Village Action Group
Manual
Food Security, Health and Human Rights.
DAPP – Development Aid from People to People
CHILD AID...
2
Introduction
Dear reader.
This manual is written to group leaders and member of Village Action Groups in the DAPP
progra...
3
CONTENT
Page
Introduction 2
Description of the start up programme 4
Faciliation skills 5
Team work and leadership 6
1st
...
4
Welcome as a member of the Village Action Group.
You will as a member of the Village Action Group learn many things in o...
5
THE START UP PROGRAM
The first year new members will go through the start up program
- every headline will take 1 month
...
6
GOOD FACILIATION AND
TEACHING METHODS.
Teaching people is not just about giving the message.
It’s about making people un...
7
BENEFITS OF WORKING IN A GROUP:
It encourages cooperation between people in the community and enables us to accomplish
t...
8
TEAM WORK
A group has to work as a team. A very well known team is the soccer (football)
team. Here you will see a group...
9
good group member should:
? Work together
? Share responsibilities
? Listen to each other
? Give each other advice
? Tea...
10
Analyse, plan, take action
The group should first ask: How is the situation?
? Knowing how many in the village have lat...
11
FIRST MONTH OF THE STARTING UP PROGRAM
STARTING THE PROGRAM.
NOTES TO THE GROUP LEADER.
The group leaders should first ...
12
Second lesson
Diarrhoea, bilharzia and home improvements.
? Revision and follow up.
First the group will discuss which ...
13
Background knowledge
Hygiene
Illnesses can be caused by germs getting into your mouth via contaminated
food and water
?...
14
Illnesses can be prevented by using clean drinking water
? The best is to get drinking water from a safe source like a ...
15
Illnesses can be prevented by using a refuse pit
? Germs can be spread by flies. Flies like to breed in refuse like foo...
16
17
Background knowledge
Diarrhoea
Diarrhoea is dangerous
? Many children, who get diarrhoea will die from it.
? Diarrhoea ...
18
Diarrhoea can be prevented
? Diarrhoea is caused by germs from faeces. These germs can enter the mouth mostly
through d...
19
Background knowledge
Bilharzia.
What is Bilharzia
? Bilharzia is caused by a kind of worm, that gets into the blood str...
20
Signs of Bilharzia
? The most common sign of Bilharzia is blood in the urine, especially when passing the last
drops.
?...
21
Background knowledge
Malaria
Malaria is spread by the bite of a mosquito
Care must therefore be taken to keep mosquitoe...
22
It is dangerous for a person to have a very high fever. Bring the fever down by:
? Give medicine to bring down the feve...
23
SECOND MONTH OF THE STARTING UP PROGRAM
HOME IMPROVEMENT - ENVIRONMENT
Inspiration for the group leader
Introduction.
U...
24
Tree planting - maintaining of the natural resources.
7th lesson.
The group could start with a brain storming on all th...
25
BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE
ENVIRONMENT
Environment is everything around us: It is the air, the rain, the soil, the grass, riv...
26
Beautiful surroundings will give us beautiful thoughts:
We can beautify our homes and our country by:
? Planting flower...
27
Back ground knowledge
MAINTANANCE OF WELLS AND BORE HOLES
CLEAN WATER IS IMPORTANT FOR A GOOD HEALTH
Clean drinking wat...
28
CREATE A GOOD ENVIRONMENT AROUND THE WATER POINT
The community should make a nice environment around the water point. T...
29
Back ground knowledge
FOREST MANAGEMENT AND TREE
PLANTING
TREES ARE IMPORTANT FOR OUR ENVIRONMENT
The Environment is al...
30
FOR MAKING INSECTICIDES
Tephrosia vegelii. This shrub is a very good insecticide. You pound the leaves, branches and
po...
31
CUTTING TREES ON HILLS AND STEEP SLOPES: This must be discouraged,
because the trees protect the land against erosion. ...
32
HOW TO PRODUCE TREE SEEDLINGS
INTRODUCTION
Where tree seedlings are produced use the following methods:
1. Produce the ...
33
HOW TO SOW THE SEEDS
Cover the seeds with soil twice the size of the actual seed. This means the bigger the
seeds are, ...
34
?Cold water treatment:
?Leave the seeds in cold water overnight before sowing. This applies to most fruit
tree seeds an...
35
irrigated. Give full shade to the seedlings for 2 to 3 days.
PLANTING AND MAINTENANCE OF
TREES
Introduction
Like any ot...
36
HOW TO PLANT TREES
Planting of seedling in a polypot:
Remove or cut the poly pot carefully without disturbing the roots...
37
Mango 6m x 12m
HOW TO PROTECT YOUNG TREES
?Keep the area at least ½ m around the seedling free from weeds all the time....
38
near the stem and avoid to disturb the tree roots. A big tree will need at least one
wheel barrow full of manure/ compo...
39
Back ground knowledge
STOVE CONSTRUCTION
WHY CONSTRUCT A STOVE
A stove has a number of advantages:
?A good stove use on...
40
Too wet mixture Too dry mixture Good mixture
Foundation
Make a foundation out of 4 big bricks (15cm x 20cm).
Plaster th...
41
Rest for firewood
?Place three bricks in front of the
stove –
?where you want to cut the opening
for firewood.
?Plaster...
42
CHILD CARE
Introduction.
Under this headline the group will go through the following lessons in the manual:
? The needs...
43
Child growth, immunization and nutrition.
Topic no. 10
? Start with a short reflection of the previous topic.
? Explain...
44
Family planing and safe motherhood.
Topic no 12
? Present the main points for safe motherhood. Put up questions in the ...
45
CHILDREN’S RIGHTS
Human rights are rights that all human beings have, no matter where they are born, no matter
how rich...
46
CHILDREN’S NEEDS
Children’s needs can be divided into 4 categories:
? Physical (shelter, clothing, food, health, exerci...
47
CHILD GROWTH
If all babies were exclusively breast fed for the first six months of life, then the deaths of
more than o...
48
A small child
needs to eat
frequently
Under five clinic:
All children under the age of 5
years should regularly attend
...
49
50
Nutrition.
Introduction
To stay healthy we need to eat the right kinds of food in the correct proportions. Our body
req...
51
Immunization
Immunisation protects against several diseases.
? A child which is not immunized can risk death from sever...
52
The 6 vaccine preventable diseases.
53
CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Babies begin to learn from the moment they are born
? The growth of the human brain is already comple...
54
FAMILY PLANING AND SAFE MOTHERHOOD
Introduction
Every year half a million women throughout the world die from problems ...
55
Safe motherhood
Safe motherhood can be ensured by following these simple
guidelines:
The risks of childbirth can be dra...
56
FAMILY PLANNING
Introduction:
Family planing means, that you plan the number of children you want - and when you want
t...
57
Some common questions:
? Is it good to have a lot of children, so that if some die from diseases, there will still be
s...
58
? Traditional medicine.
?? Tightening a string with certain herb around the waste, cannot prevent pregnancy, as
it not ...
59
FOURTH MONTH OF THE STARTING UP PROGRAM
IMPROVE YOUR INCOME
Introduction.
Under this headline the group will go through...
60
IMPROVE YOUR INCOME 3 Optional)
LAND MANAGEMENT
Topic no 15 - 16
Minimum tillage:
Start with exercise in minimum tillag...
61
1) Why is it important to rabies vaccinate dogs? - how ? 2) How to see if a dog is healthy? 3)
How to feed a dog? 4) Ho...
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme
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Many thanks to The Health Education Unit under the Ministry of Health in Zambia, which has been helpful with professional advice on the topics related to health and to the Zambian National Farmers Union and Agriculture department in Monze, who have been helpful as regards to the topics related to the environment, tree planting and farming. We are also thankfull to the International Movement Humana People to People for technical assistance.

