds will destroy the seedling or make it’s growth slower. Slash between the trees. ?Protect the seedlings against animals by establishing a fence around the plantation, and around each individual tree. It can, where convenient, be done with thorny branches ?Protect the seedlings against fire. Make a firebreak of at least 5 m around the plantation - or around the home. The firebreak can be done by early burning in May to June ?Mulch around the trees - especially fruit trees. This will minimize the amount of irrigation To eradicate termites, apply ashes and the leaves of Cassia Siamea, tobacco or Euphorbia around the tree. You can also water around the tree with a pesticide. HOW TO CHASE AWAY BROWSING ANIMALS FROM THE TREES Place cow or goat dung in a bucket of water (1 l dung in a bucket). Leave to soak overnight. Sive. Spray the following day on the trees. The goats and cows will be chased away because of the smell. Keep an eye on the trees - when the animals come too close to the trees it is time to spray again. HOW TO LOOK AFTER FRUIT TREES. ? In low rainfall areas nearly all fruit trees need irrigation. The amount of water will increase with the size of the tree. The basin must also increase with the size of the tree. The basin ought to be as wide as the canopy of the tree. A 2 year old Orange tree will need 1 bucket of water, while a big Orange tree will need a full drum of water for irrigation ? Fruit trees which are not watered will yield less and will give fruits of low quality (small size and sour) ? Apply some kraal manure, compost and if available D-compound around the trees at the beginning of the rain season. Mix the manure and fertilizer into the soil not
  • 38. 38 near the stem and avoid to disturb the tree roots. A big tree will need at least one wheel barrow full of manure/ compost yearly. ? Remove all sick and dead branches. Beside this, most fruit trees do not need pruning - which can actually often do more harm than good. Fruit trees which benefit from yearly pruning are: Guava, Passion fruit and Peaches ? When trees and fruits are attacked by pests, look into the list of Natural Pesticides for methods of spraying against this pest Let the bassin grow with the tree HOW TO LOOK AFTER TREES FOR POLES AND FIREWOOD. In order to secure that Gmelina and Cassia will grow straight for poles, you can prune away side branches. Never prune Eucalyptus trees - they will grow better undisturbed, and will still provide a straight pole. Harvest the tree with a slanting cut, around 10 cm from the ground. New shoots will grow up - only leave two of those new shoots to grow.
  • 39. 39 Back ground knowledge STOVE CONSTRUCTION WHY CONSTRUCT A STOVE A stove has a number of advantages: ?A good stove use only half of the amount of firewood used on a three stone fire. ?It is safe for children compared with the three stone fire. ?A good stove reduces smoke in the kitchen and it improves hygiene. ?The stove we will introduce in this chapter, is cheap and easy to construct. Where to construct the stove As it is made of clay, it must be placed on a kitchen, covered with a roof. It must face the door opening, to get more air for starting the fire. The stove introduced in this chapter has no chimney and can therefore be constructed in the middle of the kitchen as well as near the wall. If constructed in the middle, it can as well be used for the family to gather around in the evenings HOW TO CONSTRUCT THE ONE POT STOVE Materials needed: The amount of materials depend on the size of the stove so the following are approximates 1 wheelbarrow ant hill clay. It can be from the small anthills found in dambo areas or from big anthills. It must be good clay. Preparation of materials ?Collect all materials the day before you want to make the stove. ?Crush the clay into dust. It can be done with sticks/ shovel ?Soak the clay dust overnight ?1 x 20 l sand. It shall be river sand without stones ?6 bricks, a little ash and water Preparation of materials ?Collect all materials the day before you want to make the stove. ?Crush the clay into dust. It can be done with sticks/ shovel ?Soak the clay dust overnight ?Remove stones, sticks etc. from the clay and the sand Mixture ?Mix the clay and the sand in the ration 1 sand to 2 clay. Add water - little at the time. Mix. Continue to add water until the mixture has a good structure to work with. Try to form a lump in your hand and drop it to the ground If it splashes out it is too wet. If it goes into pieces it is too dry.
  • 40. 40 Too wet mixture Too dry mixture Good mixture Foundation Make a foundation out of 4 big bricks (15cm x 20cm). Plaster the foundation with the clay mixture outside and fill it up half way inside. Place a layer of 5 cm ash. This will isolate and the heat will move downwards and warm up the ground. Therefore the stove will be more efficient. Build the stove ?You can use a 5 liter paint tin or a pot as a mould for the firebox. The firebox (the whole in the middle shall be same size as your smallest pot). It will normally be around 20 cm wide. The firebox shall be 19 cm tall and the walls around 10 cm thick.
  • 41. 41 Rest for firewood ?Place three bricks in front of the stove – ?where you want to cut the opening for firewood. ?Plaster the bricks. ?Leave the stove to rest over night. Shape the stove ?Move the tin/ pot used as a mould. ?Shape the outside of the stove using a knife or building trowel. ?Shine the stove using water. Curve out the mouth for firewood ?Curve out the side opening (mouth) for firewood using a building trowel or a knife. The opening must have a shape as a egg. ?The size should be the same as the hole inside the stove. ?The stove wall on top of the mouth should not be less than 5 cm or it can easily break. Carve the edge ?Carve the edge to 45 degrees using a knife. This will make it possible to place the pot rests and to use pot of different diameter. The pot rests ?The potrest are what you place your pot on. There shall be 3 potrests. You form three pieces of clay which shall be 1 cm thick (as a finger), 3 cm wide (as 3 fingers) and 10 cm long. Prepare the place to put the potrest by scratching into the clay for better connection. Place the potrest so it cover the top as well as the side of the hole. Do not place any pot rest over the opening for firewood. The potrest is important because they let the smoke to come out. Without the potrests the stove will not burn well. Wait to use the stove ?Wait 2 weeks to use the stove in order for it to be completely dry. Repair of cracks ?Don’t get disappointed if the stove make some cracks. It is very common. It is good to leave some of the mixture in a plastic bag and use that mixture to fill into the cracks.
  • 42. 42 CHILD CARE Introduction. Under this headline the group will go through the following lessons in the manual: ? The needs and the rights of children ? Child growth ? Immunization ? Child development ? Family planing and safe motherhood ? Education for all Many children do not develop fully due to lack of correct care, stimulation and nutrition. Many die before they grow up, others become malnourished and will never develop their body and mind fully, others are abused and become mentally distorted. The aim with this topic is to improve the life, growth and development of the children. For them to live happily and to grow up using their full potentials. Use the background information to learn and discuss with each other using the knowledge of the group members. This training in the Village Action Group shall be followed by discussions and awareness campaigns in the area. It should be emphasized that child care is not only a family matter but should be the concern of the entire community. CHILDREN’S NEEDS AND CHILDREN’S RIGHTS Topic no 9 ?Start with introduction to the headline for the month. ?Explain shortly about the rights of children and give a few example. Ask hereafter the members to list the rights. Add if needed. Discuss if children in your villages meet these rights. ?Continue to the needs of children. Explain that they often are seminar to the needs. Explain the 4 different categories of needs and divide the members into 4 groups. Each group shall come up with all the needs in one category and present. ?2 groups hereafter prepare and present sketches about good and 2 groups about bad care of children (include orphans). Discuss: What is being done right and what is being done wrong? How does the child feel and reach in each case. ?Explain about stress in children. Use examples from the sketches recently performed. Explain the 3 categories of stress. Divide the members into 3 groups. Each group shall come up with more examples in one of the categories. Discuss and add what is missing. ?Discuss children can cope up with stress and how to assist children in need. ?Discuss the situation for children in the area. Are their rights and needs met and how can the DAPP group assist and improve the situation. THIRD MONTH OF THE STARTING UP PROGRAM
  • 43. 43 Child growth, immunization and nutrition. Topic no. 10 ? Start with a short reflection of the previous topic. ? Explain about nutritious food (use the membership book). Tell about the 3 types of food. Let members bring examples of food from each category and ensure they understand the difference. ? Discuss how to feed a small baby 0 to 6 months. Ask questions and discuss why exclusive breast feeding is important (ONLY breast milk). It is important that everybody understand and agree. ? Discuss how to feed a small child age 6 month to 5 years. Use the knowledge about the 3 different types of food and bring up various examples of good combinations - taking the economy and the type of food available into consideration. Talk about how often the child shall eat. Explain how to read the weighing scale - using the example in this manual. Explain as well why the child in the example got malnourished ? Discuss how to feed school going children. Why is good nutrition important for big children and for adults. Which type of food. What time of the day to eat. ? Explain the symptoms of malnutrition. Discuss if some children to members in the group are malnourished. Tell everybody to bring the weighing card for the next meeting to help each other controlling. Discuss what can be done to improve the situation. (Discuss also children that is between two to 5 years of age) ? Show the drawing in the manual called 6 vaccine preventable diseases. Discuss why vaccination is so important. Find out if all children to members are vaccinated. ? Ask if all the mothers go to under five clinic regularly. Discuss the importance of attending Under Five clinic regularly. Child development. Topic no 11. ? Start with a revision of children’s rights and needs. Reflect on why it is good to learn more in order to meet these rights and needs. The previous topic was about correct feeding of children - very necessary for developing their full potential. This topic is about the emotional and social needs of the children. ? Read the chapter about child development together. After each point stop up and discuss. Things to discuss should include: How does a child learn? What can parents do to assist a child to learn more? Why is it important for a child to have time to play? Which type of work is good for a child to carry out in different age groups? How do parents show appreciation to the child - and why is it important? ? Discuss if all children go to school. If not why - and could something be done to improve the situation. Are there some differences between girls and boys attending school ? ? Discuss advantages of a preschool. Would it be good to start a community preschool in the area? ? Revise the symptoms of stress in children and discuss if any children are being abused in the community - or of other reasons are in need. Discuss if something can be done about it.
  • 44. 44 Family planing and safe motherhood. Topic no 12 ? Present the main points for safe motherhood. Put up questions in the process and ask for comments and questions. ? Present the main points for family planing - include questions and comments. ? Divide the participants into 2 groups - men and women. (Eventually 4 groups if convenient - Old / young women, old/ young men. Let the groups discuss the following questions: 1) Is child birth safe in the area, what could be done to improve it. 2) Is family planing commonly practiced in the area. If not why - and should something be done to encourage more families to practice it. ? Let the groups present to each other and lead a good discussion. You could eventually put up the questions from the manual about family planing as part of the discussion.
  • 45. 45 CHILDREN’S RIGHTS Human rights are rights that all human beings have, no matter where they are born, no matter how rich or poor their parents are, no matter what they have done. They belong to every single person and cannot be taken away. There are also the rights of the child. Again, every child, whatever his background, whether an orphan or not, has these rights. Big organizations, like the UN (United Nation) and the OAU (Organization of African Unity), have adopted documents outlining these rights. However, it is important that we understand how they affect our own lives and those of the children. So what are some of these rights? ? to life ? to an education ? to adequate food, clothing, and shelter ? to health care ? to interact with other children ? to equal treatment ? to parental care ? to a reasonable workload ? to protection against abuse and neglect ? to protection against degrading punishment Children are especially vulnerable to having their rights violated. So we adults, the parents, the neighbors and members of the community in general, have a special duty to make sure that their rights are respected. A child is often powerless to demand her rights; we have to do that for her. Say NO Because abuse is the affair of all of us.
  • 46. 46 CHILDREN’S NEEDS Children’s needs can be divided into 4 categories: ? Physical (shelter, clothing, food, health, exercise) ? Emotional (love, attention, praise, encouragement, hope, respect, trust, understanding) ? Social (conversations, friends, education, recreation, free time, play) ? Spiritual (guidance, faith, knowing one’s religion) The needs for children changes during their growing up. The following illustrate the main needs for the various age groups: ? 0 - 5 years: Security ? 6 - 12 years: Recognition and encouragement ? 13 - 18 years: Growing independence and proper guidance Indicators of stress in children: Children who do not meet their rights and need become stressed. The following is indicators of stress in children: ? Physical: (pains, increased illness, malnutrition, scars and bruises, sleeplessness, strange sleeping patterns, weakness, fatigue) ? Behavioral: (regression to bed wetting, stealing and cheating, nightmares, poor concentration and poor school performance, increased aggression and bullying, withdrawing and isolating oneself, complaining and seeking attention, restlessness, drug addiction) ? Emotional (moody, anxiety, increased fearfulness, sadness and crying, depression) Possible causes of stress: ? Poverty ? Marital problems ? Chronic illness in the family ? Death ? Physical or mental disability in the family ? Drug or alcohol abuse in the family ? Displacement from home ? Discrimination and segregation ? Abuse How children cope with stress: ? friendship ? love and care ? family bonds ? determination, courage, good self-esteem ? goal and aspiration ? peer popularity ? playing, being part of a team ? going to school ? community concern ? religion and faith ? nutrition's food and good health care ? hope
  • 47. 47 CHILD GROWTH If all babies were exclusively breast fed for the first six months of life, then the deaths of more than one million infants would be prevented. 0-6 MONTHS : BREAST FEEDING: From as soon as the baby is born, until approximately 6 months he/she should be fed exclusively (only) breast milk . It is the only food the baby needs. Breast fed babies are less likely to suffer from malnutrition and have fewer illnesses than bottle fed babies, or babies fed on other foods. Breast milk (especially the thick yellowish milk produced in the first few days after the birth) protects the baby from life threatening illnesses such as malnutrition, diarrhea, dehydration as well as preventing coughs, colds and other illnesses. It is important that especially during this time the husband and family help to maintain the health of the mother and child by ensuring that the mother has enough nutritious food, and by helping with the housework and other domestic tasks, so that the mother can get the rest she needs. A mother who get little nutritious food, will produce less milk for the child. Substitute feeding: This include cow’s milk, infant formula, milk powder solutions and porridge should only be given if the mother are unable to breast feed, or if she dies. The milk - or water used for diluting milk powder must be boiled. The cup used for feeding must as well be kept very clean in order to avoid diarrhea. 6 MONTHS TO 2 YEARS: Other food in addition to breast milk: By the time the baby is six months old he/she will need other foods in addition to breast milk: E.g. porridge with boiled and mashed vegetables/ eggs/ groundnuts/ kapenta/ beans. The more variety of foods the greater the nutritional benefits. A child who get plenty of nshima - but not enough body building and protective food will get malnourished. The child should be breast fed before being given other foods. If the mother becomes pregnant again before the youngest child is 2 years old, then it is important that she does not stop breast feeding. Some people believe that breast feeding will harm the new growing baby in the womb. This is not correct - but the mother need even more nutritious food. Many babies get malnourished, because the mother stop breast feeding, when she get pregnant again. If the mother is HIV positive it is adviced that she stop breast feeding when the baby is 6 month old. Weaning of the child. Children should be weaned from the breast gradually – except if the mother is HIV positive. This allows the child time to increase the intake of other foods to replace the breast milk. If the mother is HIV positive she shall not wean the child gradually as mixed feeding (breastmilk and other types of food) is dangerous for the child. The mother will express breast milk for some time – and gradually make the baby used to feed from a cup. In this way she will wean the baby from the breast without at any given day feeding the baby with breastmilk and other types of food.
  • 48. 48 A small child needs to eat frequently Under five clinic: All children under the age of 5 years should regularly attend Under Five Clinic. Here the children will be weighed, will receive vaccinations and the health personal will control the health of the child. It is important to monitor the child’s weight, as the loss of weight or failure to gain weight are often the first indications of other problems: The child might be sick, it does not eat enough - or does not eat enough of the right foods. Regular monitoring of the child’s weight and progress can help to detect ill health or malnutrition in time to prevent death. Feeding a sick child: A sick child must be fed extra well. A sick child needs fluids and nutritious food, to replace any fluids lost and to give the body the strength to fight the illness. Do not stop breast feeding a sick Child. All children under the age of 3 need to be given between 4 or 5 meals a day. Because a child’s stomach is smaller than an adults the child cannot eat as much as an adult at one meal. However, a child has greater energy needs, so to fulfill these needs the child needs to be fed frequently.
  • 49. 49
  • 50. 50 Nutrition. Introduction To stay healthy we need to eat the right kinds of food in the correct proportions. Our body requirements differ depending on age, how much work we do, health status and other conditions such as pregnancy. The three groups of food Energy giving foods: Food that give us energy include maize, cassava, rice sorghum, millet and potatoes. Other food which give energy are cooking oil and sugar. The more we work - the more energy food we need. Body building foods. Food which help the body to grow and to keep the body strong include groundnuts, fish, eggs, beans, cow peas, kapenta, insects and meat. Protective food. Food which protect the body against diseases - and to recover fast after being sick include vegetables and fruits. A balanced diet A person needs every day to eat a balanced diet, containing all the 3 different groups of food. A person who eat wrongly will be tired and will not be able to be active in school or in work - and will easy become sick. A small child who get wrong food will become malnourished. Many people eat a lot of Nshima and little relish. Healthy food include a lot of vegetables and fruits. It is important not to overcook as it destroy the vitamins in the vegetables. Good and cheap proteins are Soya beans, cow peas, beans, kapenta and eggs. It is also very healthy to eat seeds such as sunflower seeds and pumpkin seeds. Eat natural food – which is more healthy than refined. Millie meal grinded in the village is much more healthy the white breakfast meal. Brown bread is more healthy than white bread. Porridge made from Soya and roller meal is much more healthy than white bread and tea with sugar for breakfast.