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Manual for the Child Aid Start up Programme

  1. 1. Village Action Group Manual Food Security, Health and Human Rights. DAPP – Development Aid from People to People CHILD AID AND ENVIRONMENT E-mail: dapptree@zamnet.zm Member of the International HUMANA Peple to People Movement
  2. 2. 2 Introduction Dear reader. This manual is written to group leaders and member of Village Action Groups in the DAPP programme, but it is our hope that many other people will find it useful in the noble task of development. It contains basic information within health, environment and production as well as inspiration on how to facilitate the various topics. The manual is written by DAPP project leaders from various parts of Zambia, with many years of experience within integrated development work. Many thanks to The Health Education Unit under the Ministry of Health in Zambia, which has been helpful with professional advice on the topics related to health and to the Zambian National Farmers Union and Agriculture department in Monze, who have been helpful as regards to the topics related to the environment, tree planting and farming. We are also thankfull to the International Movement Humana People to People for technical assistance. Illustrations and information have been achieved from the following publications, which as well is recommended for further information on the topics in the manual: ? Where there is no doctor by David Werner. ? Facts for Live published by UNICEF, WHO and UNESCO. ? First Aid in the community published by the international federation of Red Cross and Crescent Societies. ? Conservation farming handbook published by Conservation Farming Unit ? Conservation farming by Brian Oldrive ? Natural pest and disease control by Henry Elwell and Anita Maas. Published by Natural network Zimbabwe ? Vitiver grass - the hedge against erosion published by The World Bank. ? 10 rules of survival – by Humana Medical Headquarter For comments, questions and ideas please contact: DAPP in Zambia Box 70505, Luneta Road 10, Ndola. Tel/ fax: 095-850284 E-mail: dapptree@zamnet.zm Fourth edition August 2006
  3. 3. 3 CONTENT Page Introduction 2 Description of the start up programme 4 Faciliation skills 5 Team work and leadership 6 1st Month: Saniation and hygiene Introduction 11 Hygiene 13 Diarhoea 17 Birharzia 19 Malaria 21 2nd Month: Environment Introduction 23 Wells and boreholes 27 Tree planting 29 Stove construction 39 3rd Month: Child Care Introduction 42 Children’s rights and needs 45 Child growth and nutrition 47 Immunisation 51 Child development 53 Family planning 54 4th Month: Improve income Introduction 59 Vegetable and crop farming 62 Budgeting 79 Storage 80 Domestic animals 82 Business ideas 88 5th Month: HIV/ AIDS Introduction 90 HIV/ AIDS 93 Positive Living – 10 rules 99 6th Month: Human Rights and Gender Introduction 102 Background knowledge 105 7th Month: Health Care Introduction 112 First aid 114 Drug and alcohol abuse 124 Human torso 127
  4. 4. 4 Welcome as a member of the Village Action Group. You will as a member of the Village Action Group learn many things in order to improve your life and improve the living conditions for members of you family. If you use the knowledge gained, if you let yourself have dreams and visions – and believe in and work to fullfill them – you will succeed. We expect you as a member of the village action group to work for the benefit for not only yourself and your own family – but to work together with the members of the group and the community as a whole in order to carry out development and brick by brick to take part in building a good future for all of us. Description of a Village Action Group. ? The Village Action Group consist of interested members in one village. Each member represent one family. The Village Action Groups should prefarably be between 10 to 35 member. If more than 35 members it will be better to form two groups. ? Each group elect a chair person, secretary and treasurer as well as 2 group leaders (one man and one woman) to spearhead the activities in the group. ? The groups additionally chose members to participate and spearhead community programmes such as community WASHE committees, community orphan committees, community nutrition committees, run village tree nurseries and similar initiatives. ? Each group will meet every week in the start up phase - same time and same day of the week, in order to learn, discuss and carry out actions. The first year the members will go through a curriculum, consisting of 25 lessons described in this manual and will in the end pass a people’s examination and receive a certificate if passing the examination. The following years the groups will make action plans in which they continue to learn and spearhead development in their respective village. ? The village action groups will work in close cooperation with the Village Headmen and other key players in development in their reseptive community. ? The group leaders will receive basic training in leadership and facilitation skills. However it is the intention with the manual that many must be involved in facilitating the various lessons. The group leaders can organise local government exension staff as facilitators, clinical personal, community health workers, various members of the group with special knowledge and experience etc. ? In the end of the manual you will find a attendance register as well as the household result list. These forms shall be used to follow the results of the start up programme within the participating households.
  5. 5. 5 THE START UP PROGRAM The first year new members will go through the start up program - every headline will take 1 month 1) HOME IMPROVEMENTS- WATER AND SANITATION Learn how diseases spread, how to improve sanitation in the homes, how to treat malaria and diarrhea. Implement basic sanitation improvements such as establishment of latrine, dish rack, garbage system, and hand wash system, clean and orderly surroundings… 2) HOME IMPROVEMENTS - CREATE A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT Discuss and decide ways to improve the homes such as the construction of firewood saving stoves, the planting of trees and flowers, the establishment of vegetable gardens and orchards. 3) IMPROVE FOOD SECURITY THE ECONOMY OF THE FAMILY Discuss and decide ways to improve the economy. Learn about improved crop and animal husbandry. Carry through improvements on household and communal level such as improved farm husbandry, cooperative sale of crops, budgeting etc. 4) HIV / AIDS Learn about this disease. Learn how to avoid the disease or how to live positively with the virus and how to support those sick from it. Carry out campaigns and discussions in the community in order to minimize the spread. 5) CHILD CARE Learn about family planning and how to take good care of infants and children. Implement family planning. Improve child care - including nutritious food, vaccination and use of the ante natal clinic. 6) CIVIL RIGHTS Learn about human rights and take many discussions about how women and men can participate equally in development of the community. Get to know basic civil rights and laws. 7) GENERAL HEALTH Learn about basic first aid, the danger of drug and alcohol abuse, TB and Pneumonia. Discuss and decide ways in the community to improve the general health standard. 8) PEOPLE’S EXAMINATION The program ends with a People’s examination, in which the members of the program evaluate the results of each other. A certificate is given to prosperous members. 9) ACTION PLAN FOR THE COMING YEAR. The group will make an action plan for the coming year including how the group want to be organized, what the members want to learn, which actions and activities it want to carry out.
  6. 6. 6 GOOD FACILIATION AND TEACHING METHODS. Teaching people is not just about giving the message. It’s about making people understand. It’s about giving people the inspiration and tools for them to go ahead. ? Take people to a place where you can see, what you are going to learn about. ?? If you teach learn about vegetable growing - learn it in a good garden. ?? If you shall teach about hygiene and home sanitation - go a see a good home and a bad home ?? If you shall teach about chicken rearing - go to a farmer keeping chickens already. ? You can learn from the good methods and even from the bad methods as it give a good background for discussing. ? Make sure people get involved. ?? Brain storming (ask a question and write all the answers on the board), discussions, group work, practical demonstrations, asking frequent questions etc. ? Use practical exercises. ?? If you shall teach about washing hands - demonstrate how to do it. Using a jar and a basin, demonstrate a small hand wash system etc. ?? If you shall teach about growing tree seedlings in a nursery - bring all needed materials. Let the participants fill the pots - and explain which are filled in correctly. Show how to pre-treat the seeds etc. ? Use guest speakers and use the knowledge among the participants. A facilitator is not expected to know everything. Ensure that all the knowledge in your group is utilized - everybody knowing something about the topic should speak up. Get a guest speaker from outside such as the community health worker, when convenient. ? Plan and follow up. ?? Let the students plan and commit themselves to any development and work they wish to carry out. Follow up later if the plans were accomplished - find out the problems and make new plans with them. ? A very common statement for a facilitator is: “It DID tell them this - but they don’t do it!” You must then ask yourself: Was my lesson all that good - or could I do it better. Perhaps I did not demonstrate the methods well, perhaps we did not discuss enough and how could I motivate people better? I hear and I forget I see and I remember I do and understand RIGHT WRONG
  7. 7. 7 BENEFITS OF WORKING IN A GROUP: It encourages cooperation between people in the community and enables us to accomplish things, which we would not be able to do alone. This means that if the group works well together, it can achieve big results and solve big problems - which each member alone cannot do. For example repair of the broken down water pump, establish a village tree nursery, renovate the primary school, etc. It provides contact with many people so that each of us can increase their knowledge and experience The group consists of many different people with different knowledge and backgrounds. Some know much about health care, others have big interest and knowledge about vegetable growing etc. It encourages participation and involvement in solving common problems The group will identify and analyze problems and possible solutions in order to solve these problems. The group will organize and encourage each other to take actions in order to accomplish development. The members of the group should spread the gained knowledge to the entire community. It develops the skills and talents of the individual members If every member of the group takes - and is given responsibilities within the group - each individual member will develop, through the lessons learned and through taking a stand in discussions carried out. She will also learn to express her self and to organise and take action. Alone we are weak - together we are strong. Filling the jar of knowledge
  8. 8. 8 TEAM WORK A group has to work as a team. A very well known team is the soccer (football) team. Here you will see a group of 11 people who work for a common goal - namely winning the game. Every player has a certain task within the team: You have the goalkeeper, the center forward etc. The coach finds the correct space for each player where they can contribute the most - and train the team in good teamwork. Our team must work in the same way. Every person on the team is important. Imagine a person in the football team just standing on the ground looking at his friends’ performance. It would do more harm than if this person was not even on the team. It is the same way with your team. A person who does not contribute is doing more harm than good. Every person in the group must speak out, discuss, participate in decision making and carry out practical exercises. As with the football team - the group members must take individual tasks upon themselves. There will be enough for everybody in the group: The coach - that is the group co-ordinators, who will be trained by DAPP. The chairperson secures good meetings, the secretary keeps records and minutes and the treasurer keeps group funds. Other members of the will take responsibilities such as running a village tree nursery, be an HIV advocate, take special responsibility for orphans in the village etc. Forming a good group needs time: Just after having formed the group, members might all be enthusiastic about the program. They are probably shy and everybody will try to please each other. After some time problems will come: Some members might not take responsibility or do not fulfill promises. Some members are dominant and will not listen to other members and so on. If these problems are not tackled, discussed and resolved - the group might break up or members will leave. Rules of the group: To assist the group it needs a set of rules = the constitution The constitution should include: * What is the objective of the group (Why do we form the group and what will be achieved) * Who can become members? * How to terminate memberships (e.g. those not active) * How and how often to choose executives (chairman, group coordinators, secretary) * Financial commitment and rules. * How often does the group meet?
  9. 9. 9 good group member should: ? Work together ? Share responsibilities ? Listen to each other ? Give each other advice ? Teach each other. ? Respect each other. ? Participate in all the weekly meetings. ? Take active part in discussions and decisions. ? Take responsibility ? Carry out practically, what they have learned and agreed. ? Keep promises ? Be honest and reliable ? Be punctual good group leader should: ? Lead the group to have visions for the future. ? Be in the forefront as a good example within all the above tasks for members. ? Prepare the weekly meetings well in advance. ? Facilitate topics in a way which involve all members ? Lead discussions ? Promote co-operation in the group ? Promote co-operation with other organisations and key players in the area. ? Lead the group in analysing, planing and actions. To the group leaders - this is a poem for you: Go in search of Your People: Love them; Learn from Them; Plan with Them; Serve Them; Begin with what They have: Build on what They know. But of the best leaders when their task is accomplished, their work is done, The People all remark: “We have done it Ourselves.” A A
  10. 10. 10 Analyse, plan, take action The group should first ask: How is the situation? ? Knowing how many in the village have latrines. ? How many children in school age do not go to school ? How many children are malnourished and so on. This knowledge can be achieved through one person/ more people in the group carrying out inspection in the village. Through visit to the health centre, questions put up within the group etc. Secondly the group should ask: Why is the problem there ? ? Do people have no latrines because they do not find it important, because of lack of funds, or because of no knowledge of how to construct one or because ....? ? Do the children not attend school because the family has no money for school fee, because the children do not want to go to school, or because .....? ? Are the children malnourished because the family have no means - because the mother does not know how to make a cheap and nutritious diet or because .....? The actions to be taken, would be very different depending on the reasons found: ? Do people need information ? ? Is technical or material support needed ? ? Is it question about organising ? ? Do people need be sensitised in order to take the problem serious ? Thirdly the group should put up a plan of action. The plan must include: WHAT has to be done. WHO shall do it - and who shall be responsible. WHEN shall it be done. The plan must be very concrete - and reflect the wish and interest of the group. It must be written down - for the group to remember and follow up on decided tasks. When the plan is done - the work completed - we will start all over again. The group will ask again: How is the situation? ? Before we had so many latrines in the village - now we have so many. Are we satisfied ? ? Before so many children were malnourished - now only so many. Are we satisfied ? ? This is what we did. This is what we achieved - did we follow our plan. What was the problems. The group will ask again: Why is the problem there ? ? In spite of the actions taken - the problem is not solved. Why? ? People have the knowledge - but do not take action. Why ? Thirdly the group will make a new plan of action. ? Using our experiences we will do this in another way ? We really did this well - but still need to ....
  11. 11. 11 FIRST MONTH OF THE STARTING UP PROGRAM STARTING THE PROGRAM. NOTES TO THE GROUP LEADER. The group leaders should first explain details about the program and give chance to members to ask question and put up discussion of the importance of the program. The groups should make a constitution and write minutes. Election should be done of the executive members. The group should end up deciding the weekly meeting day and time - as well as the meeting place for the coming week meeting. HOME IMPROVEMENTS - SANITATION AND HYGIENE. NOTES TO THE GROUP LEADER. Under this headline the group will go through the following lessons in the manual: ? Hygiene and diarrhoea. ? Bilharzia. ? Malaria. The most important is that all members understand how various diseases spread. They should know about bacteria, worms etc. and how they spread in various ways: Some through contaminated water, some through human faeces, some though a mosquito bits and so on. When people understand the theory of how diseases spread, they can themselves find ways of avoiding the spread. The members should also understand the danger of diarrhoea and malaria and basic treatment. Remember that your as the group leaders should be good examples and must therefor be the first one to improve on sanitation in your home. As well be in the forefront of teaching your entire family about hygiene and sanitation. First lesson How diseases spread through bad hygiene and how to prevent this: Use pictures in the manual to explain how germs spread through bad hygiene. Let the participants comment and put up questions. Hereafter the group should walk together to a home and look into danger points - which means things, which are not in order and which can spread diseases. Discuss together methods for improvements.
  12. 12. 12 Second lesson Diarrhoea, bilharzia and home improvements. ? Revision and follow up. First the group will discuss which actions have been carried out by the members since last week and encourage to continue home improvements. The secretary will in the coming week work on filling in a form with information about sanitation among all members in the village. ? Diarrhoea: The group leader present knowledge from the manual about diarrhoea. Points for discussions after the presentation: A) How often do the members experience diarrhoea - among adults and children. B) How is the traditional treatment of diarrhoea. C) Which influence should the new knowledge have for the treatment of diarrhoea. D) Why is dehydration so dangerous and how to avoid it. ? Bilharzia: The group leader present knowledge from the manual about Bilharzia. - Discuss methods in the group to avoid Bilharzia. This would include - Not to use water from Bilharzia infected source, how to avoid children playing in the water .... Third lesson Malaria, action plan. Malaria ? The group leader present knowledge about malaria from the manual ? Points for discussion: ? A) Traditional believes about malaria - which are correct and which are wrong. ? B) Share methods of minimising the breading of mosquitoes - and chasing away mosquitoes ex. through burning leaves etc. ? C) Why is it so important with early treatment of Malaria. Analysing the sanitation situation in the village The secretary present his/her findings. So many with latrines, so many with dish racks, so many with refuse pits etc. The group discuss where the village need improvements and what could be done. A concert plan should be drawn.
  13. 13. 13 Background knowledge Hygiene Illnesses can be caused by germs getting into your mouth via contaminated food and water ? Washing hands with soap and water removes germs from the hands. This can stop germs from getting onto the food and into the mouth. ? It is especially important to wash hands : ? After you have visited the latrine ? After cleaning the bottom of a baby or a child ? ? A child often puts the fingers into the mouth. Therefore it is important to wash a child's hands several times a day. Illnesses can be prevented by using latrines ? Many diseases, especially diarrhoea, come from germs found in faeces. People can swallow the germs, if germs get into water, onto food, onto the hands or on kitchen utensils like pots and plates.Therefore it is very important to dispose of faeces safely. It is done by : ? Always using a latrine, also children ? Faeces from babies and small children are especially dangerous. Their faeces should be cleared up immediately and thrown into the latrine or buried ? Faeces from animals must be kept away from the home and away from water sources. ? Keep animals out of the house and out of the kitchen.
  14. 14. 14 Illnesses can be prevented by using clean drinking water ? The best is to get drinking water from a safe source like a mono pump or a protected well. ? If the water comes from an unsafe source like an unprotected well, a river or a dam - it must always be boiled before drinking. Boiling the water kills the germs. ? It is important to store the water safely at home : ? Store the drinking water in a clean and covered container, bucket or jar. ? Always use a clean cup, when taking water out of the container. The cup shall only be used for taking drinking water. ? Don't allow anybody to put their hands into the container or to drink directly from the container with drinking water. Illnesses can be prevented by keeping food clean ? Germs grow in areas of dirt. Keep kitchen utensils and the table / surface where the food is prepared very clean. Use a rack for dishes to dry the kitchen utensils in a clean and safe place. ? Raw food is often dangerous, because it usually contains germs. It is best to cook the food. ? Cooked food should be eaten straight away - not left to stand, because it might be contaminated. ? It is best not to save cooked food. But in case left over are going to be used, it is very important to re-heat it again all the way through.
  15. 15. 15 Illnesses can be prevented by using a refuse pit ? Germs can be spread by flies. Flies like to breed in refuse like food left over or peelings from vegetables and fruits. ? The family should have a refuse pit where household refuse is buried or burned every day. ? The refuse pit should be dug 2 meter deep and situated 20 meters from the house in order to keep flies away from the home ? It is best to have 2 refuse pits. One refuse pit for things ,which can rot and decompose like food, ashes, grass and plants. This compost can be used in the vegetable garden or in the field as manure. Another refuse pit for things, which cannot decompose like plastic, paper, iron or glass. Illnesses can be prevented through a good personal hygiene ? Good personal hygiene includes : - Bathing and cleaning the teeth every day - Keeping the fingernails short - Wearing clean clothes and using clean bedding What the family must do: Use a rack for dishes Boil drinking water or collect it from a safe source Use a refuse and a compost pit Keep the children clean and tidy. Keep the home and surrounding clean and beautiful. Keep drinking water and food covered Use a latrine Use a simple hand washing system after toilet visit. Wash hand before eating and before preparing food.
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. 17 Background knowledge Diarrhoea Diarrhoea is dangerous ? Many children, who get diarrhoea will die from it. ? Diarrhoea can kill by draining too much water from the body. Therefore it is very important to give a child or an adult with diarrhoea a lot to drink to replace the liquid being lost. ? Diarrhoea can lead to serious malnutrition. Therefore it is very important to encourage a child with diarrhoea to eat. A person with diarrhoea needs lots of liquids and foods ? A person and especially a child with diarrhoea needs a lot to drink. Suitable drinks to prevent dehydration include: ? Breast milk ? Gruel's (mixture of cooked cereals and water ) ? Fruit juices ? Weak tea ? Clean water ? Oral dehydration salts solution. ? It is important, that a person with diarrhoea continues to eat to get more energy. Diarrhoea can lead to malnutrition especially in children. Even if a person or a child with diarrhoea has less appetite, he or she must be encouraged to eat as often as possible. Give small amounts of food, that the person likes most. ? When a breast fed child has diarrhoea, it is very important to continue breast feeding. ? A child, who is recovering from diarrhoea needs an extra meal every day for at least 2 weeks. This will help the child to catch up on the food "lost" while the child was ill. It can be necessary to go to the clinic or hospital because of diarrhoea ? A child or an adult shall be brought to the clinic if he or she: - has a fever - is extremely thirsty - vomits frequently - passes several watery stools in one or two hours - passes blood in the stool - if the diarrhoea continues for more than two weeks ? Some diarrhoea diseases such a cholera and dysentery are very dangerous. A person can die from cholera if untreated in 2 days. Therefor it is very important to go to the clinic if a person has severe diarrhoea. ORS drink can save lives ? diarrhoea shall be given ORS drink. ORS drink replaces both liquid and salts to the body. ? ORS drink prevents and treats dehydration. ? ORS drink is made by mixing one litre (2 big cups) of clean water with four level tea spoons of sugar and half a level teaspoon of salt. Or by mixing one ORS packet, which can be obtained from the clinic with 1 litre (2 big cups) of clean water.