  • 51. 51 Immunization Immunisation protects against several diseases. ? A child which is not immunized can risk death from several dangerous diseases. ? Even if the child survives these diseases, it will be weakened by them. The child may be undernourished and not grow well. ? Measles can set a child back mentally and cause blindness. Measles often kills. ? Polio can cause the child to be crippled for life. ? Vaccines build up the child’s defenses, so that child is not likely to get ill. ? Breast feeding is a natural immunization. The thick, yellow milk coming from the forest the first days after birth is especially important. (Colostrum). ? If the diseases strike before the child is immunized, immunization is too late. Immunization is urgent ? All immunization should be completed within the first year of the child’s life. ? A Child shall be taken for immunization five times during the first year of life. It is very important for the child to complete the full course of immunization, otherwise the vaccines may not work. ? When to bring the child for immunization ?? First time Birth ?? Second time 6 weeks ?? Third time 10 weeks ?? Fourth time 14 weeks ?? Fifth time 9 month ? You should bring the child for immunization, even if you are behind schedule. The most important is, that the child is brought for immunization 5 times. ? Immunization protects against six killer diseases: Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Whooping cough, Tetanus, Polio and Measles. It is safe to immunize a sick child ? The child should be brought for immunization on the given day even if the child has a mild illness. ? After an injection the child may cry, develop fever, a rash or small sore. It is normal. The child should be given plenty of foods and drinks. Breast feeding should continue. If the problem seems serious or lasts more that 3 days, the child must be taken to the health center. All women shall be vaccinated against tetanus. ? All women between 15 and 44 years of age shall be fully immunized against tetanus. ? A woman, who is not immunized against tetanus puts herself and her born child at risk from tetanus. ? A woman, who has been vaccinated 5 times against tetanus, will be protected against the disease for all the years, she will be able to have children. ? Mothers shall give birth in a hygienic place and the umbilical cord must be cut with full sterilized equipment. ( A knife shall be cleaned and then boiled or heated in a frame.) ? Never put cow dung or ashes on the cut of the umbilical cord.
  • 52. 52 The 6 vaccine preventable diseases.
  • 53. 53 CHILD DEVELOPMENT Babies begin to learn from the moment they are born ? The growth of the human brain is already complete at the age of 2 years. ? The first years of a child’s life is important in determining how the child develops later in life. ? From birth, the children need love and attention from adults. Children need to be touched and hugged, to see familiar faces and to hear familiar voices. ? Children who are stimulated in their early years and are well fed will develop a bigger brain capasity to be used when they become adults. Play is important for child to develop ? Children play because it is fun. But play helps as well a child to develop - to speak, to think, to organize and learn about the world around them. ? Adults shall encourage children to play. ? Adults can help children to play by providing things to play with e.g. Toys, balls, paper and pen or old clothes to dress up. Children learn by copying ? Children learn from the example of adults and other children. If you show anger by shouting and being violent, your children will learn, that this is the right way to behave. If you treat others with kindness and practice, your children will follow your good example. Be understanding when a child is angry, frightened or crying ? A baby can not talk. Crying is way of communicating, that something is wrong. ? Don't ignore or laugh at young child which is angry or frightened. The feelings can be very real for the child. Be patient and kind and find out, what is going on. Physical punishment is bad for children ? It is bad to beat and punish children. Beating can make children frightened and unreasonable. Beating can also cause a child to grow up being violent against other, e.g. to other children or to animals) ? The best way to educate the child is to appreciate good behavior - it encourages the child to be good, and to grow up as a responsible adult ? When your child something wrong - don’t punish it. Explain instead firmly, what is right and what is wrong - and explain why. Children are normally ready to follow rules put up by adults, whom they love and want to please. Help your child to learn ? Children will learn better in school, if you encourage them to start learning in the earliest years of life. When they started in school, you should always show interest in what the child learn. You can: ?? play with the children ?? help the children to learn to talk ?? learn the children songs ?? teach the children about the world around them ?? tell stories.
  • 54. 54 FAMILY PLANING AND SAFE MOTHERHOOD Introduction Every year half a million women throughout the world die from problems associated with pregnancy. Most of these deaths could be prevented if women would time their births correctly and follow the various health rules during pregnancy: Timing birth: There are 5 high risk groups in childbirth and child rearing: 1. Young girls under the age of 18 : Babies born to women who are younger than 18 are likely to be born too early and weigh too little. The birth itself is likely to be more difficult. Babies born to mothers who are too young are more likely to die within the first year of their lives. The risks to the mothers own health are also increased. 2. Women over the age of 35: After the age of 35 there is an increased risk of the mother giving birth to a baby with disabilities, or low birth weight. 3. Women who have more than 4 children: After 4 pregnancies, there is an increased risk of serious health problems such as anemia (“thin blood”) and hemorrhage (heavy loss of blood). 4. Births close to each other (less than 2 years apart): This affects both the mother and child. The risk of death for young children is increased by 50% if the space between the births is less than two years A mother's body needs 2 years to recover fully from previous pregnancy and childbirth. The risk to a mothers health is greater if the next birth follows too closely to the last. A woman's body can easily become exhausted by repeated pregnancy, childbirth, breast feeding and looking after small children. So further pregnancy usually means that her own health begins to suffer. If a woman becomes pregnant before she has fully recovered from bearing a previous child, there is a high risk of her new baby being born prematurely and light in weight. Low birth weight babies are more likely to fall ill and 4 times more likely to die in the first year than babies of normal birth weight. One of the greatest risks to the health of a child under the age of 2 years is the birth of a new baby. Breast feeding stops abruptly, and the mother has less time to give the child the care and attention he/she needs. As a result the child often fails to grow and develop properly. 5. Women who are HIV positive. All pregnant women aught to know their HIV status. There exist good measures to reduce the risk for HIV positive mother to transmit the virus to their babies. If measures are not taken 1 out of 3 babies will be infected. The risk for the mother to become sick during labour will also be much reduced if the mother participate in the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission programme (PMTCT). Find out more from the nearest health clinic.
  • 55. 55 Safe motherhood Safe motherhood can be ensured by following these simple guidelines: The risks of childbirth can be dramatically reduced by going for regular check ups with the nearest health worker during pregnancy: Regular checking of things such as blood pressure, and the progress of the baby’s growth and development will help in early detection of problems or complications ensuring that the woman can be moved to the hospital for the birth. The health worker can also offer advice on breast feeding and caring for the baby, and also help the mother to prepare for the birth. Ensure that a trained person is present to assist at the birth: A trained midwife will know: ? If a mother should be moved to the hospital i.e. if the labour has gone on for more than 12 hours. ? How to keep the birth hygienic and safe, reducing the risk of infection. ? How to cut the cord cleanly and safely. ? What to do, if for instance the baby is in the wrong position for the birth, or if the mother is losing too much blood, or if the baby does not begin breathing straight away. ? If serious problems arise during child birth a trained birth attendant will know, when medical help is needed and how to get it. All women need more food and rest during pregnancy: ? The husband and the family of a pregnant woman should make sure that she has extra food and that she get the best food available to the family such as milk, fruits, vegetables, fish and eggs. A pregnant women need food for two - for the unborn baby to grow in her womb and to keep herself healthy. Too much salt should be avoided as it may cause a rise in blood pressure, which is dangerous to mother and child. The above should come into play as soon as pregnancy is confirmed. ? It is important that a pregnant woman gains weight every month, and should try to gain a total of 10/12 kilos before the baby is born. For this reason a woman should be weighed regularly, beginning as soon as she knows she is pregnant. ? A pregnant women should also have more rest during the day time, especially from the sixth month. It is therefore important, that the husband helps with domestic work. If the woman work too hard, she might miscarry, give birth too early, have problems giving birth or become sick. If a woman smokes or takes alcohol or drugs during pregnancy there is a risk that the child may be damaged in the womb: When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol it passes from the mother to the unborn baby and may slow down growth, causing small weak babies. Babies born to mothers who drink may be born drunk, and may have problems with breathing and suckling from the breasts. There is also the added risk of sudden death syndrome. The dangers of smoking include: ? greater risk of problems during child birth ? higher risk of miscarriage or premature birth and ? heart and blood circulation decreases in the babies body. It is important not to take medicines during pregnancy, unless they are absolutely necessary and prescribed by a trained health worker.
  • 56. 56 FAMILY PLANNING Introduction: Family planing means, that you plan the number of children you want - and when you want to have them. There are many safe and acceptable methods of avoiding pregnancy. Information and advice on these methods can be sought from a trained health worker or at the clinic. It is important for people to realize that family planning is the responsibility of both men and women. All men and women should be aware, or made aware of the health benefits of family planning and of the various methods available.
  • 57. 57 Some common questions: ? Is it good to have a lot of children, so that if some die from diseases, there will still be some left? This is not correct, as having many children raise the risk for many of them dying of malnutrition and diseases - as the family will not have enough resources to take good care of them all. ? Is it a good way for a man to prove, that he is a “real man” by having a lot of children? This is not correct - because having more children, then what the family can take good care of, and with a spacing which are unhealthy for mother and children, just show that one is an irresponsible man. ? Is you future secure, if you have a lot of children, which can take care of you, when you grow old? This is not correct. Having few children, which you can afford to bring up to become very healthy and educated adults, is the best way to get assistance, when you become old. With many unhealthy and uneducated children, you might continue being responsible for taking care of them, and the grand children - even when you grow old. ? Is the only way a woman can safeguard her marriage from divorce by having many children, so that the husband will not send her away with the young children? A good marriage build on love, trust and helping each other. If the marriage only build on having children together, it is an unhappy marriage. If the marriage in the end break up - or if one of the partners die - it will be a big problem for the many children. It is in the interest of the parents to limit the size of their family. A small family is easy to look after both socially, and economically. Children from small families receive better education, better nutrition, and better medical attention. These children are more likely to grow into mature, secure, confident individuals. The most common methods of contraception are: ? The pill ?? The woman swallow small tablets every day. This method is very effective, but it need the woman to be very disciplined and remember to take the tablets. As soon as she want another child, she stop to take the tablets and can become pregnant. ? The injection ?? The woman is given an injection on the clinic/ hospital every 2 to 3 months. This method is very effective, and is easy to control. ? Condoms ?? The condom is a very thin flexible rubber worn over the man’s penis during intercourse. If the condom is used correctly it is very effective - and it as well protect against AIDS and other STD. ? Sterilization ?? Sterilization can be done both on men and women, who have decided never to have more children. This is a very good solution to women, who have a severe health risk, from carrying more children. Sterilization is a small operation. It does not effect the sexual ability and pleasure. ? Natural methods. ?? The rhythm method: The woman are most fertile between the 10. day after start of the period up to the 18. day. These days she should avoid having sex. ?? Pulling out: The man pulls out his penis before ejaculation (releasing the sperms) and ejaculate outside the woman. ?? The mucus method: The woman examine the mucus in the vagina. If it is sticky like paste - not slippery or slimy - she can probably not become pregnant. ? These three mentioned methods are not so effective, as one out of 4 women using them become pregnant. ?
  • 58. 58 ? Traditional medicine. ?? Tightening a string with certain herb around the waste, cannot prevent pregnancy, as it not in any way prevent the egg in the mothers womb to be fertile by the sperm from the man. Abortion. ?? The foetus is removed from the mothers womb. This can only be done, before the foetus is 3 month old, or it will be a great risk for the mothers life. Abortion is illegal in most countries, except in case the child birth give a great risk for the mothers life. Some women try to provoke abortion using various medicine. It is dangerous and many women have died in the process. For more details and information regarding the various contraceptive methods visit the nearest clinic.
  • 59. 59 FOURTH MONTH OF THE STARTING UP PROGRAM IMPROVE YOUR INCOME Introduction. Under this headline the group will go through some of the following lessons in the manual (The group can chose those of most interest for the members): ? Methods to improve your income ? Get more out of the land ? Livestock rearing ? Vegetable growing ? Budgeting ? Crop storage Southern Province is one of the poorest regions of Zambia. Again Zambia is one of the poorest countries in the world. Why is it like that? Can it be changed? Can we contribute to change it? Do we talk about big investments or can we do much with the means available to us. Using good planing, hard work and commitment. The objective of this month is for the members of the group to understand how much can be done and to start implementing. There is a lot of background material and you will have to chose those of most interest. The remaining topics the group can cover later. IMPROVE YOUR INCOME 1. Topic no 13 ?Start with a short introduction to the headline for the month. ?Read the first case story. Discuss if this could be truth in your village. ?Let all members come with some ideas of how to improve the income for the family. Add eventual points if needed from the following . ?Grow trees and vegetable. ?Improve crop management. Use conservation farming methods. Grow new cash crops. Diversify the crops. Do not sell when grains are cheap and buy when expensive. Use good storage methods. ?Improve management of livestock. ?Run small productions or businesses. ?Work together on marketing of crops and livestock. ?Budget well and use the earned money wisely. ?Prevent diseases (do avoid time in bed and to avoid medical expenses). ?Plan ahead of time ?Work hard and committed. ?Read the case story about Mr. Mwanza. Lead a discussion using the attached questions. End up discussing realities in your village. ?Let one of the members volunteer to be the place to meet next week, for a practical study on income improvement.
  • 60. 60 IMPROVE YOUR INCOME 3 Optional) LAND MANAGEMENT Topic no 15 - 16 Minimum tillage: Start with exercise in minimum tillage. You should have a marking string ready and members should have been told to bring hoes. Have some grains (legume and maize), a little manure and some fertilizer (or sand to illustrate). Dig some holes and explain the advantages along the way. Methods to improve soil fertility: Discuss the following methods - Crop rotation, growing more legume, green manure, compost, leaving crop residues = NO burning, planting Tephrosia on exhausted land, leaving Musangu trees (Acacia Albida) on the land... Avoid soil erosion (where applicable) Find out which members do experience soil erosion. Discuss the consequences. Explain about construction of contour bounds. Agree who in the group could learn the technique and help interested members to measure the contour lines. IMPROVE YOUR INCOME 3 Optional) LIVESTOCK Topic no 15 - 16 Goat rearing: Explain about improved goat rearing using the back ground information. You should conduct this lesson in a farmers home, so you can discuss which changes could be done to the goats there. Questions for inspiration: 1) Could and should the bread be improved - if so how? 2) Would it be good to improve the goat shelter - why? 3) How many goats are advisable to keep? 4) Which type or medicine should be given and when? 5) Additional fodder? 6) Marketing Traditional chickens: Discuss methods to improve the local chickens - while inspecting the chickens where the lesson is conducted. Questions for inspiration: 1) How many chicks should you expect from one hen? 2) How many of these chicks should survive and which measures to bring in place? 3) Which medicine will improve survival? 4) Is additional fodder advisable? 5) Is the physical structures in place? 6) Marketing? 7) Improvement of the breed? Cattle: Discuss methods to improve cattle rearing - while inspecting the cattle the cattle facilities. Questions for inspiration: 1) Is it possible to avoid corridor disease - and if so which measures should be in place? 2) Which vaccine, medicine is available and which are advisable to use? 3) Should measures be taken to improve the bread? - how? 4) Should additional fodder be given? - how? 5) How to improve milk production? Dogs: Discuss why we keep dogs and why we should keep them well. Questions for inspiration:
  • 61. 61 1) Why is it important to rabies vaccinate dogs? - how ? 2) How to see if a dog is healthy? 3) How to feed a dog? 4) How to avoid diseases. 5) How to teach a dog. Conclusion: Wind up the discussion by electing one in the group to learn more about animal rearing and to keep good contact with the local veterinary. The responsible should be the one keeping the group informed and organize ex. buying of medicine, the veterinary to come and teach the group etc... IMPROVE YOUR INCOME 3 Optional) VEGETABLE GROWING Topic no 15 - 16 Visit one or more vegetable gardens. You should in advance have decided the best gardens to visit. Let the farmer present how he grow the vegetables and put questions to the farmer. Use the background information to bring in additional ideas. Inspiration for questions: 1) Soil/ bed preparation. 2) Use of manure/ compost/ fertilizer. 3) Chemical use (incl. natural measures). 4) Nursery and transplanting. 5) Irrigation. 6) Type of vegetables. 7) Marketing. 8) Planning. 9) Inter cropping with fruit trees. IMPROVE YOUR INCOME 3 - 4. BUDGETING Topic no 15 - 16 ?Read and discuss the case stories. ?Go through the budgeting exercise ?Encourage each member to go home and make a budget with the family. ?Remember on the next meeting to hear how many did the budgets and listen to and comment on a few budgets.