  18. 18. 18 Diarrhoea can be prevented ? Diarrhoea is caused by germs from faeces. These germs can enter the mouth mostly through dirty water and dirty foods. ? The most important ways to prevent diarrhoea are : - always use a latrine - bury or put children's faeces into the latrine immediately - use clean drinking water - wash hands with soap before cooking and eating - wash hands after visiting the toilet - give breast milk alone for the fist 6 months of the baby's life (breast milk helps to protect against diarrhoea and other illnesses.) - keep the food clean - always warm up left over before eating - use a refuse pit Signs of severe dehydration ? A child, who has any of these signs of severe dehydration shall be given ORS drink and taken to the clinic immediately: - Sunken fontanel - Dry mouth and tongue - Sunken tearless eyes - Loss of elasticity of the skin What the family must do ? Know how to prepare an ORS drink ? Follow all the hygiene rules explained under Hygiene. Lift the skin between two fingers, like this If the skin fold does not fall right back to normal. The child is dehydrated
  19. 19. 19 Background knowledge Bilharzia. What is Bilharzia ? Bilharzia is caused by a kind of worm, that gets into the blood stream of human beings. It is very important to seek medical help. Organs like kidney and liver can be destroyed and cause death, if Bilharzia is not treated. The life circle of Bilharzia MAN - WATER- SNAIL - MAN ? Infected person urinates in the water (river, dam etc.) ? Urine has worm eggs in it ? Worm eggs hatch and enter water snails ? Young worms leave snail and go into another person, who is washing or swimming in the water. ? In this way somebody who washes or swims in water, where an infected person has urinated also becomes infected.
  20. 20. 20 Signs of Bilharzia ? The most common sign of Bilharzia is blood in the urine, especially when passing the last drops. ? Pain in lower belly and between the legs can also occur - mostly at the end of urinating. ? Low body temperature and itching can occur. Treatment of bilharzia ? You should always go to the clinic or hospital, if have any signs of Bilharzia, because Bilharzia can be treated with medicine. ? It is also important to eat well and maintain a healthy diet, when you recover from Bilharzia. Prevention ? Never urinate in the water or near to the water. Always use latrines ? Always boil drinking water ? The small water snail, which is the carrier of Bilharzia worms is mostly found in stagnant water. Therefore you must NEVER wash or swim in stagnant water or in any water where you are not sure whether it has Bilharzia worms. ? Leave water for washing and bathing in the sun for two days before use. It can kill the Bilharzia worms. ? Pick and kill the water snails, whenever you see them. ? Use protective clothes, when irrigating or fishing in infected water.
  21. 21. 21 Background knowledge Malaria Malaria is spread by the bite of a mosquito Care must therefore be taken to keep mosquitoes away especially from children IT CAN BE DONE BY: ? Using bednets ? Burning leaves or using mosquito coils ? Keeping doors and windows closed at night and closing all the cracks in the house ? Putting screen on doors and windows in the house ? Wearing trousers and shirts with long sleeves at night ? Planting strong smelling plants near the home such as lemon grass, Artemisia, wild Tagetes. IT IS IMPORTANT TO PREVENT MOSQUITOES FROM BREEDING It can be done by: ? Covering water ponds ? Removing tins, pots or other things, which can collect water ? Not planting crops near the house ? Slashing the grass near the house Using a refuse pit, leaving no refuse lying around SYMPTOMS OF MALARIA ARE: ? Headache, fever, muscle pains, diarrhea, stiffness of the neck ? You don’t need to have all the symptoms to have malaria. For example, continuos headache without fever can be caused by malaria TREATMENT OF MALARIA ? Malaria is a serious disease, which can cause death. ? A child with fever or other symptoms of malaria should immediately be taken to a health worker or to the nearest clinic ? An adult, who suspects that he/she has malaria, should also see a health worker or go to the clinic ? Follow the instruction from the clinic and finish the whole course of medicin given. If you are not feeling better after two days go back to the clinic. NURSING A PERSON WITH MALARIA: A person with fever must drink a lot of fluids. ORS drink is good because it replaces the salt and water lost through sweating.
  22. 22. 22 It is dangerous for a person to have a very high fever. Bring the fever down by: ? Give medicine to bring down the fever. ? Aspirin or paracetamol works well ? Place the person in a cool place ? Remove clothing ? Sponge the person with cool (not cold) water, especially on the chest an forehead. ? Give cool water to drink ? A person recovering from malaria needs plenty to drink and eat WHAT THE FAMILY MUST DO TO PREVENT MALARIA ? No crops planted near to the house ? Grass has been slashed at least 30 meters from the house ? The yard around the house is swept ? No water ponds ? No refuse lying around ? Sleep under mosquito nets ? Regular treat the nets with insecticides ? Burn strong smelling leaves to chase away mosquitoes ? Plant strong smalling plants near the home
  23. 23. 23 SECOND MONTH OF THE STARTING UP PROGRAM HOME IMPROVEMENT - ENVIRONMENT Inspiration for the group leader Introduction. Under this headline the group will go through the following lessons in the manual: ?Environment ?Water point maintenance ?Tree planting - forest management ?Firewood saving stove. The main aim with this topic is to make the members understand and appreciate the environment and to maintain the natural resources maintaining them. The members shall discuss and decide what they will like to embark on within the topics depending on the environment surrounding them. This headline is much linked to the headline for the first month - and references to the previous lessons and follow up on practical achievements is essential. Environment. 5th lesson. The group leader explain shortly what environment means using the information in the manual and lead hereafter a discussion in the group taking up the following questions: ?Which natural resources are important for us here in our village? ?Are any of these resources endangered - and if so what should be done to protect them (wild animals, over fishing, trees, streams, soil etc.)? ?Are there any actions, which the group will like to embark on within protection of natural resources? ?Is beautiful surroundings something important for us? ?What can be done to improve our home in terms environment. ?What can be done to improve public facilities. ?Are there any actions, which the group will like to embark on within improvement of the surrounding environment. The secretary should write down the ideas discussed in the group. End the session by visiting a home and look at the home improvements already carried out and discuss how this home could be improve the environment.
  24. 24. 24 Tree planting - maintaining of the natural resources. 7th lesson. The group could start with a brain storming on all the uses of trees. Hereafter the group leader lead a discussion on the tree situation in the area, taking up the following questions: ?Are there enough trees around our village for firewood, poles and other uses? ?How has the development been within the past years - have you seen a decline in the number of trees? ?Is it needed to plant trees - or is it needed to protect the natural forest? ?What is the dangers of the forest (ex charcoal burning) - what could be done to improve the situation? ?Would it be good to plant trees around the homes to improve the environment - if so for which purposes (windbreak, shade, fruit etc.) ? ?Would the members like to plant trees - if so which type of trees? ?Discuss experiences of planting trees in the area - what has been tried already, what succeeded and what failed - why? If members of the group is interested in producing tree seedlings - the group leaders should explain how seedlings can be produced. Explain: Seed collection, seed treatment, nursery preparation, sowing and maintenance of the seedlings. Finally the group should decide if they want to grow seedlings individually, establish a village nursery - and if so who in the group should be the responsible for the nursery. Firewood saving stove . 8th lesson. This lesson need to be very practical. The best is if one in the group already has constructed a stove - so the group can see the stove in real. The person who have constructed the stove explain about the advantages of the stove and how it is constructed. If there are no stove constructed within the group - the group leaders should explain about the stove using the drawing the manual. Members explain if they will like such a stove - and if so the group decide an action plan for how to do the construction: The plan should include what the beneficiary should do (ex collection of anthill clay and sand) and who is the group should learn the skill to provide assistance to the group members. Follow up on sanitation and home improvements. The group fill in the monitoring form for the village - and discuss if the planned chievements have been achieved. If not discuss why? It could be because some people do not agree about the need for the achievements? - or they have not understood how? - or the person (people) responsible have not carried out the duties decided upon? - or the needed materials did not come as expected? A new plan is decided upon.
  25. 25. 25 BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE ENVIRONMENT Environment is everything around us: It is the air, the rain, the soil, the grass, rivers, trees, wild and domestic animals, birds, insects and people. In the nature everything depends on each other in the big circle of life: Everything in nature is inter linked: ? Plants grow with energy from the sun, minerals from the soil, water from the rain and carbon hydrate from the air.. ? Plants produce oxygen in the growing process. ? Animals and people use oxygen, which they get from the air when breathing - and breath out carbon hydrates - which again is used by the plants. ? Animals eat plant - and some animals live from other animals. ? When animals die, they will decompose - and the minerals will again be used by plants to grow. We must take care of the nature. Look around you - and see how fantastic the nature has been created by God. As a gift for us and a gift for all living creatures on Earth. We should have respect for the nature and keep it as beautiful and well functioning as it was given to us.