  • 62. 62 IMPROVE YOUR INCOME 3 - 4. TIME AND CROP MANAGEMENT. Topic no 15 - 16 ?Start by reading the two stories in the back ground material about the farmers planting crops in various ways. Ask what the first farmer did wrong? and what the second farmer did correct? Ask the members to give examples of good/ bad management of crops from own experiences. Tell how much grain is lost if weeded late and for planting late. Discuss how farmers could improve on time management. ?Go through the rules for good crop management: Distances, manure, fertilizer, how to improve soil fertility..... ?Discuss which crops are good for the area. Which varieties. Why it is important to diversify the crops. Where to get the seeds - which to buy (hybrid) - which local seeds? ?Encourage all member to go home and make a plan with the family. ?Remember the coming meeting to hear how many made plans and hear a few of them. IMPROVE YOUR INCOME 3 - 4. CROP STORAGE. Topic no 15 - 16 ?Introduce the topic - explaining the danger of loosing grains. ?Ask questions to the members on which dangers are facing the grains. ?Visit one or better different types of storage facilities. ?Discuss which measures could be done to improve this and other storage facilities. ?Discuss advantages and disadvantages of different storage facilities. ?Divide the group into small groups of 5 members. Each group should concretely discuss how these 5 members can keep their grains safe.
  • 63. 63 CASE STORY FOR LESSON 1. 1. How Mr. and Mrs. Chinzila could improve their income. On a meeting the community claimed, that the only way to raise more income was through getting a project from some good donors, to start a poultry or carpentry. To find out if this was the truth or not, we went to Mr. and Mrs. Chinzila’s home. We actually found many ways to improve the income ? The vegetables were not water sufficient - resulting in a small yield ? The fruit trees were not weeded - resulting in a bad harvest. ? The chickens had not egg laying shelter - resulting in eggs being lost and in few chickens. ? The home had no good storage for the grains - resulting in much grain being lost. ? The maize was not enough to cover the need for the family until next harvest - resulting in need to buy maize from December, where it will be very expensive. ? The home had no good sanitation facilities - resulting in the family members getting sick - and not being able to perform accordingly in the field. This was just some few things, which we notices from a 5 minutes visit. Mr. Mwanza’s story 1. Mr. Mwanza has gone to Monze to cash the cotton cheque. After cashing the cheque he buy himself a pair of shoes, he invite some friends for bear and carry the remaining money with him home. He has a plan of buying spares for the plow, to buy some input and give some money to the wife for house hold goods. Questions: 1. Is Mr. Mwanza using the money in a good way? 2. Will Mrs. Mwanza be happy with the way the money is spent ? Mr. Mwanza’s story 2. Mr. Mwanza has gone to Monze to cash the cotton cheque. After cashing the cheque he buy himself a pair of shoes, and some chitenga for his wife, and carry the remaining money with him home. He has a plan of buying spares for the plow, to buy some input and give some money to the wife for house hold goods. Questions: 1. Is Mr. Mwanza using the money in a good way? 2. Will Mrs. Mwanza be happy with the way the money is spent ? Mr. Mwanza’s story 3. Mr. Mwanza has gone to Monze to cash the cotton cheque. After cashing the cheque he travel back to his village and discuss with his wife how to use the money. Together they make a good budget involving buying spares for the plow, input, household goods, school fees and examination fee for the children. Looking at the budget they realize that there are no money left. They decide to work extra hard in the vegetable garden to raise money for some other needed items, such as for shoes and clothes. Questions: 1. Is the money spent in a good way? 2. Mention reasons, why budgeting is good. 3. Mention reasons, why it is good that the husband and wife both participate in budgeting.
  • 64. 64 Vegetable growing. Fencing the garden The garden must be well protected against animals such as goats, pigs, cattle and chickens which can destroy the crops. In the long run a good living fence is the best as it can be permanent. It is important that the fence is well maintained. This includes pruning every year and making sure that there are no gaps in the fence. Temporary fencing can be done by using thorny branches, grass or poles. Nursery beds Prepare a seedbed to be used as a nursery. Mix with compost / rotten manure. Till the soil so that there are no lumps of soil. Sow the seeds thinly in lines. NEVER sow the seeds too close, because they will not grow well. Plan well when you prepare the nursery. Keep some of the seeds for later sowing. If you plan well and make a new nursery every month, you will always have fresh vegetables. Wrong Right Soil preparation The soil preparation is a secret for all good vegetable production. You can choose to have beds, trenches or pits. The important thing is to make these permanent so that you all the time improve the soil structure. The best is to start with double digging. This means that you dig 40 cm deep – move the unfertile sub soil and instead put leaves, grass etc. down in the bottom of the bed/ pit. If you chose to make beds, they shall be one metre wide. NEVER make them too narrow because this will make the crops dry out quickly. The distance between the beds should be at least two feet (60 cm). Trenches can be 40 cm wide and pits can for example be 60cm x 60 cm square. A healthy soil is very important for healthy and productive plants. When you start the garden add 6 cm of well rotten manure or compost. Dig it into the soil to a depth of around 20 cm. Before every new crop you should add manure or compost (about one inch). Do not move around with the beds/ trenches/ pits. The reason being, that the soil in the beds every season will be more and more fertile. Fertiliser: If the soil is infertile it can be an advantage to apply fertiliser. Mix basil dressing into the soil before planting. Give top dressing when the plants are growing well. Top dressing can be given every 2. week. Make a small hole in the ground a few cm for the plant to apply the top dressing. However in order to secure a good soil structure - which is needed for the vegetables to grow well, manure/ compost must be applied. (Also read about liquid natural fertilizer)
  • 65. 65 Compost production Compost is a source of organic matter for the soil. Organic matter increases soil’s ability to retain water and provide valuable nutrients. Make the compost under a tree to provide some shade. Dig a pit 0.5 to 1 m deep and as big as you might need it. You fill in all organic matters (things which can rot, incl. wood ash). Before the rain season you empty it to the field. Improved compost can be produced like this: Fill it up with a layer of grass, leaves, household waste etc. Add one layer of animal manure. Then a thin layer of wood ash and a little soil. Put again a layer of plant material etc. When compost pit is very full - give it some water and place grass or better plastic on top. Keep the pit moist (not wet). Turn over the compost monthly. The compost is ready after 3 to 4 month. Liquid fertilizer. This is also called tea manure. Put fresh manure – chicken manure is most effective – in a sack. Tight the sack on a stick and place this into bucket/ drum filled with water. Leave the manure for one to two weeks – dilute it with more water and apply to the vegetables/ crops. It is very rich in nitrogen and is used as a top dressing. Avoid applying the liquid manure on the leaves as it might burn them. You can use the same manure twice – and hereafter you apply the manure directly to the crops. It will now have much less weed seeds as most of these have died in the process. Sowing: Cover the seeds lightly with fine soil (1 cm). Mulch with grass. Lift the grass to a small shade about 30 cm, when seeds have germinated. The shade should be removed gradually so that the seedlings slowly get used to hot weather or else they would not survive when transplanted. Irrigate the nursery daily. Use a watering can with a nozzle or a tin / container with holes. The seedlings are ready for transplanting, when they have four leaves and will be roughly about 5 cm high. Transplanting Before transplanting irrigate both the prepared bed and the nursery. Transplant seedlings in the evenings. It is very important to follow the correct distance. Too close a distance will enhance competition between plants, and they won’t grow healthily. Too big a distance will waste land water and energy. We must keep the plants healthy by providing them with the correct amount of water, nutrition, space and plant them at the correct time. Make the hole
  • 66. 66 for planting as big as the roots since it is very unhealthy for the plants if the roots are bent during transplanting. Press the soil firmly around the seedlings when planting. If the soil is loose around the plants they will dry out easily. Spacing The following distances are recommended Variety Distance between rows Distance between plants Rape 50 cm 25 cm Cabbage 60 cm 50 cm Tomato 60 cm 25 cm Onion 15 cm 15 cm Green Beans 30 cm 3 cm Carrots 30 cm 1 cm Mulching It is always good to put grass and other dry plant materials between the vegetables in the beds. The mulch should be around 5 cm thick. Use various plant materials such as dry grass, residues from Groundnuts, Sun-hemp etc. Please note that you should use seedless material. * It minimises evaporation and will therefore reduce labour on watering. * It makes vegetables grow healthier. This is because it adds manure to the soil and the micro organisms in the soil will develop well to make healthy soil. * Termites and other pests will be busy eating the mulch instead of damage the vegetables. * There will be lesser weeds in the garden. * There won’t be soil erosion in the rain season. Liquid nitrogen manure (Natural top-dressing) If the plants turn yellow it means that they need nitrogen. It can be made in by putting two to four handfuls of chicken manure into a bucket of water and leaving it over night. The following day you should stir and water the beds on the ground not on the leaves as it can burn them. This is a cheap form of top dressing. Crop rotation Crop rotation is important in order to secure healthy plants and good production. Most pests only feed on a specific crop. With crop rotation the pests left in the soil will not find any food and will die. Different plants don't feed on the same nutrients. With crop rotation the nutrients in the soil are not easily exhausted. Therefore, you should never plant the same kind of vegetable in the beds repeatedly. Many people do not use the garden in the rainy season. It might be a good idea to sow green manure at the beginning of the rainy season in the beds (e.g. sun hemp) - or use the garden for growing groundnuts.
  • 67. 67 You can have a crop rotation system in your vegetable garden like the one below: Growing protecting plants Some plants protect others against disease and pests. Mainly these are plants with a strong smell such as Garlic, Onions, Chilli and the Marigold flower. These plants can be planted between Cabbages, Rape etc. Flowers can also be planted in the garden in order to attract predators that control pests and insects. Avoid or reduce the use of chemical pesticides All pests have predators that are birds, frogs or other insects eat them. Often the natural predators can keep the number of insects small. If we spray with chemicals we will not only kill pests but the predators as well and by this we will have destroyed the natural balance. The next time the same pests come to our garden they will have no natural enemies and will develop quickly, like a bush fire. Therefore, we should prefer natural pesticides. Besides having all these advantages they are cheaper to obtain than the chemical pesticides bought in shops. Keep the plants healthy Healthy plants are not as easily attacked by pests. We should keep the plants in our garden healthy by planting at the correct distance, weeding on time and watering them well but not too much. The plants should also get the correct amount of manure/ composts so that they grow strong. Fruit vegetables (tomatoes, okra, egg plant) Root vegetables (carrots, onions, sweet potatoes) Legumes plants (beans, ground nuts) Leafy vegetables (rape, cabbage)
  • 68. 68 Good and bad farming methods Farmer A just plow straight up and down the slope. Farmer B has protected his land by planting Vitevar grass in the contours. He then plows the contours. Heavy rains carry away the top soil on Farmer A’s land The contours protected the land against erosion Farmer A has a bad harvest Farmer B has a good harvest
  • 69. 69 Minimum tillage What is minimum tillage? Minimum tillage simply means, that the land is not turned around every year. This allow the nature to build up a good soil structure. There are various methods to do minimum tillage. In dry and semi dry areas the holy ground method is used (as described in this manual) or using oxens and donkeys for ridging the land. In wet areas the farmer will make ridges after measuring out the countours. The same planting stations have to be maintained every year. No moving around with the ridges or the planting holes. The holy ground method: This method was developed in Zimbabwe, and has shown excellent results in Zambia. The farmer digs a hole at every planting station. This should be done during the dry season, so the farmer will be ready to plant the very first day after the sunset of the rain. The method must be followed by soil conservation methods such as crop rotation with legumes crops, no burning of crop residues and if needed establishment of contour bounds in order to get the best results. The same planting hole should be used avery year. This method is good for the areas will less than 1200 mm of rain such as Southern, Eastern, Western and Central provinces. Ripper: A farmer can carry out minimum tillage using a ripper. a ripper does not turn around the soil, but loosen the soil in a furrow, in which the crop can be planted. this work can be done in the dry season, as it is not so heavy to pull compared with a plow. This will make the farmer ready plant early. The ribber does not get disturbed by thrash lying on the ground. This methods is also promoted in areas with less rain. Planting on ridges: Planting of ridges is common in the Northern part of Zambia. However most farmers do not follow the countours and this result in soil erosion and loss of soil nutritions. The farmers futhermore change the ridges every year. This is not healthy for the soil and permanent ridges should be promoted for improved soil fertility and plant growth. To learn more about minimum tillage please consult the materials from Conservation Farming Unit. HOW TO GET MORE OUT OF THE LAND. LAND MANAGEMENT. The soil is mother of all good yields. A fertile soil will give you good outputs. With good measures you can avoid soil erosion and make the soil more and more fertile. Use the following measures 1. Make and use compost/ animal manure: Read in the vegetable chapter about how to make compost. It is best to place the compost and animal manure into the planting holes or mix it into the ground in order to avoid evaporation of valuable nutrions. Furthermore mixing it into the soil will improve the soil structure and hereby the plant growth.
  • 70. 70 2. Use green manure: Plant Sunhemp and Velvet beans as a green manure. You can inter crop it between the maize or plant it on it’s own field. Plant is during December. In beginning of the rain season you can plow down the crop - use it to produce compost or for mulching. 3. Plant wind breaks: Planting wind breaks on the side of the field, where the wind blows from, will prevent blowing away of the top soil. 4. Use crop rotation: Using crop rotation will make the soil more fertile - and minimize crop diseases. An example of good crop rotation: First year maize, second year cotton, third year groundnuts, fourth year maize. The crop rotation should include a legume crop (cow peas, pigeon peas, beans, groundnuts), because they will improve the soil fertility. 5. Practice minimum tillage: Minimum tillage ensures that the soil is not broken down into very small particles, that can easily be blown or washed away by rain. Minimum tillage can be done using “holy ground method” (dig planting holes with a hoe) or plowing or ripping the lines for planting with draft animals or tractor. 6. Contour plowing: This is means plowing along the contours. It is very important to avoid rain water from washing the soil away. It is only when the land is totally flat, that it is not necessary to use contour plowing. 7. Contour bounds: In sloppy areas the farmer ought to construct contour bounds. The contour lines can be measured with an A- frame or the agricultural extension officers can assist you. Either plow several times along the contour lines, dig with a hoe or put stones and locks. Vitever Grass: If the plant material is available the farmer can put vitevar grass along the contour lines instead of plowing or digging. The grass will slow down the flow of water and the soil will remain in front of the Vitevar grass hedge. After some time the land will have formed terraces. Vitevar grass is a very good, easy and safe way to make contours. 8. Avoid burning : Never burn crop residues. Chop them and spread the all over the field. This will protect the soil against the destructive action of the rain drops. It will at the same time provide the soil with organic matter, which will improve the soil fertility. Avoid late burning of the bush, because it will leave the soil bare. Early burning or no burning must be practiced. 9. Rehabilitating degraded land with Tephrosia: Degraded land can be rehabilitated with the use of Tephrosia (A small tree, 3 m tall). Tephrosia can as well be used as a natural pesticide. How to plant Tephrosia: Dig holes as for crops under minimum tillage (70 cm x 90 cm). Back fill the soil and plant 3 seeds in each hole at a depth of 3 cm. Keep the plants free from weed, while they are still small. Protect the seedlings against fire (make a firebreak). Fencing is not needed as these plants are not browsed by livestock. Leave the shrub in the field for 2 to 3 seasons. Cut down the shrub. Grow crops on the land - even without fertilizer they will do fine. The roots of the Tephrosia will have lifted hard plow pans. The roots and leaves will have improved the soil fertility.