  26. 26. 26 Beautiful surroundings will give us beautiful thoughts: We can beautify our homes and our country by: ? Planting flowers, trees and hedges around our homes, schools and churches. ?? Keep the area around our homes clean and tighty. ?? Paint the houses with natural clay colors ?? Keep public areas clean - stop throwing refuse around. (Don’t though litter out of the bus windows). Protection of our natural resources will give us and the future generations an ever lasting reward. We should protect our natural resources, because once gone - they are gone for good. We should therefor: ? Protect the land against erosion. ? Maintain soil fertility ? Protect our forest - and not cut trees indiscriminately. ? Protect the dams and rivers from siltation by not cutting trees and not cultivating the land near river banks. ? Never catch fish or hunt birds and wildlife on times of breading. ? Do not catch fish with a small net - as you will catch fish which have just started growing. ? Never hunt protected species - as you will participate in eliminating these species from Earth. ? Use pesticides carefully
  27. 27. 27 Back ground knowledge MAINTANANCE OF WELLS AND BORE HOLES CLEAN WATER IS IMPORTANT FOR A GOOD HEALTH Clean drinking water is very important for the family to keep themselves healthy. Many diseases are caused by unclean water. Safe water comes from a protected hand dug well, from a tube well with a bucket pump, or from a bore hole with a hand pump. If the hygienic rules for the water points are well kept - all these systems are good. The safest are bore holes with hand pumps. However, this cannot be installed everywhere because of the high costs. One bore hole costs the same as 10 wells. WATER COMMITTEES In order to construct and maintain a water point - any of the above mentioned, it is important that the community form a water committee. This committee consists of a chairman, a secretary, a treasurer and a few active members. The responsibility of the committee is to organize the committee about the construction of the water point and hereafter maintain and safeguard it. To protect it against vandalism and theft and to keep the area clean. The committee must every year after harvest receive contributions from the families, in order to be able to buy spares, cement and so on for the maintenance and repair. MAJOR RULES TO MAINTAIN A WELL ? Slash grass around the well ? Keep the drainage clean and the area clean by sweeping ? Keep animals away from the well : construct a fence ? Keep the bucket and rope/chain clean - it should never stand on the ground. ? Put on the lid after use ? Take in the windless, chain and bucket in at night or lock it MAJOR RULES TO MAINTAIN A BORE HOLE ? Slash grass around the bore hole ? Keep the drainage and the area clean by sweeping ? Fence the bore hole - this is important, because cattle can destroy the pump ? Check that children never play with the pump ? The handle must be operated smoothly ? The pump should be greased and bolts tightened monthly ? The well committee shall call for trained assistance if the pump breaks down, buy spares and pay the plumber for work done. The government might have a system for the repairing of hand pumps, but the community must know that they are the ones who will suffer, it takes a long time to repair the pump There are pumps in Zambia which have been broken down for 3 years. Therefore it is better for the welfare of the community to solve the problem locally
  28. 28. 28 CREATE A GOOD ENVIRONMENT AROUND THE WATER POINT The community should make a nice environment around the water point. This can include: ?Living fence - for example using Euphorbia. A living fence looks beautiful - and at the same time the community does not need always to renew a pole fence. ?Shade trees. ?Flowers. ? USER FEE The committee should collect a user fee - monthly or yearly. In order to have funds for maintenance. THE WATER LADDER
  29. 29. 29 Back ground knowledge FOREST MANAGEMENT AND TREE PLANTING TREES ARE IMPORTANT FOR OUR ENVIRONMENT The Environment is all that surrounds us, that is the soil, the water, the people, the animals, the birds, the insects etc. There exists a balance in nature, created through millions of years of develop- ment. The sun gives energy which is used by plants to grow. Plants give out oxygen for people and animals to breathe. Plants are also eaten by people and animals. The rain falls and trees play an important role in the rain cycle - as they get water from deep in the ground. This water evaporates from the leaves and will later fall as new rain. Trees are an important part of the natural cycle of life. PROTECTION AGAINST NEW DESERTS Deforestation (cutting down the trees) in combination with soil erosion (caused by overgrazing, mono cropping and other unsustainable agricultural methods) might result in the creation of new deserts. Once fertile farming lands are destroyed and nothing can grow there - a man made desert is formed. Every year big areas are turned into deserts. For example, the Sahara Desert expands by 10 km southwards every year. Trees assist to prevent the creation of new deserts. For example, the Sahara Desert expands by 10 km southwards every year. Trees assist to prevent the creation of new desert. FOR FENCING Living fences can be planted around the orchard, vegetable gardens and the homestead. Their main function is to eliminate the need to construct and replace dead fences every year or the cost of purchasing and maintaining wire fences. They need to be constantly trimmed in order to make many small branches which form a thick hedge. The living fence will effectively keep the crops and trees safe if it is well maintained. FRUITS Fruit trees will provide fruit, which will give much needed vitamins to the family. The orchard must have different varieties so that there will be fruits throughout the year. For example in Zambia one can harvest fruits like Mangoes (from November to February), Guavas (from March to June), Paw-paws (from May to November), Tamarind (from October to February), Mulberry (from September to November). RELISH Trees can also be planted to provide relish. Drumstick is one type which can provide the family with green tasty leaves for relish throughout the year. WIND BREAKING Plant trees around the orchard, yard, garden or field for wind breaking - mainly in the direction, of the strong winds (where the wind blows from). These trees can at the same time, be used for firewood, poles and as boundary markers. They will also be homes for birds and other small animals and insects which keep the natural balance in your yard, orchard and garden.
  30. 30. 30 FOR MAKING INSECTICIDES Tephrosia vegelii. This shrub is a very good insecticide. You pound the leaves, branches and pods in water. This liquid can treat the steam borer in maize, it can be used to control ticks in cattle, etc. TO PLANT ON CONTOUR BOUNDS Plant trees on contour bounds to make them stronger. The roots from the trees will assist to bind the soil. FOR POLES, FIREWOOD, CHARCOAL, BUILDING MATERIAL, FURNITURE, PAPER, MEDICINE, MATCHES ETC. Households in rural areas ought to grow ex. 50 trees to provide the home with firewood and other tree material. FOR IMPROVING THE SOIL Trees can also be planted to improve soil, which has been exhausted. Plant a nitrogen fixing tree such as Sespania or Tephrosia closely in a field. Leave the trees to grow for around 3 years, then they can then be harvested. The land will have improved and can be used for growing other crops successfully for two years without using any fertilizer. Faidherbia Albida (Musangum) fertilizes the soil, and maize grows very well under them - because this tree drops its leaves before the rain season, and will therefore not shade the maize. The cattle love to find shade under this tree in the hot season and to eat the pods. This tree should therefore not be cut down, if it is found in the field. If you find many young trees try to transplant them throughout your fields. FOR INCOME GENERATING Families who have planted many trees will be able to make a good income from the trees. Poles, firewood, timber and fruits can be sold locally or be transported to town and sold. FOR FODDER Trees can be planted and be used as fodder for domestic animals. It is important to give the animals additional fodder in the dry season to keep them healthy. WE MUST PROTECT THE FOREST In some areas of Zambia there are waste forests, while the forests in other areas have been cut down. In areas without trees the villagers have problems in getting firewood, poles and other materials from the forest. This means extra work for the women, who use a lot of time collecting firewood - or extra expense for the household in order to transport the firewood and poles from far away places. In some areas the natural forest can be utilized wisely and will give enough wood for the community. In other areas the utilization of the forest must go hand in hand with planting fast growing species. CHARCOAL BURNING: Often charcoal burners clear the forest and leave the land bare. This should be discouraged. Thick forest can be used for charcoal burning - but using selective cutting only.
  31. 31. 31 CUTTING TREES ON HILLS AND STEEP SLOPES: This must be discouraged, because the trees protect the land against erosion. If the slopes are left bare - the soil will be destroyed. CUTTING TREES NEAR RIVERS AND DAMS: This must be discouraged, because the trees protect the land from erosion. Keep on cutting and the result will be loss of fertile top soil - and siltation of rivers and dams. CHITEMENE SYSTEM: In the Chitemene system trees are cut down on a big area and burned in order to give ashes for a small field. This system works well - but the problem is that with the growing population, more and more land will be needed and more and more forest will be burned. The result will be, that there will not be enough time for the forest to regenerate. It is better to learn to use good and sustainable agriculture methods - so the same land can be used year after year. Uses of trees
  32. 32. 32 HOW TO PRODUCE TREE SEEDLINGS INTRODUCTION Where tree seedlings are produced use the following methods: 1. Produce the seedlings in a tree nursery in polythene pots 2. Produce the seedlings in a nursery using seedbeds 3. Produce the seedlings from sowing the seeds on the site, where the trees are wanted 4. Find wildings (small seedlings under mature trees in the nature) and plant them 5. Plant cuttings. GROWING SEEDLINGS IN A TREE NURSERY Site selection A nursery should be located near a water source, on flat land. It should also have wind breakers and not be waterlogged. The size of the nursery depends on the number of tree seedlings to be produced. However, it does not need to be big. e.g. if you want 5000 seedlings 10m x 10m will be sufficient. Fencing The nursery must be fenced in order to protect the tree seedlings from animals. If there is a possibility of problems with chickens use grass and poles. Other places can be constructed with thorny bushes. For permanent nurseries, it is a good idea to establish a living fence around the nursery at the beginning of the rainy season. It is also good to plant a few shade trees in the nursery. It is also good to plant a few shade trees in the nursery Nursery Beds Make the beds 1 m wide with 60 cm between each bed as walkways. If you have polythene pots mark out the beds with material like natural stones, burnt clay bricks, poles, or simply dig the beds 5 cm deep. A bed which is 1 meter wide and 5 meters long can accommodate from 500 to 1000 seedlings- depending on the size of the poly pots. Type of soil to use The polythene pots or the seed beds can be filled with good top soil and the best soil is found under big trees (Faidherbia Albida) or near dams/rivers. If the soil has a lot of clay (easy to form a ball when wet), you should mix the soil with sand. If the soil is not very fertile you should mix it with manure. Never mix more than one part of manure to 10 parts of soil, because the manure can burn the tree seedlings. How to fill the polythene pots with soil The bottom layer must be pressed hard, the middle layer should be slightly pressed and the top layer quite loose. The soil is pressed hard at the bottom in order for the soil not to fall out during transportation. If you have no polythene pots you can use any available container, such as from Chibuku. Remember to perforate the bottom area so that excess water can run out.