  • 71. 71 10. Leave Musangu in the field: This tree can with good result be left in the fields. The tree fertilizes the soil and it does not compete with the crops for light, as it drops the leaves before and during the rain season. Maize under Musangu trees give a very good yield. TIME MANAGEMENT. PLANNING. Planning ahead makes the farmer able to purchase the seeds on time, prepare the land on time, secure tools and repair farm equipment. DO ALL FIELD OPERATION IN TIME. Planting on the optimum planting date. ? For every day that the planting is delayed after the optimum planting date yield is lost. If it is maize, one bag per hectare is lost for every day the farmer planted late. ? For some crops it is advisable to plant on various planting days. For example Cow peas: Some can be planted in late November, for early harvest and consumption. The main crop should be planted in mid December for harvest after the rain season. ? In order to plant in time, it is advisable to have at least part of the land ready with minimum tillage, before the rain starts. ? Weeding should be done in time. ?? Poor weed control is a major cause of crop loss. For every cm the weed grows the farmer will lose 1 bag of maize crop per ha. The field should be constantly kept free of weeds, as the weeds compete with the crops for water, nutrition and sunlight. ? Harvesting should be done in time, as crops can be lost due to late harvest. ONLY GROW AS MUCH AS YOU CAN MANAGE 100% It is a common mistake to grow too many hectares compared with the labour and resources available. Here are two examples: * Family A grows 3 ha of maize. They did not prepare the land before the rains, and before they finish ploughing the land, they are already late in weeding. Because the weeds are very big, it takes a long time - so even the second weeding is late. The manure and fertiliser is little, so most of the land receives too little or nothing. The family harvests 60 bags of maize on the 3 ha grown. * Family B grows 1 ha with maize. They had prepared the land with minimum tillage and plant the day after the first planting rains. They start weeding when the weeds are still very small and keep the field free from weeds (3 weeding). They put the little manure and basil dressing; they have into the planting holes before planting and give top dressing in time. This family harvest 60 bags of maize from the 1 ha. * Family A and B have harvested the same amount of maize - but family B had much less labour and as well less expenses for input and ploughing the land. GOOD CROP MANAGEMENT Diversify the crops: Do not rely on only maize as a cash crop. Sometimes there will be bad market and bad prices for maize. Sometimes the weather will be unfavourable for maize. Therefore plant a number of different varieties. This will help against hunger in the family - improve the income and as well improve the soil as it promotes a good rotation. Use good seeds: Some seeds are composite seeds. These seeds do not need to be purchased from seed companies, as the family can use own seeds or seeds purchased from farmers in the local community. This is the case for seeds like ground nuts, Cow peas, Pigeon peas, local maize varieties and most varieties of Sorghum. Hybrid maize varieties ought to be
  • 72. 72 purchased from authorised seed dealers. Purchase the seeds for the coming season in good time - in order to secure the coming crop season, and to save money, as seeds locally bought are cheaper early in the season. Correct planting: Do not plant too close as this will bring a lot of competition between plants and result in a poor yield. Correct planting depth is important as well. If the seeds are planted too deep, germination will be poor and if planted too shallow many seeds can be eaten by birds, and in case of a drought spell they will easily dry out. Correct application of fertiliser /manure: Too much application will give a weak crop and waste money. Too little application will give poor yield. It is better for the farmer to minimise the fields if the available fertilizer or manure is not enough. Correct application of pesticides (eventually natural pesticides) if attacked by pests is another important process. The pesticides must be applied correctly following the instruction of the chemical - and much care must be taken in correct handling of the chemicals. Short points to remember - in order to get a good yield: ? Plan ahead ? Prepare the land and input in time. ? Do not grow more land, than you can manage 100%. ? Improve soil fertility by using contour bounds, minimum tillage, crop rotation, leave mulch on the land, compost, trees....) ? Plant on time ? Use good seeds ? Diversify the crops ? Use correct planting methods ? Weed on time ? Harvest on time Insects and animals, which help you in the garden/ field. Do not kill these insects and reptiles as they are beneficial for your crops and garden.
  • 73. 73 JATROPHA. Why growing Jatropha. Jatropha is a good living fence. When planted closely not even goats can penetrate. It give windbreak, it looks beautiful around homesteads. It stabilizes soils if planted along field bounds. It can be used to produce soap and oil, which can subsidize paraffin. About Jatropha. Jatropha is very common in Southern Province as a hedge and ornamental plant. It is a well known for the medical use from leaves and seeds. It is related with Castor and Cassava. It is a small tree which grows up to 6 m tall and last for 50 years. Jatropha will grow well on sunny places with as little as 300 mm rainfall yearly. It cannot be grown in front prone areas. It grows on any soil - except if it is waterlogged. The more fertile the soil, the faster growth and the higher the seed yield. Planting of Jatropha: Jatropha is recommended for planting as a live fence around your home/ garden/ orchard. Plant the seeds/ cuttings 25 cm (1 small foot) apart. Eventually in a double row 50 cm apart. Use one of the following methods: 1. Plant 2 seeds per station in beginning of the rain season and thin later to one. (1.5 kg needed to plant around 1 lima) 2. Plant seeds in a nursery 2 to 3 months prior to rainy season and transplant in early rain season. 3. Make cuttings (30 to 50 cm long) from a central trunk. The cuttings should be from trees at least one year of age and 1 to 4 cm in diameter. Dip the cuttings in ash to stop sap flow and store them in a shady place for max. one week (upside down). Plant from September to October 15 to 20 cm deep. Maintenance of Jatropha: Jatropha is not browsed by livestock, it is not fire resistant. Therefor it does not need protection against livestock - but it need protection against fire. Weed around the plants while they are small. Prune the tree in order to promote good hedge and stimulate side branch development for higher yields. Seed yields If planted by seeds it will take 2 years to seeds - cuttings only 2 months. 1 to 3 kg of seeds per m. A hedge around 1 lime = 250 m will give approximately 500 kg of seeds. How to use the seeds. The seeds can be pressed in a yenta press. 500 kg of seeds (from a hedge around 1 lima) can give 100 l of oil to use for soap, for “parafin” / pesticide/ sale. 5 kg seeds give 1 liter oil. The oil cake is a good fertilizer and pesticide. The seeds can be sold (500 k per kg in year 2000). How to make soap. Boil 5 cups of Jatropha oil with 1 cup of water until all the water is evaporated (no bubbles). Let the mixture settle for some hours until oil is clarified. Mix caustic soda with water. One measurement soda to 7 measurement of water. Slowly add caustic soda to water and stir continuously. The mixture heat up very fast, so place the mix container in a bowl of water. Be very careful in handling caustic soda !! NEVER pour water on caustic soda. Protect eyes and skin. Splashes will damage even your clothes. Let it cool down.
  • 74. 74 Pour 8 cups of clean Jatropha oil to 1 cup of caustic soda mix. Stir for 30 minutes or more. Pour the creamy mix in a molds. Let harden for 2 to 3 weeks. 1 liter of Jatropha oil can produce 2 kg of soap. Natural pesticides. Introduction * Insect pests are responsible for 20-30 per cent of the crop destruction. * There are many safe, natural and simple methods of protecting plants. * In the long term modern chemical pesticides increase the pest and disease problem and they do not solve it. * Modern chemical pesticides are poisonous. They are harmful to human health and destroy the farm environment. This chapter explains various simple and affordable natural pesticides. There are many more natural pesticides. You can use the methods you find appropriate in your area. Remember always spray selectively specifically to kill the pest which has become a problem. You should try not to kill friendly insects. Where spraying equipment is not available, the liquid can be sprinkled on to the plants with paint brushes or brushes made from local plants. Aromatic Plants (Strong smelling) Material: Leaves from any strong smelling plant such as gums, Lantana, tomato, Garlic, chili or any herb. Target: Any insects Method ? Dry the plant material and then grind into powder. You may mix 2 or more types of plant material. ??Mix the powder with boiling water and allow to cool before spraying. Recommended mixes range from 20g to 500g per liter of water. ??Frequency: Spray when you see the insects on the plant. Spray more often in the rainy season because the rain washes away the substance from the plants. ? Planting some aromatic plants in between crops can also keep away some insects Ash Material: Wood ash. Target: Soft bodied insects such as aphids, caterpillars, cutworms, grasshoppers, nematodes, stalk borers, termites and other insects. Mildew diseases Method: ? Dust ash evenly on the leaves to dehydrate soft-bodied insects. ? Spray ashes thickly around the plant, seed beds or trees to discourage soil pests such as cutworms, eggs, larvae. Do not let the ash touch the stem. ? Mix ashes into planting holes of trees. Brushing Target: Crawling insects and swarms Method: Insects, Larvae and eggs can be swept from leaves, branches and trunks of fruit trees with a stiff brush. Protect the eyes (wear glasses) from falling insects. Some insects can seriously injure the eyes.
  • 75. 75 Manure Target: Animals, birds, grasshoppers, aphids, fungal bacteria and viral diseases. Method: ? Put 1 shovel full of dry cow manure into a bucket of 10 liters of water. Stir once per day for at least 2 weeks. ?? Dilute the mixture 5 times before spraying. (2 liters of the mixture to 10 liters of water). The remaining mixture can be left for next spraying. Clay dust can be sprinkled into the bucket to reduce smell. ?? Spray the leaves to protect the plant against aphids and give it resistance to bacterial and fungus diseases. It can be sprayed on the soil surface to protect seedlings against cut- worms. ?? Fruits and vegetables that have been sprayed must be washed thoroughly before eating. ? Paint tree trunks with a mixture of goat, cow, poultry manure and clay dust at monthly intervals to repel baboons, hares, bucks, goats and rabbits. Mulch Material: Dead plant material, e.g. crop residue, hay leave weeds etc. Target: Cutworms, grasshoppers, nematodes, snails and termites Method: Cover the soil between the plants with at least 5 cm (1 finger) thick dry plant materials. It is good to mix the mulch with leaves from aromatic plants such as gum, marigold, herbs etc. A mulch of tobacco leaves or dust will control cutworms, lawn caterpillars, snails and many other insects. Soap Solution Material: Bar soap Target: Aphids, army worms, caterpillars, leaf miners, mites, psyllid, white fly and other pests. Method: Dissolve 5 cm (100g) of bar soap into 10 liters of water with or without paraffin added. Only spray when needed as soap can destroy the fertility of the soil if over used. Chili Material: Ripe pods and seed of chili. Target: Insects in general, fungi, bacterial and viruses. Method ? Grind two handfuls of chilies, soak in one liter of water for one day. Shake well, filter and add 5 liters of water (1 small bucket). Add a little soap then spray. ? Apply powder around the stem of the plant to repel ants, cutworms, snails and other soil pests. ? Interplant in the garden to repel various insects. Sun hemp (Crotalaria Ochroleuca) Target: Insects in general, pests in stored grain, nematodes and fungi Method: ? Rotate or interplant as a trap crop for nematodes and other pests. ? Pound the seeds and mix it with grains in grain bins.
  • 76. 76 Tobacco Target: Works against most insects, rust and viruses Method: ? Soak 1 kg of bruised leaves in 15 liters of water for 24 hours or boil for 30 minutes and add a little soap, filter, spray. ? Grind into powder for dusting to kill wet bodied pests like slugs or snails. ? Dust on trees and crops to repel insects. ? Warning: Do not spray on tomatoes, potatoes or pepper as it will make the leaves black. ? Use the remaining leaves to mulch against termites Finger Euphorbia (Euphorbia Tirucalli) Target: Aphids, mosquitoes, red spider mites, termites, fungi and insects in general Method ? To repel termites apply chopped leaves to planting holes or place the branches around trees. ? As a general insect spray mix 10 drops of the milky juice from the stem, thoroughly into one liter of water. The mixture should be slightly milky spray. ? Warning: Dangerous for the eyes and skin. Mexican Marigold (Tagetes Minuta) Strong smelling weed flower Target: Many insects, late blight, mildew, pests in stored grains. Method ? Plant in vegetable gardens and orchards to repel pests. ? Soak crushed parts of one mature plant in two liters of water for 24 hours and filter, spray. A handful of wood ash can be added and spray on to the soil around plants to protect them from ants. ? Leaves rubbed on the skin will repel mosquitoes. ? Mix fresh leaves into planting holes to repel termites. ? A 3 to 5 cm layer of crushed plants in the base of grain bins, or mix powdered plants with the grains. Sweet Basil (0cimum Basilicum) Target: Used as a mosquito repellent and against pests in stored grains. Method ? Crush the plant and rub it on the skin. ? Put branches under the sleeping mat and bed. ? Hit the house walls with the plant. ? Put it on fire. ? To protect stored grains, put a 3-5 cm layer in the bottom of the grain bin.
  • 77. 77 Budgeting. Introduction All families must learn basic business in order to be able to market the crops to reasonable prices. Making budgets for achieved income is essential in order to meet the most needed expenses. Make a good budget: 1. Make sure all loans are paid back. 2. Estimate your monthly expenses for basic needs in the home. These expenses include: - Salt, sugar, cooking oil - Bathing soap and washing soap - Food stuff not produced by the family e.g. meat and fish - Medical fees and medicine 3. Estimate other major expenses that your family has to meet during the year such as: - School fees, uniforms and books for the children. - New clothes and shoes for all in the family 4. Set aside money to be used for inputs in the next agricultural season. 5. Set aside money for emergencies e.g. serious illness or funeral Improve family resources Keep money safe: ? Many find it very difficult to keep cash for a long time and end up using the money too fast and sometimes carelessly e.g. on beer drinking and other luxuries. Or the cash is used to support relatives in various ways - leaving the family to suffer. Ways to keep money: ?? If you have a bank within your area, deposit the money that you do not intend to use immediately into the bank. ?? Purchase input for the coming season immediately after selling the crops. ?? Invest in money ? Many live on credit. Credit is often expensive, as you might have to pay more, than you got. You will have problems, in case of emergencies - because people might refuse to give you additional credit. Credit is a bad circle - credit demands more credit. Work on getting out of this cycle - by making good budgets and use the money very carefully. Sell your crop with care Often the price for crops goes up later in the season - depending of the amount of grains on the market. In 1997 in Zambia a bag of maize was sold in the villages for k 8000 in July. In November a bag of Maize costed between k 35.000 to k 60.000. Those families who had kept the grains made a lot of money. Those families who had sold everything really suffered, in order to find money to buy the expensive maize. Sometimes it is difficult for farmers to find a market for the harvested grains - and they therefore sell to “clever” business men, who come to the villages and buy for a low price, often in return for salaula, kapenta and other commodities. If buying such commodities with grains it is important to calculate in the value of the items purchased is equal to the grains sold. The families in an area should assist each other to find a market. The best business man in the village can look for a good market, and hereafter the families can organise transport and sell the grains together.
  • 78. 78 Example of a budget for a rural family INCOME: Sale of Cotton (after paying back the loan) k 450.000 Sale of maize k 200.000 Sale of vegetable - every month k 20.000 (x 12) k 240.000 Sale of chicken and goats - average monthly k 30.000 k 360.000 Total income in a year k1.250.000 The family is self sufficient in maize, cow peas, eggs, vegetables and fruits. EXPENSES: Monthly budget: Salt k1000 + Paraffin k1000 + Boom k1500 + Soap k500 + Vaseline 1500 + Sugar 3200 + cooking oil 2700 + kapenta and fish 5000 + medical k 2000 = In total per month k 21.400 Total per year (multiplied with 12) k 256.800 Luxury: Local bear x 500 weekly in average (x 52) k 26.000 Input: Cotton is got as a loan from Lonhro, Maize seeds x 10 kg k 20.000 Seeds for cowpeas, groundnuts from own production Fertilizer (Combined with manure) 4 bags x k 46.000 k 184.000 Vegetable seeds k 15.000 Total input k 219.000 k 219.000 Expenses for livestock: Dip for 2 cattle k 20.000 Worm medicine for cattle/ goats k 5.000 Vaccine for chickens k 10.000 Total livestock expenses k 35.000 ....... k 35.000 School fees: 1 child in pre-school k 9.000 2 children in primary school a 2.000 each/ term k 12.000 1 child in secondary school k 500.000 Total school fees k 521.000....... k 521.000 Clothes 10 pieces x k 3.000 k 30.000 Total expenses: k256.800 + 26.000 + 219.000 + 35.000 + 521.000 + 30.000 k 1.090.800 Balance: Total in minus total out 1.250.000 - 1.090.800 k 159.200 (for emergency) Questions: 1) Is this a good budget? 2) What is the advantage of making a budget? 3) Who should make the budget? Why this person (persons)? 4) Is it possible for your family to make a budget?
  • 79. 79 Case stories for budgeting: How family Hampeyo sold the crops: Family Hampeyo has grown 30 bags of maize. They sell 20 bags after harvest to a price of k 20.000 per bag. Total income k400.000. They use the money for blankets and other household goods. The family is big and the 10 remaining bags are finished in December. The family only eat once per day. Therefore they do not work very efficient as they do not get enough to eat. Even through they have to buy 4 bags of maize - each bag cost k 50.000. Equal to k200.000. In order to raise this money, they have to sell all the chickens and even borrow some money. After harvest the loan has to be paid back with interest and the family has no chickens, which used to give a good income. Questions: 1) Did family budget well? 2) Which reasons could the family have for selling the crops early? 3) Which consequences did the wrong budgeting have for the family? 4) How do people budget in your village? How family Hibuka sold the crops: Family Hibuka has grown 30 bags of maize. They sell 10 bags after harvest to a price of k 20.000 per bag. Total income k200.000. In January they see, that they can spare additional 4 bags for sale, which they sell for k 50.000 per bag in total k 200.000 Questions: 1) Did family budget well? 2) How do you think the family managed to keep the crops safe unto January? 3) Which consequences did the correct budgeting have for the family? 4) Would better budgeting improve life for people in your village? Would it be possible? Family Hampeyo make a basic need budget: Mr. and Mrs Hibuka make a budget for their basic needs and for other expenses. Following their budget, they won’t have enough money for sending all their children to school. Questions: 1) What can the family do? 2) Why is it an advance for the family that they realised the problem in advance?
  • 80. 80 Storage bins. Introduction: Around 3 bags out of 10 are lost in many homes, because of bad storage facilities. Building a good storage facility will avoid crops being lost due to rains, termites, aphids, goats, chickens etc. How to build a storage bin: There are many ways of building storage bins. Here follows 4 examples: 1. Improved brick bin. This is a very safe bin, which protects the grains well. It is a very good investment for a family, as the expense in around 2 years will be saved in less crops lost. The bin is built with cement and burned bricks. It is provided with a lid and a lock to avoid theft. For a small brick bin 3 bags of cement and 300 burned bricks are needed. This bin can contain around 10 bags of grains. For further information and assistance with the construction, contact your agriculture extension officer. 2. Traditional brick bin. This is a cheap bin, which protect the grains reasonable well. A. Make a foundation using rocks or burned bricks and cement. Construct a cement slab on top of the foundation. Half to one bag of cement is needed. Build the bin with unburned bricks and mud. Plaster inside with mud or cement. Provide the bin with a safe grass roof. B. Place 4 big stones as stand - or build pillows of burned bricks and cement. Construct a platform out of poles on top of the pillows/stones. Build the bin and make a roof.
  • 81. 81 3. Mud plastered basket. This bin cost nothing and it is safer than an open bin. Step 1: Make a stand for the bin with poles, which have been dipped in used oil. Place a little Euphorbia branches in the holes for the poles. Step 2: Make a basket out of thin sticks/ lids. Form it as a bottle. Place the basket on top of the stand. Step 3: Plaster the basket with mud inside and outside. Step 4: Place rat- guards on the legs of the stand. These can be made out of 4 empty tins (see drawing) Step 5: Make a good roof supported by big poles How to protect the grains inside the storage bin: Shelled maize is more venerable to insect attack. If you have a traditional storage bin, with unshelled maize, you can use the natural methods described later. For shelled maize, cow peas and other crops you can use a combination of the following methods 1. Mix the grains with Blue cross or other chemicals specific for stored grains. Follow the instruction on the package carefully. 2. Mix the grains with pounded seeds from Sunhemp 3. Place a 3 to 5 cm layer of chopped Mexican Marigold or wild Basil at the bottom of the storage bin. 4. Mix the grains with ash (1/2 bucket to 1 bag of grains). 5. Mix fresh or pounded leaves from Eucalyptus in the bin (1 bucket of leaves per bag). 6. Pound a mixture of dry leaves and fruits from the Bead tree and mix it with grain. 7. Pounded or crushed leaves from the Tephrosia tree mixed with grain.
  • 82. 82 Background knowledge Domestic animals The common domestic animals are : ? Cattle, goats, dogs, chicken and pigs Domestic animals give many benefits to mankind and environment: ? Generally they all improve the soil fertility from their excreta. ? Cattle and goats provide a protein food ( meat and milk) ? Poultry provide protein food ( meat and eggs) ? Cattle if trained are used for plowing and transport ? They are a source of family income when sold ? They are a medium of exchange/ payment ? Dogs are a companion to man / guard. It is important to feed and look after domestic animals Domestic animals are living creatures. They can only be healthy, be productive and perform well, if they are fed and handled well. They need food, water, shelter and care. An animal needs like a human being, a balanced diet consisting of body building food (proteins), protective food (vitamins) and energy food (carbon hydrates). This food the different animals obtain in different ways. Water All domestic animals need clean drinking water. For small animals such as chickens and goats the family ought to have a water jar, which always are filled with clean water. It can be carved out from a tree stem or it can be a small basin plastered with cement. Cattle Breeding: Always keep and buy animals from good productive parents. Do not allow inbreeding as it will result in poor quality of offspring. Herding: Cattle should be kept in a crawl or headed. It is a bad custom to leave cattle to run around by themselves. They often destroy other peoples trees and they mix with other cattle, which might bring diseases. Feeding: All nutrition's needed for the cattle are found in fresh grass. Dry grass in the end of the dry season contains no nutrition, and therefor cattle loose weight and easy get sick. It is therefore advisable to give cattle additional fodder in the end of the dry season. If you cannot manage to feed all the cattle, select the draft animals and pregnant, milking cows.
  • 83. 83 Production of fodder: ? Crop residues: Collect the residue from groundnuts, sunflower, beans and cow-peas just after harvest. You can eventually tighten the residues in bundles. Keep it in storage bins until it is used. You can also use maize stocks, but they are not very nutritious. ? Hay: Slash fresh green grass in beginning of the dry season. Let it dry quickly by turning it over daily. Bundle it and keep it in storage bins. You can also grow various plants for making hay. This includes sun hemp and velvet beans. ? Trees: Some trees like Leucina can be used to feed cattle. This trees are evergreen and branches can be harvested for fodder. Do not overfeed with Leucina, as it will be poisoning the cattle. Milking the cows The cow must be calm before milking. She likes routines. Give her a little to eat, while being milked. Careful hygiene, when milking helps in reducing the incidences of diseases in the udder. Always wash hands first and clean the udder. Crawl and shelter: ? The crawl needs to have shade. This is normally achieved through making the crawl, where shade trees are found. Without shade trees, you will have to build a shelter. ? Empty the crawl regularly (monthly)- and take the manure to the compost pit. This will improve the welfare for the cattle, and give plenty of good manure. Left in the crawl much of the nutrition will evaporate and rain into the ground. ? Secure good drainage to the crawl. Apply dry grass - this will improve the manure and the welfare for the cattle.
  • 84. 84 Treatment and prevention of diseases. The most common cattle diseases are: Corridor disease, Foot and Mouth disease, Black leg and worms. How to avoid diseases. ? Don't keep more cattle than you are able to take care of. It is better to keep 5 healthy cattle than 20 sick ones. Sometimes you will have to sell one animal, in order to buy medicine to save the rest of them. Many farmers, who were reluctant to sell any cattle - and therefor not get the needed medicine/ spraying have lost everything, and are now regretful. ? Cattle must be dipped/ sprayed against ticks regularly. Ticks transfer the dangerous Corridor disease, which are responsible for a high mortality rate in many areas of Zambia. It is possible to control Corridor disease! ? Cattle must be dipped or sprayed often every week in the rain season and every second week in the dry season. If there is no dip tank available, the farmer should spray. It is important to strictly follow the mixture on the chemical. If the chemical is mixed too weak, the ticks will not die - but can even become resistant to the chemical. It is also important to spray all over the animal, especially near the utter, under the tail and such places, where ticks like to hide. ? Control cattle regularly to see if ticks are to be found. If so the method of spraying/dipping is not effective, and must be improved. ? Everybody in the community must spray the cattle. If some do not spray, the ticks will spread from those, who do not spray, to those cattle which were sprayed. ? If you did not spray regularly - or had an attack of Corridor diseases, you ought to change the crawl, as ticks will hide there. ? You can evt. buy the chemicals for spraying in co-operation with other farmers. Or one farmer can buy chemicals and resell to other farmers. One farmer can even spray other people’s cattle for a fee. ? Cattle must be de-wormed just before the start of the rainy season and in the end of the rainy season. Worm killer can be obtained from Veterinary shops. If the worms inside the cattle are not killed, using worm killer - the cattle will grow slowly. They will get weak, and will be more likely to easy other diseases. In worse cases, worms can even kill cattle. ? It is good to vaccinate the cattle against common diseases, to prevent them for getting those diseases. You will have to purchase the medicine, where after the local veterinary can do the vaccination. If the family group purchase the medicine together, it will be easier and cheaper. Calf management: ? A cow ready to give birth should be kept separate. ? The calves must have shelter and protection from rain and wind. The floor must be dry and covered with dry grass. ? Make sure that the calf gets all the mother’s milk during the first 4 days. This milk is called Colostrium, and is very nutritious and has antibodies, which protect the calf against diseases and help the calf’s digestion. After 4 days you can start to milk the cow for domestic use. ? If you feed the mother with supplementary feeds such as hey and sunflower cake, the cow will produce more milk. ? The cow shall be weaned at an age of 3 to 4 months by separating it from the mother for at least 2 days. If fed you can milk the cow up to 2 months before she gives birth. ? At the age of 3 months you should start to spray the calf. ? At the age of 3 months you should give the calf the first treatment against worms
  • 85. 85 Dogs: ? You should only keep dogs, if you are ready to care for them. The two common reasons for unhealthy dogs are: Worms and malnutrition. ? Dogs must be given worm medicine at least once per year. Contact the veterinary. ? Dogs must be given a nutritious food, including body building food. A dog can not live from Nshima alone. ? All dogs must be vaccinated against rabies. First vaccination is when the dog is 3 months. Hereafter the dog should be vaccinated against rabies every year. ? Dogs need a shelter in the rain season. ? Dogs feel attached to people and need to be treated kindly. Goats: ? Goats must be prevented from spoiling vegetables, small trees, flowers etc. It means, that goats must be fenced in or guarded. ? A goat needs worm medicine once to twice per year. ? A goat might need additional feeding - especially in the end of the dry season, to avoid it from destroying your own and other peoples trees and plants. Chickens: This chapter is about keeping traditional free range chickens. Those who want to keep broilers or layers must seek additional information. Housing: The chickens must have a place to lay eggs and where to spend their nights. It is important that this place is raised from the ground, as this will prevent diseases and protect them from predators such as snakes. The structure must be provided with a ladder for the chickens to climb on and easily get into the shelter. The nest for hatching hens, must be provided with dry grass. Small chickens ought to be kept in an enclosure up to the age of 2 weeks. This will protect them against predators and adverse weather conditions such as wind and rain. Feeding: The chickens will mainly find their own food. Exceptions can be given to brooding chickens and those with chicks. These should be supplemented with sunflower seeds, maize band etc. Diseases: As a preventive measure you should regularly spray the shelter for small chickens and the egg laying shelter for hens. This can be done by dusting with Blue cross, or using natural pesticides, such as spray made from tobacco leaves.
  • 86. 86 To prevent diseases it is good to vaccinate the chickens. The medicine are normally either dripped into the eyes of the chickens or put into the drinking water. It will be convenient if the family group can purchase the medicine together, as the quantity sold is often too much for one family. Guinea fowls. The advantage with Guinea Fowls are following: They tend to be less susceptible to diseases than ordinary chickens. They are excellent guards, giving early warning of the approach of strangers, including thieves and hawk, by uttering a shrill or a screeching cry. They produce many eggs. Pigs. Feeding: Pigs eat almost like a person. If they are kept free range, they can find part of their own food - but it will not be enough. They can be fed with maize brand, sun flower cake, kitchen remains and left over food vegetable leaves etc. Servicing of pigs: The male and female pig ought to be kept separate, in order to control the servicing. For the first service the female pig should have reached the age of 9 months. She must be on heat (an enlargement and reddening of the vulva are seen, she will appear restless , other female pigs attempt to climb her) Furrowing (giving birth) The pregnancy period for pigs is 3 months, 3 weeks and 3 days (115 days in total). The farmer should write down the expected date for furrowing, in order to assist the pig. The signs of furrowing are: Restless behavior, enlargement of the vulva, the pig makes a nest. When these signs have been observed, a furrowing place should be prepared. There shall be a creep (an escape place for the piglets). It is needed for someone to observe the furrowing as the mother might be confused and can eat the piglets or they can be crushed under the mother. The first 3 days after birth the piglets must be well looked after and kept warm. The piglets are weaned when they are 8 weeks old. Housing of pigs Pigs can be very destructive to nearby fields and gardens. It is therefore good to keep them in an enclosure or in a string, which is moved around. They can be let free for finding food and exercising when they are guarded. The enclosure for pigs must protect them from rain, heat and wind. It must be kept dry and clean. Castration This is done when the pigs are 5 to 6 weeks old. It is important to do this as the castrated pigs grow faster and it improve the quality of the meat.
  • 87. 87 Internal parasites: Pigs are very vulnerable to infestations. These worms feed on the pig’s blood and on the food within the intestines of the pig. In the process they can damage organs, such as the lungs. All pigs must be dewormed twice a year in the beginning and in the end of the dry season. Piglets should be dewormed soon after weaning and mothers 2 weeks before giving birth to the piglets. Donkeys Donkeys are kept as draft animals. They are very strong animals, which are good to pull a plow, to pull a wagon. They can carry people and goods on their back as well. How to make the harness Many use the same harness for a donkey as for oxens. This is wrong, as donkeys pull with the breast, while the oxen pulls with the back. A good harness keeps the donkey healthy and it will be able to pull much more. A good harness can be made out of leather, old tires or canvas materials. (see drawing). The donkey can carry up to 90 kg on its back. It can also carry a person riding. Cleaning the hoe. The hoe of a donkey is very venerable to diseases and injures. It is therefor necessary to clean the hoe every day before using the donkey. Stand on the side of the donkey. Lift the hoe. Clean away soil, stones etc. using a stick. Diseases. Donkeys are know to be very resistant to diseases. They do not need to be sprayed/ dipped. However it is very important to give worm medicine in beginning and in the end of the rain season. Feeding. Like cattle use for draft power, it is important to give additional fodder in the end of the dry season. Donkeys are stubborn and clever animals. When a donkey is tired, it will refuse to work. Do not be harsh to the donkey, it will just be more stubborn. It will continue to refuse to work, until it is not tired anymore. It will always remember people who have mistreated it.
  • 88. 88 HOW TO START A SMALL BUSINESS/ PRODUCTION A person/ group which want to start a production/ business should make a good plan in order to become successful. The business starts with the business idea, follows by the marketing analyze, marketing plan: The business idea: ? What product or service your business will sell / produce. Chose something you are good in - chose something which has a good market. ? Who your business is going to sell to. Decide if you produce for the village market, the nearby town or.... ? How your business is going to sell its products/ services Will you make a shop? Or sell your products to a retail shop in town ..... ? Which need your business will fulfill for the customers. Your business should always have your customers need in mind. Marketing research: Marketing is finding out how to satisfy the customers while making a profit. Good marketing involves: ? Selling good products - or giving good services. ? Providing a product or service the customers need. ? Setting prices that they are willing to pay. ? Getting your products or services to them. ? Informing and attracting them to buy your products (advertising) Before you start your business you must make a research. ? Talk with potential customers. What do they want to buy, to which prices, what do they think about your competitors. ? Study your competitors’ businesses. ? Read magazines information related to your business. Marketing plan: Make a good plan for how your will market your product/ services: ? Which products are you going to sell? ? Which price are you going to charge? ? Which place are you going to sell? ? How will you attract your costumers. (Advertise - promotion) Pricing: To set the price you must: ? Know how you cost ? Know how much customers are willing to pay. ? Know your competitor’s prices
  • 89. 89 How to calculate the cost: Add the price for the purchased items, transport, labour, packing etc. The cost shall then be divided with the number of items you have to sell - and you will get the cost per item. From here you add your profit depending on what the costumers are willing to pay. Working capital: The working capital is the money, you need to have in circulation all the time in order to continue your business. Don’t use your working capital, as you will destroy your business. On the contrary you should build up the working capital in order to expand the business. Example: Business idea: You have made a business idea of selling kapenta. Looking into the need in your local community and looking into the fact, that you only have a few money for starting the business. You will in first place not make a shop, but move around in the villages with kapenta for sale. Costing and pricing: You buy 1 bag of kapenta for k 150.000. Transport cost is k 35.000. The plastic for packing cost k 5000. The total cost is k 190.000. You pack 200 plastic with Kapenta. The cost per item is k190.000 divided with 200 = k950. You decide to sell the kapenta for 1200 per plastic looking into the price from your competitors. You profit per plastic is k 250 per plastic . In total you will make a profit of k250 x 200 = 50.000. Working capital: Your working capital is k 190.000. Your profit is k50.000. This means that you can use the k50.000 and still continue your business. You can also decide to save up the profit to improve on your business. You should be very strict and never use the working capital. That is hard, as you always will have problems such as funerals etc. But once used, the business is down and you might perhaps never manage to start it again. Promotion: Because you always sell good kapenta and treat the costumers very kindly, you become well known as the “Kapenta salesman”. When you are out selling kapenta you talk with the costumers, which other things to bring. You improve your business by starting to sell salt and soap as well. In order to advertise you make small posters to hand up near the water points, with details on when you will come and what you are selling.
  • 90. 90 FIFTH MONTH OF THE STARTING UP PROGRAM HIV/AIDS Introduction. Under this headline the group will go through the following lessons in the manual: ? Introduction to HIV/AIDS ? Assessing the situation in our villages ? Choices in life ? Taking action HIV/ AIDS is without doubt the biggest problem in the world today. Whose problem is it? We used to think HIV/AIDS was a problem only for the sexually immoral like prostitutes. Or a problem only for the youth. Other thinks that it affects some people, of course, but not you or me! The truth is, that it is a problem for everyone: Rich or poor, employed or unemployed, youth or adult, prostitute or virgin. It affects you and it affects me. HIV/AIDS is more than a virus, it is a disease which touches every area of our lives. It is contributing to increased poverty. Children, youth and adults are suffering. There are more and more widows and orphans in our villages. It is time to talk and to act. Many of us have had a negative and lazy attitude towards this problem. We have been quick to judge those who are suffering and slow to help. It is time to change. To work for minimizing the spread. To help those suffering. Who knows - perhaps we will be the next ones who need help. But can we talk about such things? Sex and death are taboo subjects. Yes, we can, because we have to - we have no choice. So let us get started. BASIC KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HIV/AIDS. Topic no 13 ?Start with introduction. Read and shortly discuss the introduction text in this manual. ?Explain basic facts about HIV/ AIDS using the background information (let the members comment and ask questions during the presentation). ?Divide the members into 4 groups and give each group one question to discuss and later present (have papers ready with the various questions ). The question goes like this: 1) List factors fueling the spread of HIV/AIDS, what can be done to change these factors. 2) List the traditional practices that fuel the spread of HIV/AIDS, what can be done to change these practices. 3) What are some of the barriers preventing people from having compassion and giving care to those with HIV/AIDS. What should be our response. 4) Discuss the problems the widow may face after the death of her husband. What could be done to stop or reduce these problems. ?After each presentation everybody should comment and debate.