  33. 33. 33 HOW TO SOW THE SEEDS Cover the seeds with soil twice the size of the actual seed. This means the bigger the seeds are, the more soil will be needed for covering. Sow seeds directly in the poly pots and in seed beds. If you have a lot of seeds, it is better to sow at least 3 seeds per pot. Seeds can also be sown in seed beds for later transplanting to poly pots, or even directly to the field. It is also a good idea to have some seedbeds in order to transplant the small plants to poly pots, in cases where the seeds did not germinate. SHADING The seedbed or polythene pots should be covered with a thin layer of grass after sowing to protect against the sun and heavy rain storms. Too thick a layer of grass is bad for germination. When the seedlings have germinated you should build a shade at a height of around 60 cm above the seedlings. Seed collection Many seeds can be collected locally from existing trees, it is better if you collect seeds from good and healthy trees. Seeds from any ripe fruit that you have bought or collected can be washed, and afterwards can be sown fresh or dried in the shade. Seed treatment It is important that the seeds are treated correctly before sowing or it will take a long time to germinate, and germination will be very poor. There are basically two different treatments:
  34. 34. 34 ?Cold water treatment: ?Leave the seeds in cold water overnight before sowing. This applies to most fruit tree seeds and some other soft seeds ?Hot water treatment: ? Boil water (the volume of the water must be twice the volume of the seeds. Soak the seeds into the hot water and leave them to soak over night. Watering While the seeds are germinating and the seedlings are small, they must be watered every day. Afterwards every other day is sufficient. Use a water can or sprinkler made from a plastic container or tin with small holes in it. Do not put too much water as it can cause fungal diseases Weeding Keep the polythene pots or seedbeds free from weeds at all times. Transplanting Seedlings can be transplanted from seedbeds, when they are 3 to 5 cm tall. Transplant them to poly pots or to another seedbed for bare root planting (distance 5 cm x 5 cm). Water the seedlings and water the pots. Lift the seedling and make sure that the root will not be disturbed. Make a planting hole with a finger or a stick. Make sure the hole is bigger than the root. Press the soil firmly around the plant. Irrigate again and give full shade to the seedlings for 3 days. Always sort out the pots which contain seedlings from the empty pots where seeds did not germinate or where transplanted seedlings died. Re-sow or plant in these pots. Root pruning Eliminate small roots protruding from the poly pots by simply lifting the pots and breaking the roots by turning the poly pot around or by cutting the roots with a knife. Without pruning the roots will grow under the poly pots which can cause difficulties during transplanting, as roots may be damaged or break. Before and after root pruning the seedlings must be well
  35. 35. 35 irrigated. Give full shade to the seedlings for 2 to 3 days. PLANTING AND MAINTENANCE OF TREES Introduction Like any other plant in a field, trees need to be well cared for. A good tree is the result of good management starting from the time of seed selection up to the time the tree is ready for harvesting or for as long as the tree provides fruit HOW TO MAKE HOLES FOR PLANTING TREES Fruit trees: Dig a hole of 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm minimum – but better to make it 1 m x 1 m x 1 m. When digging, put the top soil on one side and subsoil on the other side. When filling the hole, mix the soil in the following manner: Fill the top- soil back into the hole and mix it with one bucket of kraal manure or compost, 1 cup of ashes and, if available, l handful of D-compound. Mix thoroughly. Fill up the hole with top soil from the surrounding area. Use the subsoil to make a basin in order to irrigate the tree. Leave to settle for at least 2 weeks. If there are any problems with termites you should mix chopped Euphorbia with the other substances and put into the planting hole. Other trees: For non fruit trees make a hole 30 cm deep and 30 cm in diameter. You can also plow the lines for planting trees. All trees will grow best if you mix manure, ashes and if possible a little fertilizer into the planting holes. Eucalyptus will not do well without manure or fertilizer. Plant early and plant correctly: Prepare the holes before the onset of rains - or just after the rain has started. Trees planted in the beginning of the rain season do much better than trees planted late in the rain season. It is therefore important that you start the nursery early - so the seedlings are ready to be planted when the rain starte. Measure the correct distance and place a small peg for every tree
  36. 36. 36 HOW TO PLANT TREES Planting of seedling in a polypot: Remove or cut the poly pot carefully without disturbing the roots. It can best be removed by cutting with a razor blade. Plant the seedlings carefully so the soil will not be disturbed around the root. Plant the seedling at the same level as the surrounding land. Make a basin out of the subsoil for watering the plants. Press the soil firmly around the plant. Irrigate the plant with at least 5 liters of water (if it is not raining). Mulch the trees with dry grass or other plant materials. Make sure that the mulch does not touch the stem in order to avoid attracting termites. Planting of cuttings: Prepare the cuttings from mature branches. A coating shall be around 30 cm long. Place 10 to 15 cm down in the ground. Cuttings will easily make roots if the planting hole is prepared with compost or manure. Ensure that the cuttings receive water if it does not rain for a few days. Direct planting of tree seeds: Mangoes are normally raised from seeds and planted directly at the place to stay. Mango seeds easily germinate but for the future growth of the tree it is an advantage to prepare planting holes as described above. Most trees can be planted using the direct seed sowing method. You should always irrigate the germinating seedlings if it does not rain for a few days. lanting site and spacing You must select a good place where to plant trees. You must not plant too close to the house or under big trees. Always think of how big the trees will grow and allow enough space between them. If you plant many trees, it is an advantage to use a planting string. RECOMMENDED SPACING: Guava 6m x 4m Oranges 6m x 4m Papaw 3m x 2m Eucalyptus 2m x 3m Passion fruit 3m x 2m Gmelina 2m x 3m Avocado 6m x 12m Cassia 2m x 3m
  37. 37. 37 Mango 6m x 12m HOW TO PROTECT YOUNG TREES ?Keep the area at least ½ m around the seedling free from weeds all the time. Weeds will destroy the seedling or make it’s growth slower. Slash between the trees. ?Protect the seedlings against animals by establishing a fence around the plantation, and around each individual tree. It can, where convenient, be done with thorny branches ?Protect the seedlings against fire. Make a firebreak of at least 5 m around the plantation - or around the home. The firebreak can be done by early burning in May to June ?Mulch around the trees - especially fruit trees. This will minimize the amount of irrigation To eradicate termites, apply ashes and the leaves of Cassia Siamea, tobacco or Euphorbia around the tree. You can also water around the tree with a pesticide. HOW TO CHASE AWAY BROWSING ANIMALS FROM THE TREES Place cow or goat dung in a bucket of water (1 l dung in a bucket). Leave to soak overnight. Sive. Spray the following day on the trees. The goats and cows will be chased away because of the smell. Keep an eye on the trees - when the animals come too close to the trees it is time to spray again. HOW TO LOOK AFTER FRUIT TREES. ? In low rainfall areas nearly all fruit trees need irrigation. The amount of water will increase with the size of the tree. The basin must also increase with the size of the tree. The basin ought to be as wide as the canopy of the tree. A 2 year old Orange tree will need 1 bucket of water, while a big Orange tree will need a full drum of water for irrigation ? Fruit trees which are not watered will yield less and will give fruits of low quality (small size and sour) ? Apply some kraal manure, compost and if available D-compound around the trees at the beginning of the rain season. Mix the manure and fertilizer into the soil not
  38. 38. 38 near the stem and avoid to disturb the tree roots. A big tree will need at least one wheel barrow full of manure/ compost yearly. ? Remove all sick and dead branches. Beside this, most fruit trees do not need pruning - which can actually often do more harm than good. Fruit trees which benefit from yearly pruning are: Guava, Passion fruit and Peaches ? When trees and fruits are attacked by pests, look into the list of Natural Pesticides for methods of spraying against this pest Let the bassin grow with the tree HOW TO LOOK AFTER TREES FOR POLES AND FIREWOOD. In order to secure that Gmelina and Cassia will grow straight for poles, you can prune away side branches. Never prune Eucalyptus trees - they will grow better undisturbed, and will still provide a straight pole. Harvest the tree with a slanting cut, around 10 cm from the ground. New shoots will grow up - only leave two of those new shoots to grow.
  39. 39. 39 Back ground knowledge STOVE CONSTRUCTION WHY CONSTRUCT A STOVE A stove has a number of advantages: ?A good stove use only half of the amount of firewood used on a three stone fire. ?It is safe for children compared with the three stone fire. ?A good stove reduces smoke in the kitchen and it improves hygiene. ?The stove we will introduce in this chapter, is cheap and easy to construct. Where to construct the stove As it is made of clay, it must be placed on a kitchen, covered with a roof. It must face the door opening, to get more air for starting the fire. The stove introduced in this chapter has no chimney and can therefore be constructed in the middle of the kitchen as well as near the wall. If constructed in the middle, it can as well be used for the family to gather around in the evenings HOW TO CONSTRUCT THE ONE POT STOVE Materials needed: The amount of materials depend on the size of the stove so the following are approximates 1 wheelbarrow ant hill clay. It can be from the small anthills found in dambo areas or from big anthills. It must be good clay. Preparation of materials ?Collect all materials the day before you want to make the stove. ?Crush the clay into dust. It can be done with sticks/ shovel ?Soak the clay dust overnight ?1 x 20 l sand. It shall be river sand without stones ?6 bricks, a little ash and water Preparation of materials ?Collect all materials the day before you want to make the stove. ?Crush the clay into dust. It can be done with sticks/ shovel ?Soak the clay dust overnight ?Remove stones, sticks etc. from the clay and the sand Mixture ?Mix the clay and the sand in the ration 1 sand to 2 clay. Add water - little at the time. Mix. Continue to add water until the mixture has a good structure to work with. Try to form a lump in your hand and drop it to the ground If it splashes out it is too wet. If it goes into pieces it is too dry.
  40. 40. 40 Too wet mixture Too dry mixture Good mixture Foundation Make a foundation out of 4 big bricks (15cm x 20cm). Plaster the foundation with the clay mixture outside and fill it up half way inside. Place a layer of 5 cm ash. This will isolate and the heat will move downwards and warm up the ground. Therefore the stove will be more efficient. Build the stove ?You can use a 5 liter paint tin or a pot as a mould for the firebox. The firebox (the whole in the middle shall be same size as your smallest pot). It will normally be around 20 cm wide. The firebox shall be 19 cm tall and the walls around 10 cm thick.
  41. 41. 41 Rest for firewood ?Place three bricks in front of the stove – ?where you want to cut the opening for firewood. ?Plaster the bricks. ?Leave the stove to rest over night. Shape the stove ?Move the tin/ pot used as a mould. ?Shape the outside of the stove using a knife or building trowel. ?Shine the stove using water. Curve out the mouth for firewood ?Curve out the side opening (mouth) for firewood using a building trowel or a knife. The opening must have a shape as a egg. ?The size should be the same as the hole inside the stove. ?The stove wall on top of the mouth should not be less than 5 cm or it can easily break. Carve the edge ?Carve the edge to 45 degrees using a knife. This will make it possible to place the pot rests and to use pot of different diameter. The pot rests ?The potrest are what you place your pot on. There shall be 3 potrests. You form three pieces of clay which shall be 1 cm thick (as a finger), 3 cm wide (as 3 fingers) and 10 cm long. Prepare the place to put the potrest by scratching into the clay for better connection. Place the potrest so it cover the top as well as the side of the hole. Do not place any pot rest over the opening for firewood. The potrest is important because they let the smoke to come out. Without the potrests the stove will not burn well. Wait to use the stove ?Wait 2 weeks to use the stove in order for it to be completely dry. Repair of cracks ?Don’t get disappointed if the stove make some cracks. It is very common. It is good to leave some of the mixture in a plastic bag and use that mixture to fill into the cracks.
  42. 42. 42 CHILD CARE Introduction. Under this headline the group will go through the following lessons in the manual: ? The needs and the rights of children ? Child growth ? Immunization ? Child development ? Family planing and safe motherhood ? Education for all Many children do not develop fully due to lack of correct care, stimulation and nutrition. Many die before they grow up, others become malnourished and will never develop their body and mind fully, others are abused and become mentally distorted. The aim with this topic is to improve the life, growth and development of the children. For them to live happily and to grow up using their full potentials. Use the background information to learn and discuss with each other using the knowledge of the group members. This training in the Village Action Group shall be followed by discussions and awareness campaigns in the area. It should be emphasized that child care is not only a family matter but should be the concern of the entire community. CHILDREN’S NEEDS AND CHILDREN’S RIGHTS Topic no 9 ?Start with introduction to the headline for the month. ?Explain shortly about the rights of children and give a few example. Ask hereafter the members to list the rights. Add if needed. Discuss if children in your villages meet these rights. ?Continue to the needs of children. Explain that they often are seminar to the needs. Explain the 4 different categories of needs and divide the members into 4 groups. Each group shall come up with all the needs in one category and present. ?2 groups hereafter prepare and present sketches about good and 2 groups about bad care of children (include orphans). Discuss: What is being done right and what is being done wrong? How does the child feel and reach in each case. ?Explain about stress in children. Use examples from the sketches recently performed. Explain the 3 categories of stress. Divide the members into 3 groups. Each group shall come up with more examples in one of the categories. Discuss and add what is missing. ?Discuss children can cope up with stress and how to assist children in need. ?Discuss the situation for children in the area. Are their rights and needs met and how can the DAPP group assist and improve the situation. THIRD MONTH OF THE STARTING UP PROGRAM
  43. 43. 43 Child growth, immunization and nutrition. Topic no. 10 ? Start with a short reflection of the previous topic. ? Explain about nutritious food (use the membership book). Tell about the 3 types of food. Let members bring examples of food from each category and ensure they understand the difference. ? Discuss how to feed a small baby 0 to 6 months. Ask questions and discuss why exclusive breast feeding is important (ONLY breast milk). It is important that everybody understand and agree. ? Discuss how to feed a small child age 6 month to 5 years. Use the knowledge about the 3 different types of food and bring up various examples of good combinations - taking the economy and the type of food available into consideration. Talk about how often the child shall eat. Explain how to read the weighing scale - using the example in this manual. Explain as well why the child in the example got malnourished ? Discuss how to feed school going children. Why is good nutrition important for big children and for adults. Which type of food. What time of the day to eat. ? Explain the symptoms of malnutrition. Discuss if some children to members in the group are malnourished. Tell everybody to bring the weighing card for the next meeting to help each other controlling. Discuss what can be done to improve the situation. (Discuss also children that is between two to 5 years of age) ? Show the drawing in the manual called 6 vaccine preventable diseases. Discuss why vaccination is so important. Find out if all children to members are vaccinated. ? Ask if all the mothers go to under five clinic regularly. Discuss the importance of attending Under Five clinic regularly. Child development. Topic no 11. ? Start with a revision of children’s rights and needs. Reflect on why it is good to learn more in order to meet these rights and needs. The previous topic was about correct feeding of children - very necessary for developing their full potential. This topic is about the emotional and social needs of the children. ? Read the chapter about child development together. After each point stop up and discuss. Things to discuss should include: How does a child learn? What can parents do to assist a child to learn more? Why is it important for a child to have time to play? Which type of work is good for a child to carry out in different age groups? How do parents show appreciation to the child - and why is it important? ? Discuss if all children go to school. If not why - and could something be done to improve the situation. Are there some differences between girls and boys attending school ? ? Discuss advantages of a preschool. Would it be good to start a community preschool in the area? ? Revise the symptoms of stress in children and discuss if any children are being abused in the community - or of other reasons are in need. Discuss if something can be done about it.
  44. 44. 44 Family planing and safe motherhood. Topic no 12 ? Present the main points for safe motherhood. Put up questions in the process and ask for comments and questions. ? Present the main points for family planing - include questions and comments. ? Divide the participants into 2 groups - men and women. (Eventually 4 groups if convenient - Old / young women, old/ young men. Let the groups discuss the following questions: 1) Is child birth safe in the area, what could be done to improve it. 2) Is family planing commonly practiced in the area. If not why - and should something be done to encourage more families to practice it. ? Let the groups present to each other and lead a good discussion. You could eventually put up the questions from the manual about family planing as part of the discussion.
  45. 45. 45 CHILDREN’S RIGHTS Human rights are rights that all human beings have, no matter where they are born, no matter how rich or poor their parents are, no matter what they have done. They belong to every single person and cannot be taken away. There are also the rights of the child. Again, every child, whatever his background, whether an orphan or not, has these rights. Big organizations, like the UN (United Nation) and the OAU (Organization of African Unity), have adopted documents outlining these rights. However, it is important that we understand how they affect our own lives and those of the children. So what are some of these rights? ? to life ? to an education ? to adequate food, clothing, and shelter ? to health care ? to interact with other children ? to equal treatment ? to parental care ? to a reasonable workload ? to protection against abuse and neglect ? to protection against degrading punishment Children are especially vulnerable to having their rights violated. So we adults, the parents, the neighbors and members of the community in general, have a special duty to make sure that their rights are respected. A child is often powerless to demand her rights; we have to do that for her. Say NO Because abuse is the affair of all of us.
  46. 46. 46 CHILDREN’S NEEDS Children’s needs can be divided into 4 categories: ? Physical (shelter, clothing, food, health, exercise) ? Emotional (love, attention, praise, encouragement, hope, respect, trust, understanding) ? Social (conversations, friends, education, recreation, free time, play) ? Spiritual (guidance, faith, knowing one’s religion) The needs for children changes during their growing up. The following illustrate the main needs for the various age groups: ? 0 - 5 years: Security ? 6 - 12 years: Recognition and encouragement ? 13 - 18 years: Growing independence and proper guidance Indicators of stress in children: Children who do not meet their rights and need become stressed. The following is indicators of stress in children: ? Physical: (pains, increased illness, malnutrition, scars and bruises, sleeplessness, strange sleeping patterns, weakness, fatigue) ? Behavioral: (regression to bed wetting, stealing and cheating, nightmares, poor concentration and poor school performance, increased aggression and bullying, withdrawing and isolating oneself, complaining and seeking attention, restlessness, drug addiction) ? Emotional (moody, anxiety, increased fearfulness, sadness and crying, depression) Possible causes of stress: ? Poverty ? Marital problems ? Chronic illness in the family ? Death ? Physical or mental disability in the family ? Drug or alcohol abuse in the family ? Displacement from home ? Discrimination and segregation ? Abuse How children cope with stress: ? friendship ? love and care ? family bonds ? determination, courage, good self-esteem ? goal and aspiration ? peer popularity ? playing, being part of a team ? going to school ? community concern ? religion and faith ? nutrition's food and good health care ? hope
  47. 47. 47 CHILD GROWTH If all babies were exclusively breast fed for the first six months of life, then the deaths of more than one million infants would be prevented. 0-6 MONTHS : BREAST FEEDING: From as soon as the baby is born, until approximately 6 months he/she should be fed exclusively (only) breast milk . It is the only food the baby needs. Breast fed babies are less likely to suffer from malnutrition and have fewer illnesses than bottle fed babies, or babies fed on other foods. Breast milk (especially the thick yellowish milk produced in the first few days after the birth) protects the baby from life threatening illnesses such as malnutrition, diarrhea, dehydration as well as preventing coughs, colds and other illnesses. It is important that especially during this time the husband and family help to maintain the health of the mother and child by ensuring that the mother has enough nutritious food, and by helping with the housework and other domestic tasks, so that the mother can get the rest she needs. A mother who get little nutritious food, will produce less milk for the child. Substitute feeding: This include cow’s milk, infant formula, milk powder solutions and porridge should only be given if the mother are unable to breast feed, or if she dies. The milk - or water used for diluting milk powder must be boiled. The cup used for feeding must as well be kept very clean in order to avoid diarrhea. 6 MONTHS TO 2 YEARS: Other food in addition to breast milk: By the time the baby is six months old he/she will need other foods in addition to breast milk: E.g. porridge with boiled and mashed vegetables/ eggs/ groundnuts/ kapenta/ beans. The more variety of foods the greater the nutritional benefits. A child who get plenty of nshima - but not enough body building and protective food will get malnourished. The child should be breast fed before being given other foods. If the mother becomes pregnant again before the youngest child is 2 years old, then it is important that she does not stop breast feeding. Some people believe that breast feeding will harm the new growing baby in the womb. This is not correct - but the mother need even more nutritious food. Many babies get malnourished, because the mother stop breast feeding, when she get pregnant again. If the mother is HIV positive it is adviced that she stop breast feeding when the baby is 6 month old. Weaning of the child. Children should be weaned from the breast gradually – except if the mother is HIV positive. This allows the child time to increase the intake of other foods to replace the breast milk. If the mother is HIV positive she shall not wean the child gradually as mixed feeding (breastmilk and other types of food) is dangerous for the child. The mother will express breast milk for some time – and gradually make the baby used to feed from a cup. In this way she will wean the baby from the breast without at any given day feeding the baby with breastmilk and other types of food.