  • 91. 91 Assessing the situation in our villages Topic no 14 ? Start with a short quiz. The members should answer true or false to the following questions. You could tell those answering true to put up their hands. Tell hereafter the correct answer. 1) HIV is caused by AIDS. (False. AIDS is caused by HIV) 2) AIDS damages the body’s defense system. (True) 3) There is a cure for AIDS. (False) 4) People with AIDS often die from various serious illnesses. (True) 5) A person can have HIV and not know it. (True) 6) There is no way you can protect yourself from AIDS. (False) 7) If you are strong and healthy, you can’t get HIV or AIDS. (False - some somebody strong and healthy will probably live longer before dying from the disease) 8) People infected with HIV - not showing any symptoms, can infect others. (True) 9) A person cannot get AIDS from donating blood. (True) 10) If you use condoms when having sex, the chance to contract HIV/ AIDS is small. (True) ? Read the first case story in the manual. Ask the questions. Lead the discussion, so from the case story you reach to discuss life in your own villages. ? Read the second and later the third case story. Open and lead the discussions. CHOICES IN LIFE Topic no 15. ? Revise shortly some of the issues from the previous meetings. Explain that today we will go more close to each individual member to find out the problems and risks facing each of us. ? Divide the group into young women/ old women/ young men/ old men. If some groups would be too small you might only divide them into men and women. Give each group a paper with the following questions to discuss. (They should not make notes, as it is a personal exercise and should not be presented afterwards) 1) What are your biggest values in life. 2) What is making you sad/ hurt. 3) How do husbands and wives relate? 2) What do you value most in marriage? 3) What do you mean when you say sex? 4) Can a man / women be satisfied with one partner? 5) Is abstaining among young unmarried people possible? 6) What does a man/ woman do when their wife/ husband is unfaithful? 7) Which dangers do you face towards contracting HIV/ AIDS. 8) Would it be possible for you to change towards a more safe behavior. 9) Would this be a choice based on your values? What values? 10) Would your choice not make a difference as the change must come from your spouse - in that case what can you do about it. ? The groups meet for a short conclusion.
  • 92. 92 TAKING ACTION. Topic no 16 ? Explain what it means to live positively with HIV/AIDS and how to do it, using the background information. ? Discuss advantages and disadvantages of taking an HIV test and hereby know ones status. ? Carry out the two sketches, which show different ways of looking after an AIDS patient - you must have prepared them in advance with a few members - Discuss the questions. ? Make a plan for how you can spread the word on HIV/ AIDS. The actions could include some of the following - but it is important that is it a the group’s own plan - so members will feel devoted to carry it out: ?? Each member with teen age children will educate them. ?? Each member will talk with at least 10 relatives and friends. ?? Actions to be taken if needed with the community health worker - concerning for example distribution of condoms ?? Sketches, songs, posters. ? Discuss with church elders how the church can get involved. ? Invite those who have been trained on Positive Living or whose who are from clinic and have a session with them on Positive Living. ? Learn 10 rules of servival.
  • 93. 93 HIV/ AIDS What is AIDS ? ? AIDS is a disease, which has no cure. ? HIV is the virus which causes AIDS. ? The HIV virus kills because it damages the body's defense against other diseases. When the body's defense system is damaged, the body may be attacked by life threatening diseases. Why is AIDS so serious ? It has no cure ? No vaccine ? Causes death ? Leaves orphans ? Increases poverty ? Worldwide about 33.6 million people (3 times as many people as the entire Zambian population) are infected, and the number is growing. ? 16.3 million people have already died from AIDS. ? 16 % of adults in Zambia were HIV positive in 2005. That is close to 1 million people or 16 out of every 100 people. ? In 1990 there were about 20000 orphans in Zambia. In 2005 the number had increased to over one million How is HIV transmitted ? 1. Blood - through sharing razor blades - through reusing needles for injections - through blood transfusions (HOWEVER all blood donations in Zambia are being screened for HIV, So the risk is low.) - through any other exposure, where an infected person’s blood enters another person’s body. 2. Sex - unprotected sex of any kind - both from man to woman, from woman to man and from man to man. 3. From mother to child - during pregnancy, during delivery and during breast feeding. How is HIV NOT transmitted ? HIV is not spread through ordinary human contact like ? Hugging, kissing or shaking hands. ? Sharing cups, plates, spoons, bed linen, clothes. ? Sharing latrines or toilet. ? Living with or sleeping in the same room. ? Playing together. ? Sneezing and coughing. ? Mosquito bites. ? Caring for somebody who has developed AIDS.
  • 94. 94 Don’t worry - HIV/ AIDS is not transmitted. Major signs of AIDS can be: ? Fatigue ? Fever ? Diarrhea ? Weight loss ? Spots on the skin ? Chronic general pain ? Cough ? Constantly getting various diseases. How can you prevent HIV infection ? 1. Abstinence - no sex at all. 2. Be faithful to one faithful partner. 3. Use a condom correctly during every intercourse. 4. Take care that instruments used for ear piercing, tattooing, circumcision or the like are sterilized or new. You can sterilize the instrument by boiling them for 20 minutes. 5. Do not share razor blades, shavers and toothbrushes. How do you know that you are HIV positive? Only an HIV blood test can decide for sure if a person is HIV infected. A HIV blood test can be done at many hospitals and clinics. You cannot see on a person that he/she has HIV infection. People infected with HIV can go for many years without any signs of the disease - but a the person can through all these years infect others. Why is it important to get tested? - So you won’t infect others - So that you can adopt a healthy way of living to prolong your life - To make choices to have children looking into the risks involved
  • 95. 95 Living positively with AIDS It is important that a person with HIV/AIDS does not give up but accept the situation and decide to live positively. To live positively means: ? Accepting the fact that HIV is with you, and make the best of your life with HIV and AIDS. ? Live as normal as possible. ? Make choices in life, that promote a good health: Eat good food, do not smoke and drink alcohol, do physical exercises and get enough rest. ? Do not infect others and do not get re-infected (stick to one partner and always use a condom) ? Keep a good hygiene. ? Drink 2 liter of clean water every day. What is good food for an person infected with HIV. The food should be rich in proteins, which you can get from soya beans, cow peas, kapenta, eggs, milk etc. It should be low in fat - so just use a little cooking oil. It should contain many vitamins and minerals, which you will get through fruits, green leaves and all other vegetables. Soya beans as well contain many minerals. Do not overcook the vegetables - because then you will destroy the vitamins. People sick from AIDS often lose the appetite. It is important to find the food they can eat, such as fruits, soup, porridge or similar. Eat a variaty of immune boosting remidies and health promoting food such as herbal tea, garlic, ginger, Pennyworth, Mint, Lemon grass etc. Families will benefit from growing herbs in their garden. Anti retroverial therapy. People who have a CD4 count under 200 or symptoms of fullblown AIDS need to start on anti retroverial therapy (ART). This is tablets that the patient must continue to take every day the rest of his/ her life. It is important that the medicine treatment is started at the right time – not too early and not too late. Caring for people with HIV or AIDS Persons with AIDS need love, care and encouragement from family and friends. You must: ? Never condemn a person for being HIV positive or having AIDS. ? Be a good listener and accept that they are HIV positive. Remember that people will feel angry, frightened, lonely and depressed ? Help the person to get medical treatment when sick and encourage the person to get plenty of rest. Secure the person eat good food. ? Keep the person active and busy. ? Help in cooking, cleaning and looking after children, when they are sick.
  • 96. 96 Sexually transmitted diseases ? The most common sexually transmitted diseases are gonorrhea and syphilis. ? Common signs of sexually transmitted diseases are: ?? Wounds on the genitals. ?? Pain and discharge when urinating. ?? Swollen glands. ? ALWAYS go to the clinic or hospital if you suspect you have a sexually transmitted disease. If not treated, STD can become very serious - and might course the person to become infertile (not being able to produce children). People with wounds on the genitals are as well at greater risk of becoming infected with HIV. It is therefore important to be treated at once. ? Sexually transmitted diseases are spread through sex. You can prevent STD: ?? Avoid sex = abstaining. ?? Be faithful to one faithful partner. ?? Always use a condom when having sex ? A person infected must always inform his/her partner about the disease, in order for the partner to be treated. Often men has easy seen symptoms - while the women might not notice the disease. If not informed by her partner, she will not get treated and the disease will becom e very serious .
  • 97. 97 Case stories for Topic no. 14 1. A real life situation ? Chris is a 35 year old man, tested HIV positive three years ago. He looks very healthy and are not sick. His wife is pregnant and he already has 5 children. Chris has an affair with Loveness, who is a grade 9 pupil. She has sex with him, because he supports her at school. Loveness is attracted to Alex, who is the dream for all the girls in the class. She had sex with him twice. Alex is a very attractive boy and can easy find girl friends. He have had sex with several girls. Questions: 1. Do situations like this happen in real life? In your village? 2. What problems does it lead to? 3. What do you think happened to the people involved? 4. Who is to blame? 2. Inheritance and witchcraft. Mary's husband died after a long illness. The mother in law is accusing Mary of witchcraft and killing her son. After the funeral, the father in law and uncles grab all the property out of their dead son/ brother’s house, leaving Mary and her children destitute. The children are no longer able to go to school. Mary struggles to make some money from selling of kapenta. A friend has told Mary, that it is easy to make good money by going to a certain bar and having sex with the men there. Questions: 1. Which long illness might have coursed the death of Mary’s husband? 2. Why do we fear to say someone died of AIDS? Is this fear a good thing? 3. Is it possible that Mary bewitched her husband? 4. Should we assume that Mary is also infected? 5. What do we think about the tradition of property grabbing? 6. Should Mary prostitute herself? 7. How can the community help widows such as Mary? 3. Polygamy. Anni is a young girl, who recently completed grade 9. She had a boyfriend, who this time is very sick. David is married with 3 wives. He has 12 children. He is 40 years old and are doing very fine as a farmer. This year the cotton harvest was very good, and he has decided to invest some of the money in a new wife, and he has chosen Anni. David and the wives are conscience about HIV/ AIDS and do not have sex outside marriage. They get married and after some years the second wife start to get ill. She dies from AIDS. David accuse her for bringing AIDS to the family. Questions: 1. Who could have brought AIDS to the family. 2. Is polygamy dangerous in this time of HIV/ AIDS 3. Do you think the wives were consulted before the new marriage? If now is it good? 4. What could happen to the children? 5. Why is family planing today more important than ever before?
  • 98. 98 John’s story. John is an intelligent, popular young man. He is also much admired by ladies. He and his group of friends are well known as womanizers. Recently her head that one of his former girl friends has really lost weight and is ill. The rumor goes that she have AIDS. John is worried and has decided, that he will forget women and concentrate on studies and try to get a good job. However he is finding this very difficult as his friends keep pressuring his to continue the same habits. Even some girls are offering themselves to him.... Questions: 1. Does this happen in real life? 2. If you were David, would you be varied? About what? 3. Would you advice him to make an HIV test? Why - or why not? 4. What practical ideas can you give him about dealing with the peer pressure? 5. Why are girls offering themselves to him? PLAYS FOR TOPIC NUMBER 16. PLAY 1. A good Christian couple - the husband is a Church Deacon and the wife sings in the choir. The husband is at work. The wife is on her way to visit church members, who are sick. Her husband's young sister is staying with them and is dying of AIDS. The wife gives the young person a glass of water, shows that she is annoyed and resents that the lady is staying in her house, and that she is expected to look after this prostitute. She shuts her in the house and leaves. She meets some women from church on the way who compliment her on the good works. Late afternoon she returns to find the patient still alive! The patient is in a mess and the wife complains bitterly. The husband returns home and has a cup of tea. He does not sit with or greet the patient and makes sure that the patient has not used the cup. The husband says he, that he wishes his sister was out of their way, so that it would not be so expensive, when she dies. PLAY 2. A good Christian couple - the husband is a Church Deacon and the wife sings in the choir. The husband is at work. The wife unable to go to choir practice or church visiting as she is looking after her husband’s young sister who is dying of AIDS. She treats the patient kindly, gives her something to drink and makes sure she is comfortable. Visitors from the church arrive to find out why she has not been seen at church. They refuse to greet the patient and are very rude. They tell the wife that she is neglecting her church duties. The wife excuses, that she is looking after a sick relative at her home - and find that must count. After returning home, the husband greets his wife and sister. They sit down together and have a cup of tea. Hereafter the sister is taken to the hospital for her review appointment. Questions (ask the questions after showing the first sketch and again after showing the second: 1. Does this happen in real life? 2. Did the wife do well? Why or why not? 3. Did the husband do well? Why or why not? 4. How do you think the patient felt? 5. Is it better for a patient to die in hospital or at home?
  • 99. 99 BACK GROUND KNOWLEDGE 10 RULES OF SURVIVAL FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/ AIDS How HIV spreads in the body: HIV (Human Immune-deficiency Virus) is a very small organism. It attacks the CD4 cells in the body. These cells protect the body against diseases. In a healthy person there are 700 or more CD4 cells in 1 micro liter of blood (about one drop). When HIV enters the system, attacks the CD4 cells, so the number of these cells reduces over time. When the CD4 count falls below 350 the body may start to have problems fighting off illnesses. The World Health Organisation suggests that people start ARV treatment when their CD4 count falls below 200 or they have a history of illness s due to opportunistic infections. A person can take many years to reach this stage - some people have lived with HIV for over 15 years and still have a strong immune system. HIV attacks the CD4 cells but it is difficult for them to enter a CD4 cell in rest. When the CD4 cell become active - that is if the body gets injured or sick - it put out an receptor and the virus can enter the CD4 cell. It is therefore important to keep the CD4 cells in rest - in order to stop the HIV from entering the CD4 cells. Observing the 10 rules for survival will keep you CD4 cells at rest and strengthen your immune system. It will improve your chances for a longer and healthier life. Facts for Positive Living You must deal with - keeping your body healthy - keeping your mind healthy - keeping your soul healthy. Rule Number 1: CLEAN WATER Why? Everyone should drink at least 8 glasses of safe water a day. However, by drinking water that is not clean, people will receive bacteria, parasites and worms which will keep the immune system active ... and in an activated immune system the CD4 cell are highly receptive to HIV How? 1) Get water from safe sources. A deep bore hole generally provides clean water, while water from taps and open wells often carry bacteria. 2) All water from unsafe sources needs to be treated by: * Chlorinating, * Boiling, *UV radiation (sunlight). Using a clear plastic bottle, you can treat water by placing it in the sun on a dark background (roof) for 8 hours 3) Keep the treated drinking water in a closed container. Rule Number 2: HELMINTHES INFECTIONS. Why? Helminthes infections include worms, Bilharzia and Giadiasis. Worms are extremely common, especially in areas with poor sanitary systems. A quarter of the world’s population is infected with worms. These diseases may have few signs and symptoms, but they keep the immune system constantly active. How? 1) De-worming tablets: Your pharmacist can give an inexpensive over the counter treatment for worms. The whole family (and any pets such as dogs and cats) should be treated every 6 months. 2) Diet: Certain foods reduce worm infections, including pumpkin seeds, garlic, pawpaw, watermelon and beet root. 3) Sanitation: Clean water, use of toilet or latrine and hand washing reduce the spread of worms. 4) Avoid Bilharzias - Avoid bathing in or walking through stagnant water in order to avoid contact with the Bilharzias parasite.
  • 100. 100 Rule Number 3: FOOD Why? A well balanced diet helps the body to maintain itself and fight infections. People living with HIV should take extra care to eat enough and have a well balanced diet with plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables. How? 1) Carbohydrate: The body needs sugars and starches for energy. For example grains, rice, pasta and sugar. 2) Protein: The body needs protein to build up new cells and to keep the immune system strong. Protein can be found in Soya, kapenta, beans, meat and eggs. To get enough protein it is important to make good plans and budgets including cheap sources of proteins - and if possible to grow cow peas, Soya etc. as a supplement. 3) Fats: The body needs fats in small, regular amounts to help the body maintain itself. Fats can be obtained from cooking oil and avocado. 4) Micro nutrients: The body needs a range of vitamins and minerals to function property. Fresh vegetables and fruits as well as correctly dried leaves contain many vitamins. A multivitamin tablet (best with Selenium) can be taken as a supplement to boost the immune system. Rule Number 4: VITAMINS & MICRO NUTRIENTS Why? Any stress or chronic diseases (such as HIV) means that the body has an increased need for micro nutrients. How? Herbs and spices: These plants not only add flavor, they also contain micro nutrients and can help the body to stay strong. Garlic is nature’s antibiotic. Used on a daily basis it is a blood purifier. Garlic can be added to food during cooking or it can be eaten raw. Herb tea: Pennyworth is a plant that strengthens the immune system. Use a small handful in a cup of hot water daily as a tea. You can also mix it with Lemon grass and Peppermint leaves. Observe good cooking methods: For example do not overcook the food. Rule Number 5: HYGIENE Many diseases spread through bad hygiene and sanitation. Hygiene plays a vital role in preventing diseases and in developing a positive self image. How? Personal hygiene: It is important for good health to keep the skin and body healthy through regular bathing, washing hair and cutting nails. Correct hand washing practice (using soap/ash and running water) is very important to avoid spreading diseases. Sanitation: The community and the environment must be kept clean to stop the spread of diseases including: construction and use of latrines and toilets, maintenance and cleanliness of the water source, avoid littering, using refuse pits, garbage cans, etc. Rule Number 6: CONTROL OF TB Why? Tuberculosis or TB is a long lasting and easily spread disease caused by bacteria (small germ). Many people carry these bacteria, but if their body's defense system is strong, they do not usually get sick. A person whose immune system is weak is more likely to get sick. TB usually affects the lungs but it can also affect other parts of the body such as the nervous system, bones, joints, the nervous system, glands and skin. How? Get early treatment: You may have TB if you experience some of the following symptoms: Coughing for longer than 3 weeks, loss of appetite, loss of weight, night sweats, difficulty in breathing, pain in the chest and feeling weak and tired. Go to the doctor as soon as you suspect TB. Complete the full treatment: The treatment is for 8 month and can have a number of side effects. Even if the patient feels better it is important to complete the whole course. It is necessary to eat well while under medication, to get enough rest and to avoid activities that make you tired or having difficulties in breathing.
  • 101. 101 Rule Number 7: MALARIA CONTROL Why? Malaria is a parasitic disease that attacks the red blood cells and causes exhaustion, fever, headache, shaking, chills and anemia. Malaria is the number one killer disease in the Zambia. People living with HIV have less immunity against Malaria and attacks activate the CD4 cells. How? Prevent the mosquitoes from breeding: Remove stagnant water near your home, clean up the area for tins and similar items that keep water. Kill mosquitoes: Sleep under insecticide treated mosquito nets. Prevent mosquitoes from biting you: Put on long sleeved clothes in the evening. Cover windows and openings in the house. Use repellent (buy or use natural remedies such as Wild Tagetes). Chase away the mosquitoes by planting strong smelling herbs outside your home. Preventive medicine: Take preventive tablets - especially pregnant women. Early treatment: Go to the clinic as soon as you suspect Malaria. If you completed the medicine and still fell sick you must return to the clinic. Rule Number 8: CONTROL OF HIV INFECTION Why? If you are HIV negative, you must take steps to stay that way. If you are HIV positive you must avoid passing HIV to anyone else and must also protect yourself from re-infection. Even married couples who are both HIV positive can have different versions of the Virus and should only have protected sex in order to avoid re-infecting each other. How? 1) Abstain from sexual intercourse. 2) Have only one faithful partner 3) Use condoms every time you have sex. 4) Pregnant mothers and their partner need to take steps to avoid passing HIV to the baby. This can happen during pregnancy, birth or breast feeding. All pregnant women ought to know their status and follow advice from their counselor. Rule Number 9: COTRIMOXAZOLE Why? This is a combination of 2 antibiotics which is efficient in treating and preventing the AIDS defining pneumonia (PCP). It also prevents other infections and leads to improved absorption of nutrients. How? A single daily dose of Cotrimoxazole has few side effects, it is affordable and has been shown to be effective in preventing many diseases. If you are HIV positive and your CD4 count is below 200, you can talk to your health care provider about getting a prescription for Cotrimoxazole as prevention. Rule Number 10: COMPREHENSIVE ARV TREATMENT Why? Anti-Retro Viral Treatment (ART) consists of a combination of 3 medicines which suppress HIV - so that the immune system can be restored and is again capable of protecting the body from diseases. ARV treatment can reduce the amount of HIV in the body (the viral load) but can not get rid of the HIV altogether, so a person must continue to take the medicine once they start. How? 1) It is important that ARV Treatment is started at the right time - neither too soon nor too late in the course of the HIV infection. A person living with HIV must go to the clinic/ hospital to be assessed before starting Treatment 2) It is important that you feel go for professional counseling and also share problems with those close to you. 3) Regular medical check-ups are needed to monitor side effects and your general health status.
  • 102. 102 SIXTH MONTH OF THE STARTING UP PROGRAM HUMAN RIGHTS. Introduction. Under this headline the group will go through the following lessons in the manual: ? Human and civic rights. ? Gender. ? Violence against women. ? Children’s rights. In this month we will look into the rights we have as human beings on this earth and as well the rights and duties constituted by the government. These rights are for men, women and children. Men and women all the time work together and interact. It is therefor important for us to understand about gender - meaning what are the roles of men and the roles of women. Many misunderstand and think that gender means, that men and women should do the same work! But no! It is a question about giving equal opportunities and equal rights to all human beings - and to share the workload and responsibilities in the home. In order to create development. HUMAN AND CIVIC RIGHTS. Topic no 21. ?Introduce the topic. ?Ask the members to come up with a list of human rights. (Add if some might miss) ?Questions to discuss: ?Discuss the various human rights. Are they met in Zambia/ in your village. ?Could anything be done to meet more of the human rights? ?Explain about the law system. Local court, magistrate court and high court. Ask for questions and comments. ?Has some people in the group been involved in court cases - let him/ her explain. ?Explain and discuss the law on inheritance.
  • 103. 103 GENDER . Topic no 22. ? Introduction: Explain why we will like to work with gender issues. Hereafter explain the difference between sex roles and gender roles. Sex roles are those determined by men’s and women’s biological make-up. They are universal and unchangeable. Gender roles are those determined by society. They are changeable and differ from one culture to another. ? Preconceptions Appoint one area of the room as “true”, one as “false” and one as “neutral”. Read the following statements and ask the committee members to stand in the place corresponding to their feelings about the statement. After each statement, discuss why they answered as they did. 1. Boys and men cannot cook well. 2. Girls are generally not as interested in higher education as boys are. 3. Boys and men are stronger than girls and women. 4. Girls and women are dull. 5. Men should make all the decisions in a household. 6. Women should show respect to men. 7. Men should show respect to women. ? Our gender roles Divide the participants into a group of women and a group of men. Have each group come up with two lists, one of the duties for women and one of the duties for men. Have them present to each other, compare and discuss the following questions: ? Do we agree that these are the respective duties? ? Can women perform men’s duties and vice versa? ? Do we want to / need to change any of these gender roles? ? Sources of gender imbalance Ask the members for ideas. Then add what is missing. Traditions, religious beliefs, sense of insecurity... ? Reasons for change Why should men change their values? Why should women know their rights and values? Let the committee members answer. Then add what is missing. ? for a fair division of labour at home ? for the children’s healthy development (So both man and women assist in raising the child) ? to strengthen the family socially ? to help the family economically ? to protect and improve the status of children ? to develop our community ? to instil self-confidence ? Methods of change Have the committee members come up with a list. Then add what is missing. ? Gender education ? Equal opportunities ? Equal responsibilities ? Counselling ? Setting a good example
  • 104. 104 Violence against women. . Topic no 23. ?Reflect on a few of the major discussions from the last week’s gender lesson. ?Physical violence against women. Show the picture and discuss the questions. ?Cultural violence against women. Show the picture and discuss the questions. ?Social violence against women. Show the picture and discuss the questions. ?The group make an action plan on how to implement some of the decisions taken in the discussions. Decide who in the group should take responsibility for follow up. CHILDREN’S RIGHTS. Topic no 24. Discuss the following questions: ?Children’s right to be protected against child labour: ?How do we distinct between child labour and assisting at home ? ?Which work are good for children ? ?Which work are not good for children? ?Are some children belonging to your village being overworked? ?Children’s right to education: ?Do all children in school age (7 to 14 years of age) from your village go to school? ?If some are not is school - what are the reasons. Can something be done about it? (Counseling of parents, counseling of children, starting a community school, discussing with teachers.......) ?Do parents take interest in their children’s education - such as following up what the child learn in school, helping and encouraging the child to learn more, know if the children are being treated well in school etc. ?Children’s right to be protected against sexual abuse. ?Revise the text about sexual crimes in the manual. ?Do you know any cases of sexual abuse? ?How to find out if a child is being sexual abused? ?The child will often be sad, isolated, lose concentration in school, might have sores on the sexual organs. Few children will come themselves to tell what happened - but need careful counseling. ?Discuss what to do if knowing/ finding out that a child is being sexual abused? ?How to stop sexual abuse of children in your community? ?Children’s right to be protected against violent and humiliating punishment. ?It is good for parents to beat children ? Why/ why not ? ?How to define violent and humiliating punishment against children? ?Give examples of other ways of violence against children. ?Are some children being violated in your area? ?What can be done to avoid violence against children? ?Make an action plan for how to improve on children’s rights in your village. Decide who should be responsible for follow up.
  • 105. 105 HUMAN RIGHTS. Background knowledge The charter on human rights was adopted by most nations after second World War in 1945. The rights apply for everybody - weather the person is born in Zambia, America or China. They apply for men/ women and children - to people of all races and religions. Some of the rights are political - which the governments should not restrict such as: The right to free speech The right to vote The right of association and peaceful assembly The right to nationality and refuse The right of choice (ex to religion) Protection against torture and degrading punishment. Other rights are social , economical and cultural - which the government must strive to fulfill: The right to life. The right to health and health care. The right to food and shelter. The right to education. The right to recreation. The right to social security. Additional rights for children: The right to family life. Protection against abuse and neglect by parents or caretakers. Protection against child labour. Protection against sexual exploitation and abuse. THE LAWS OF ZAMBIA. The constitution Every country has a constitution that states all laws and systems for the specific country - which must be followed by the government. The first constitution for Zambia was made after independence and has later been reviewed. Part of the constitution states the law and courts: The laws of Zambia Customary law is a collection of legal rights and duties of people, who live a traditional way of life. The laws differ from tribe to tribe as they depend on cultures and traditional practices. Common law: Build on the constitution. It includes ? the criminal law, which deals with cases such as theft, murder and rape ? the statuary law which deals with for example traffic cases ? the civil law which deals with contracts between people, damages on other peoples property.. Many things are different following the common law - and the customary law. Marriage is one example: If a couple is married under the common law - with a marriage certificate, they
  • 106. 106 should follow the common law for marriage: This law only allows the man to have one wife and he can only divorce the wife following a trial in court. ] The courts of Zambia Local court: Are found in villages and uses customary laws for judging. This court deals with local trials. Magistrates courts: Are found in all district towns and uses the common law for judging. Deals with civil and criminal trials except for treason and murder. It as well deals with appeals from local courts. High Court: Are found in each province (for Southern Province Livingstone). Deals with civil and criminal trials. All sentences inclusive death can be passed. It as well deals with appeals from magistrate courts. Supreme court: One for the country - in Lusaka. Deals mainly with appeals from high court. A person accused will be sentenced if the court can proof that he/ she is guilty. If the person sentenced do not agree in the sentence he/ she can appeal to a higher court. Women’s right to inheretance: Following the common laws and as well adopted by the traditional law a widow and the children of the diseases have the following rights to inheretance: ? The widow/ widower has the right to all the household goods - such as furniture, kitchen equipment, blankets, radio, bicycle, farm equipment etc. ? The capital (incl. big values such as car, animals and property) must be divided in the following way: ?? 20 % to the widow/ widower ?? 50% to the children ?? 20% to the father ?? 10 % to dependents. Property grabbing is illegal - but often practiced. Many widows does not know their rights - and even if they know them, they are afraid to demand for these rights, fearing to be harassed by their relatives and by the local community. SEXUAL OFFENSES. RAPE Rape refers to a situation, where a person is forced into having sexual intercourse. Act of rape can be committed by anyone including a spouse, relative, friend, stranger, teacher or superior at work etc. Rape is a serious crime and the maximum penalty for rape is life imprisonment. Date rape: This happen in a relationship where the man assumes that the woman is willing to have sex with him. If a woman say NO, the man must accept this. Even if he has spent money on her, he has no right to force her against her will. Marital rape: There are times, when a married woman may not feel like having sex and it is important that a husband respect her feelings. Rape in marriage is a moral offense, but there are no law in Zambia against it.
  • 107. 107 What should be done when one is raped? ? Tell another person about the crime as fast as possible, to get assistance and to back up your evidence. ? Do not bath or clean yourself, as vital evidence may be destroyed. ? Report the case to a police station (if in the village to the community police post). Where possible ask for a female officer. Do not hide anything for the police and give as much details as possible. ? After reporting to the police you will be sent to the hospital. A doctor will examine you to find evidence of rape. This will include a sample of semen - which can proof, who was the rapist. The doctor may give tablets to prevent pregnancy and examine eventual bruises and wounds. ? Many rape victims does not report the crime because they are afraid of having their reputation damaged or being held responsible for the rape or victimized. Rape MUST be reported. If not done so the rapist can repeat the crime. The victim will need moral support, counseling and understanding in order to get over the crime. Defilement. Having sex with someone under 16 years of age is a crime. It does not matter weather the girl/ boy agrees or not. People who marry girls under the age of 16 should be prosecuted for defilement. Defilement is not only sexual intercourse - but as well letting a child touch the private parts, showing the private parts to the child - touching the child's private parts and similar offenses. The maximum sentence for defilement is life imprisonment. What to do if you know someone, ho has been defiled: ? Report to the nearest police station. ? Council the child involved.
  • 108. 108 Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is any act of sexual nature, that causes embarrassment or humiliation to the receiver. It can be: Obscene gestures, unnecessary touching, pressuring for sexual activity, offering promotion for sexual favor, making threatening remarks after one has refused their sexual advances. What to do in case of sexual harassment. ? Report to the Victim Support Unit and Zambia Police. ? If in school - report to parents and the head teacher. ? Counsel the child involved Abduction. Young girls might be abducted and kept in the man’s home for some day’s in order to force the parents to allow her to be married to the man. Often these girls are very young and not yet ready for marriage. Often it is against the girls will - meaning an offense against her human rights. Traditionally the parents will allow the man to marry the girl - and will charge damage on top of the lobola. However the man has committed a crime and ought to be prosecuted. VICTIM SUPPORT. If you are a victim for domestic or sexual violence and know about a case you can contact: Zambia Police Victim Support Unit at most police stations. In Lusaka a number of women’s NGO can assist: ? Women and Law in Southern Africa, Plot 2398, Robert Hudson Building, Longolongo Road ? National Legal Aid Clinic for Women, Plot 15/110a Musonda Ngosa Road, Villa Elisabeth. ? YWCA, Opposite UTH mortuary
  • 109. 109 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN. PHYSICAL VIOLENCE. Questions: 1. What do you see in this picture? 2. Does this really happen? 3. Why 4. Mention some other forms of physical violence against women. (Too heavy workload put on the women, sexual abuse/ rape, forced pregnancies, slapping...) 5. Can physical violence be justified? 6. What is the response of neighbors and of the community to this violence? 7. What are the effects of physical violence on the life of the people? 8. What can be done to change the situation
  • 110. 110 9. . CULTURAL VIOLENCE Questions: 1. What do you see in this picture? 2. Does this really happen? 3. Why ? 4. How can we define cultural violence? 5. Give examples of cultural violence. ?? Wife inheritance. ?? Lobola - which make the husband think that he owns his wife/ wives. ?? A widow being harassed by in-laws, accused for coursing the death of her husband. ?? Women having to eat after men/ serving the best food for the men. ?? Men having the decision making power - even on the number of children. ?? Early/ forced marriages. ?? Women being harassed and often divorced if they do not conceive. 6. How do you feel about the various forms of cultural violence? 7. What are the effects of physical violence on the life of the people? 8. What can be done to change the situation?
  • 111. 111 SOCIAL VIOLENCE Questions: 1. What do you see in this picture? 2. Does it really happen? 3. Why 4. How can we define social violence 5. Give examples of social violence. ?? Women doing most work in the field - and at the same time most domestic work. ?? Even when a woman is sick she is expected to look after her husband and children ?? Women having little say in decision making in the home. ?? Some parents sending sons to school but not daughters. ?? Police not taking women’s complaints seriously: “It’s just a domestic problem” 6. Can physical violence be justified? 7. What is the response of neighbors and of the community to this violence? 8. What are the effects of social violence on the life of the people? 9. What can be done to change the situation.
  • 112. 112 SEVENTH MONTH OF THE STARTING UP PROGRAM HEALTH CARE Introduction. Under this headline the group will go through the following lessons in the manual: ? First aid ? TB and pneumonia ? Drug and alcohol abuse ? Health in your village The idea of this month is to conclude on how to improve health for all people in the village. You will go through the above lessons and as well conclude on the lessons you already had and look into all health problems and solutions to solve/ minimize them. FIRST AID. Topic no 25. ?Prepare this topic well in advance. Read the text and pracise together with one or more helpers from your group on how to carry out the first aid. ?Show how to stop bleedings, how to take care of small wounds, how to treat broken limps, what to do if a person has high fever, how to treat burns, animal bites and poisoning. After each demonstration you discuss traditional/ common treatment and conclude why the demonstated treatment is good. It is probably too much to go through all the described first aid, so chose and keep some for the next meeting. TB AND PNEUMONIA Topic no 26. ?Start to revise first aid. Teach the remaining part of first aid if you didn’t complete. ?Explain about TB - symptoms and treatment. Ask questions. Find out if many is infected in the area with TB. ?Explain about the difference between pneumonia and a normal cough and cold. Ask questions to confirm that everybody know the symptoms and understand the danger of pneumonia - especially for children.
  • 113. 113 DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE. Topic no 27. ?Introduce the topic. ?Explain about how smoking tobacco effect the body (using the drawing of the torso). Ask if smoking is giving any social problems. Is it good to smoke? ?Explain how alcohol effect the body. Divide the members into men a women. Each group should discuss the problems raised socially due to alcohol. The groups present to each other (eventually using sketches). Discuss the sketches/ presentation. Conclude if anything could be done to minimize the problem raised from alcohol. ?Explain about how drugs inclusive Marihuana effect the body. Ask if any of these drugs are being used in the village. Discuss if anything could and should be done to avoid the use of drugs. HEALTH IN OUR VILLAGE. Topic no 27. ?Ask the members what they have learned through the program, which aims at improving the health for yourself and your family. (Hygiene, diarrhea, malaria, nutrition, child care, family planing, safe motherhood, HIV/AIDS, first aid, TB, Pneumonia, drug and alcohol abuse.) List what is mentioned and add if needed. ?Ask for examples of measures taken by members to improve the health situation. ?Ask if any results have been seen? ?Discuss which health problems are major in the village and what might be done to improve the situation. ?Make an action plan of how to further improve health for all family members. You could eventually chose a health responsible in the group.
  • 114. 114 FIRST AID Introduction First Aid is the treatment given to a person just after an accident has happened. Correct First Aid can assist people, can avoid pain and save lives HYGIENE WHEN GIVING FIRST AID When giving first aid you have to take care not to spread germs through poor hygiene. Use clean water, avoid letting wounds become dirty etc. There is also the risk of HIV infection. If you have cuts or open sores on your hands, you should avoid providing first aid, where bleeding is involved. Let another person with no cuts take over giving first aid. If not possible you should cover your hands well with a plastic bag. If several people are injured - wash out the plastic bag between touching each patient - and wash hands. SHOCK Shock means in short, that the heart cannot pump enough blood to the brain, which can be very dangerous for the injured person. It is therefore necessary to prevent shock. This is done in the following way : ?Stop bleeding ?Lay the injured person down ?Support injured parts of the body to minimize pain ?Protect the injured person against rain, cold or heat ?Speak to the injured person in order to make him/ her more relaxed. RECOVERY POSITION When a person is unconscious, he/ she seems to be asleep, but cannot be woken. An unconscious person should never lie on their back - but on their side. This is to prevent him/her choking if they vomit, or the tongue falling into the throat which would stop him/her from breathing. The best is to place him/ her in recovery position (see drawing) HIGH FEVER High fever is dangerous because if it continues for a long time the brain can be affected and the person becomes unconscious. ?Keep the person in a cool place, remove the clothes ?Give the person a lot of cold water to drink ?Don’t cover the person with warm blankets. Use light material only for covering ?Cool the forehead and chest with a wet material until the temperature is reduced ?Give the patient some Panadol (Paracetamol). It will bring down the fever.
  • 115. 115 CARE FOR WOUNDS Cleanliness is of first importance in preventing infection and helping wounds to heal. If germs are allowed to settle in the wound the wound may become infected. ?Wash the wound with clean water and soap ?Make a bandage out of a clean piece of cloth ?Small wounds do not need bandaging ?Never put animal-/human feces or mud / soil on the wound. These can cause dangerous infections such as tetanus ?Wash the wound and put on a clean bandage twice a day ?If the wound is severe you should put on a bandage and take the person to a clinic or hospital as soon as possible for sewing or any other treatment ?If the person has not recently been immunized against Tetanus ask the health worker for an injection against this very serious disease. INFECTED WOUNDS If wounds are not kept clean and dry, germs grow and cause infection. An infected wound is hot, red, swollen and very painful. Pus (thick yellow liquid) may come out. Infected wounds are very dangerous and the injured person must immediately be taken to the clinic or hospital. STOP BLEEDING If a person is severely injured and one of the big arteries which carries blood from the heart is cut, the person can die within a short time. It is therefore important to know how to stop bleeding. Medium bleeding: ?Hold the injured limb high. ?Apply a bandage. ?Very severe bleeding:- Press your finger on the wound to stop the bleeding immediately. Thereafter apply a pressure bandage. It can be done as follows: Roll the bandage a few times around the wound. Put something flat, a stone or a piece of wood, over the bleeding wound and continue to roll the bandage.
  • 116. 116 BROKEN BONES ?In severe cases one can easily see that the limb is broken. The wound can be open, and the broken bones may be sticking out. Or the limb can have changed shape ?In less severe cases the injured person will feel pain, cannot move the injured part normally, and it will start to swell ?A suspected broken bone has to be taken for an x-ray and treatment at the hospital. Even less severe cases of broken bones can cause a lifetime of pain if not treated ?When giving first aid to a person with a broken bone: Do NOT move the limb that is broken. It will cause further damage ?Immobilize the broken bone(s) before the injured person is transported. See on the drawing how it can be done ?If it is an open fracture cover the wound carefully with a clean cloth to prevent infection Transport the person to the hospital. You can, if convenient, use a stretcher. (See how to make it on the drawing) When transporting in a car - secure that the broken limb is not moved - but is well supported.
  • 117. 117 BURNS If the person’s clothing is on fire, wrap the person in a blanket or roll him/her on the ground to put out the fire Cool the burnt area immediately with cold water!!! If the burnt part is on a limb (arm, leg) put the injured part into a bucket with cold water. If it is on the body - pour cold water over the injured part - continuously for a long time. It is best to continue until the pain disappears - at least for one hour ?DO NOT put grease, oil, cooking oil, toothpaste etc. on the burnt area instead of cold water. It keeps the heat inside the wound, and makes it more serious ?If the burnt part is bigger than the size of a hand, the injured person will need medical help immediately.While someone prepares the transport to the hospital - others can continue to pour cold water over the burnt part - and make the person as relaxed as possible in order to prevent the person from fainting (if convenient, in a stretcher) Do not remove any clothing, which is sticking to the burnt area. ?Do not break blisters. It can cause infection ANIMAL BITES Animal bites are dangerous because they can cause infection, tetanus or rabies. Animal bites need prompt attention: ?Wash the wound thoroughly with soapy water for five minutes. Dry it and cover with a clean bandage If the injured person has not been immunized against tetanus within the last 10 years, he or she must be brought to the clinic / hospital immedietly ?Some dogs/ cats might have rabies. An animal with rabies will behave very violently and will be foaming around the mouth. Take care that it does not bite any more people. The bitten person will need a rabies vaccination. If not given a vaccination before 10 days - the person might become sick and die ?In order to avoid rabies, all dogs ought to have a rabies vaccination - it is much easier and cheaper to vaccinate a dog - than a person.
  • 118. 118 SNAKE BITES Some snakes are poisonous and others are not. There are very few snakes with life threatening poison. Follow these guidelines if bitten by a snake: Never panic or run around because poison will spread fast in the body Stop the poison from spreading by keeping the bitten part still. Try to keep it lower than the heart. If possible lay down ?Do not try to suck poison from the wound using your mouth. The poison can spread through the mouth ?Instead, wipe out the excess poison from the wound and wash the bite with water ?Do not use a tourniquet (tightening something hard around the limb, between the bitten part and the heart). It might stop the poison from spreading - but it might also stop the blood from reaching the limb. ?This might result in amputating of the limb. Take the patient to the hospital as soon as possible, preferably on a stretcher Meanwhile, while organizing transport to the hospital you can also call for a traditional healer, who is well known in the area for curing snake bites. Various kinds of herbs are good against snake poison. At the hospital the treatment with traditional medicine can continue in cooperation with the doctor. POISONING ? ?NEVER keep poison in bottles or containers which normally contain drinks and food stuff. ALWAYS keep poison including medicine out of the reach of children ?If a person has taken poisons like cattle dip, garden chemicals, an overdose of tablets or poisonous fruits, make the casualty vomit by pushing a finger down his or her throat. Give hereafter plenty of water mixed with egg white, milk or plain water to drink. Hereafter take the person immediately to the hospital ?For acidic poisons such as petrol, paraffin and acids, do NOT make the person vomit as it will make the situation worse. Give the person sips of milk (water) - but take care that it will not make him/ her vomit. Bring him/ her to the hospital immediately ?Often, a person who has taken poison will fall unconscious. If this happens, remember to place the person on their side (recovery position).
  • 119. 119 HOW TO CARRY A WOUNDED OR VERY SICK PERSON You can make a stretcher in a simple way (see drawing), in order to carry a wounded or very sick person. Move an injured person as little as possible.
  • 120. 120 CHOKING Choking happens when a person cannot breathe because something is stuck in the windpipe. If a baby is choking, immediately do this: 1. Quickly lay the baby along your forearm with the baby’s face looking down, and the baby’s head lower than the chest 2. Support the baby’s head and shoulders 3. With your free hand give light slaps on the baby’s back To avoid it - keep small items out of reach of small children and give them only well mashed food. IF A CHILD IS CHOKING, IMMEDIATELY DO THIS: 1. Kneel down and place the child across your thigh, with the child’s head lower than the body. 2. Give slaps between the shoulders IF AN ADULT IS CHOKING, IMMEDIATELY DO THIS: Ask the person to bend forward, so his/her head is lower than the chest. If the person cannot cough out the object blocking the windpipe, give him or her four sharp slaps between the shoulder blades with the heel of your hand. Repeat this if necessary. If the person is still not able to breathe, stand behind him or her. Interlock and clench your fists just below the person’s ribcage. Pull your clenched fists suddenly inward and upward. The object will often be released in the mouth.
  • 121. 121 WHAT TO DO WHEN BREATHING STOPS - MOUTH TO NOSE BREATHING Common couses for breathing to stop are: ?drawing ?heart attack ?something stock in the throat ?the tongue or thick mucus blocking the throat of an unconscious person. A person can die within 4 minutes if she does not breathe. If a person stops breathing, begin mouth to nose breathing immediately. Quickly: Step 1: Use a finger to remove anything stuck in the mouth or throat. Pull the tongue forward. If there is mucus in the throat, quickly try to clear it out. Step 2: Gently lay the person face up. Tilt his head back and pull his jaw forward. Step 3: Open you mouth fully. Place it over the nose of the diseased. Blow into his lungs so that his chest rises. Pause to let the air come back out and blow again. Repeat every 5 seconds. Continue until the person starts to breathe or until there is no doubt, that he is dead. If the nose is blocked you should blow through the mouth. With babies and small children you cover both mouth and nose and blow very gently every 3 seconds. Blowing too deep can destroy the lungs of the baby.
  • 122. 122 TUBERCULOSIS (TB) TB is a long lasting and easily spread disease, anyone can get it. Those most likely to catch the disease are those who are weak, poorly nourished, living with someone who has TB, or someone who is HIV positive. With the increasing number of people infected with HIV - the number of TB cases is on the increase. TB CAN BE CURED IF SPOTTED IN THE EARLY STAGES, SO IT IS VITAL THAT YOU CAN RECOGNIZE THE EARLY SIGNS: Chronic coughing, usually worse after waking up ?Mild fever in the afternoon, and sweating during the night ?Chest pains, or pain in the upper back. ?Rapid loss of weight, and increasing weakness SERIOUS OR ADVANCED SIGNS ?Coughing up blood ?Skin becomes paler, and waxy ?Voice becomes hoarse IN YOUNG CHILDREN THERE MAY BE NO COUGH, BUT LOOK FOR: ?Steady weight loss ?Frequent fever ?Lighter skin color ?Swelling around the neck, or belly . TB usually only effects the lungs, however it can affect the whole body. In young children it can cause meningitis, or damage to the backbone, which can lead to paralysis. If you suspect that you have any of these symptoms, or that a member of your family has them, then seek immediate medical attention, the hospital should provide you with an X-ray, and an examination of what you spit out. If the TB is in the backbone you can be given surgery. If you require medication, then you should take it as directed. This medication you should continue to use until told otherwise by a doctor. Curing TB can take from anywhere between 6 months to 1 year.
  • 123. 123 As well as taking medication you should also do the following: ?Eat as well as possible, preferably foods high in energy, vitamins and proteins. ?Rest, and make sure you get enough sleep, do not take part in any activity which leaves you feeling tired, and having difficulty to breathe. TB is easily spread, so as a precaution those living with someone with TB should: ?Be tested for TB ? ?Sleep in a different room than the person with TB ?Ask the person with TB to cover their mouth when coughing, and not to spit on the floor ?Be on the look out for weight loss, you should weigh each member of your family monthly ? If anyone shows signs, have them tested at once. Early and full treatment is the key to stopping the disease. Often, late treatment cannot prevent death.
  • 124. 124 DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE Introduction Many young people destroy their future by misusing drugs and alcohol as do many grown up people. Misuse of drugs and alcohol can result in early death. A lot of money is spent on drugs and alcohol which could be used for other constructive needs that improve a poor family’s livelihood. FUNCTIONS OF THE BODY We breathe fresh air into the lungs and oxygen from the air is absorbed into the blood. Oxygen is absolutely necessary for a human being to live. After breathing in oxygen, Carbon dioxide (C02 ) which is the waste product from breathing is breathed out. The heart pumps blood with oxygen around the whole body. The food we eat gives energy and body building materials. This food is digested by the intestines. The brain consists of millions of small cells, which make us think, remember and have feelings. In order for the body to stay healthy and to function well, it is important that we get good food, water and fresh air. However, some people use drugs and alcohol, which destroy the body. ALCOHOL When a person drinks alcohol, the alcohol comes into the stomach and from there it moves into the blood stream. The blood stream transports the alcohol around the whole body and to the brain. This is why one feels weak after drinking and why a person who drinks a lot fails to control his or her body and behavior. Excessive drinking can spoil different organs in your body e.g. the liver. The function of the liver is to clean the blood. If the liver gets destroyed, the blood cannot be cleaned and the person will die. Some people become addicted to alcohol and cannot control their drinking. They are alcoholics and can not stop drinking even if they want to. They even feel sick when they have not taken any alcohol. Besides harming the body, drinking can also harm the life of the family, as money is spent on drinking, leaving the family without money to buy sufficient food and clothes, pay school fees, buy medicine and other basic needs. It is also common that the husband beats up his wife and children when drunk. Many husbands and wives who drink, hang around bars or drinking places instead of being with the family, thus neglecting the children. The marriage ends up breaking, leaving the family members, especially the children, scattered and vulnerable.
  • 125. 125 When one is smoking the smoke goes into the lungs. Normally the lungs of a human being are pink, but the lungs of a smoker turn black because of the tarmac and other chemicals found in tobacco. The consequence is that the lungs do not function so well and the person will get tired easily during sports and work. The chances of death from lung cancer are greater for a person who smokes. Passive smokers (people inhaling the air filled with smoke, coming from a person smoking) have an equal chance of getting cancer. Smokers should therefore consider e.g. going outside when smoking. MARIJUANA Some people smoke marihuana because they like the feeling of being drugged and forgetting all the problems in their daily life. This makes them feel for a short time that everything is great and there are no problems in the world. However, smoking marihuana harms the body as the brain gets damaged. When smoking marijuana, brain cells will die. The person will start to forget things and she/ he will have difficulties in learning new things. After smoking the person will not be able to concentrate and work well. If a person smokes marihuana today, it will remain in the body for a week implying that he or she will not be normal before this week elapses. After smoking marijuana for some time the person gets addicted and will have very big difficulties in stopping smoking. He/-she will feel sick (depressed) if not smoking marihuana. More marijuana will stop the person from feeling sick - and the main reason to continue smoking it, will be to avoid feeling sick. SNIFFING Sniffing is another way to become drugged. Petrol or glue are examples of substances that can be sniffed through the nose. Sniffing is very dangerous because it can destroy the brain cells even faster than marijuana. By simply sniffing a few times extensively a person can become totally confused, even death may occur. There are more deaths of first time users through sniffing than from any other drug, including hard drugs. NARCOTICS Narcotics are strong drugs that are also known as hard drugs. Narcotics that are well known are mandrax, cocaine or heroin. Some people take narcotics by either using injections or tablets. Just like marihuana and sniffing a person takes narcotics to get drugged, leaving the daily life behind and feel well for the time being. Unfortunately, the effect of narcotics is very bad and the harm to the body even greater than that caused by marihuana and sniffing. The main problem is that a person taking narcotics gets addicted to the drug and has difficulties in stopping even when they see the need to. The addicted person cannot work and needs a lot of money to buy these drugs, which are very expensive. It often leads to prostitution and crime in order to raise the money. After some time, the person does not feel good after taking the drugs. She just takes them to stop the pain in the body. Many who use narco-tics die whilst still very young.
  • 127. 127 HUMAN BODY