  48. 48. 48 A small child needs to eat frequently Under five clinic: All children under the age of 5 years should regularly attend Under Five Clinic. Here the children will be weighed, will receive vaccinations and the health personal will control the health of the child. It is important to monitor the child’s weight, as the loss of weight or failure to gain weight are often the first indications of other problems: The child might be sick, it does not eat enough - or does not eat enough of the right foods. Regular monitoring of the child’s weight and progress can help to detect ill health or malnutrition in time to prevent death. Feeding a sick child: A sick child must be fed extra well. A sick child needs fluids and nutritious food, to replace any fluids lost and to give the body the strength to fight the illness. Do not stop breast feeding a sick Child. All children under the age of 3 need to be given between 4 or 5 meals a day. Because a child’s stomach is smaller than an adults the child cannot eat as much as an adult at one meal. However, a child has greater energy needs, so to fulfill these needs the child needs to be fed frequently.
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. 50 Nutrition. Introduction To stay healthy we need to eat the right kinds of food in the correct proportions. Our body requirements differ depending on age, how much work we do, health status and other conditions such as pregnancy. The three groups of food Energy giving foods: Food that give us energy include maize, cassava, rice sorghum, millet and potatoes. Other food which give energy are cooking oil and sugar. The more we work - the more energy food we need. Body building foods. Food which help the body to grow and to keep the body strong include groundnuts, fish, eggs, beans, cow peas, kapenta, insects and meat. Protective food. Food which protect the body against diseases - and to recover fast after being sick include vegetables and fruits. A balanced diet A person needs every day to eat a balanced diet, containing all the 3 different groups of food. A person who eat wrongly will be tired and will not be able to be active in school or in work - and will easy become sick. A small child who get wrong food will become malnourished. Many people eat a lot of Nshima and little relish. Healthy food include a lot of vegetables and fruits. It is important not to overcook as it destroy the vitamins in the vegetables. Good and cheap proteins are Soya beans, cow peas, beans, kapenta and eggs. It is also very healthy to eat seeds such as sunflower seeds and pumpkin seeds. Eat natural food – which is more healthy than refined. Millie meal grinded in the village is much more healthy the white breakfast meal. Brown bread is more healthy than white bread. Porridge made from Soya and roller meal is much more healthy than white bread and tea with sugar for breakfast.
  51. 51. 51 Immunization Immunisation protects against several diseases. ? A child which is not immunized can risk death from several dangerous diseases. ? Even if the child survives these diseases, it will be weakened by them. The child may be undernourished and not grow well. ? Measles can set a child back mentally and cause blindness. Measles often kills. ? Polio can cause the child to be crippled for life. ? Vaccines build up the child’s defenses, so that child is not likely to get ill. ? Breast feeding is a natural immunization. The thick, yellow milk coming from the forest the first days after birth is especially important. (Colostrum). ? If the diseases strike before the child is immunized, immunization is too late. Immunization is urgent ? All immunization should be completed within the first year of the child’s life. ? A Child shall be taken for immunization five times during the first year of life. It is very important for the child to complete the full course of immunization, otherwise the vaccines may not work. ? When to bring the child for immunization ?? First time Birth ?? Second time 6 weeks ?? Third time 10 weeks ?? Fourth time 14 weeks ?? Fifth time 9 month ? You should bring the child for immunization, even if you are behind schedule. The most important is, that the child is brought for immunization 5 times. ? Immunization protects against six killer diseases: Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Whooping cough, Tetanus, Polio and Measles. It is safe to immunize a sick child ? The child should be brought for immunization on the given day even if the child has a mild illness. ? After an injection the child may cry, develop fever, a rash or small sore. It is normal. The child should be given plenty of foods and drinks. Breast feeding should continue. If the problem seems serious or lasts more that 3 days, the child must be taken to the health center. All women shall be vaccinated against tetanus. ? All women between 15 and 44 years of age shall be fully immunized against tetanus. ? A woman, who is not immunized against tetanus puts herself and her born child at risk from tetanus. ? A woman, who has been vaccinated 5 times against tetanus, will be protected against the disease for all the years, she will be able to have children. ? Mothers shall give birth in a hygienic place and the umbilical cord must be cut with full sterilized equipment. ( A knife shall be cleaned and then boiled or heated in a frame.) ? Never put cow dung or ashes on the cut of the umbilical cord.
  52. 52. 52 The 6 vaccine preventable diseases.
  53. 53. 53 CHILD DEVELOPMENT Babies begin to learn from the moment they are born ? The growth of the human brain is already complete at the age of 2 years. ? The first years of a child’s life is important in determining how the child develops later in life. ? From birth, the children need love and attention from adults. Children need to be touched and hugged, to see familiar faces and to hear familiar voices. ? Children who are stimulated in their early years and are well fed will develop a bigger brain capasity to be used when they become adults. Play is important for child to develop ? Children play because it is fun. But play helps as well a child to develop - to speak, to think, to organize and learn about the world around them. ? Adults shall encourage children to play. ? Adults can help children to play by providing things to play with e.g. Toys, balls, paper and pen or old clothes to dress up. Children learn by copying ? Children learn from the example of adults and other children. If you show anger by shouting and being violent, your children will learn, that this is the right way to behave. If you treat others with kindness and practice, your children will follow your good example. Be understanding when a child is angry, frightened or crying ? A baby can not talk. Crying is way of communicating, that something is wrong. ? Don't ignore or laugh at young child which is angry or frightened. The feelings can be very real for the child. Be patient and kind and find out, what is going on. Physical punishment is bad for children ? It is bad to beat and punish children. Beating can make children frightened and unreasonable. Beating can also cause a child to grow up being violent against other, e.g. to other children or to animals) ? The best way to educate the child is to appreciate good behavior - it encourages the child to be good, and to grow up as a responsible adult ? When your child something wrong - don’t punish it. Explain instead firmly, what is right and what is wrong - and explain why. Children are normally ready to follow rules put up by adults, whom they love and want to please. Help your child to learn ? Children will learn better in school, if you encourage them to start learning in the earliest years of life. When they started in school, you should always show interest in what the child learn. You can: ?? play with the children ?? help the children to learn to talk ?? learn the children songs ?? teach the children about the world around them ?? tell stories.
  54. 54. 54 FAMILY PLANING AND SAFE MOTHERHOOD Introduction Every year half a million women throughout the world die from problems associated with pregnancy. Most of these deaths could be prevented if women would time their births correctly and follow the various health rules during pregnancy: Timing birth: There are 5 high risk groups in childbirth and child rearing: 1. Young girls under the age of 18 : Babies born to women who are younger than 18 are likely to be born too early and weigh too little. The birth itself is likely to be more difficult. Babies born to mothers who are too young are more likely to die within the first year of their lives. The risks to the mothers own health are also increased. 2. Women over the age of 35: After the age of 35 there is an increased risk of the mother giving birth to a baby with disabilities, or low birth weight. 3. Women who have more than 4 children: After 4 pregnancies, there is an increased risk of serious health problems such as anemia (“thin blood”) and hemorrhage (heavy loss of blood). 4. Births close to each other (less than 2 years apart): This affects both the mother and child. The risk of death for young children is increased by 50% if the space between the births is less than two years A mother's body needs 2 years to recover fully from previous pregnancy and childbirth. The risk to a mothers health is greater if the next birth follows too closely to the last. A woman's body can easily become exhausted by repeated pregnancy, childbirth, breast feeding and looking after small children. So further pregnancy usually means that her own health begins to suffer. If a woman becomes pregnant before she has fully recovered from bearing a previous child, there is a high risk of her new baby being born prematurely and light in weight. Low birth weight babies are more likely to fall ill and 4 times more likely to die in the first year than babies of normal birth weight. One of the greatest risks to the health of a child under the age of 2 years is the birth of a new baby. Breast feeding stops abruptly, and the mother has less time to give the child the care and attention he/she needs. As a result the child often fails to grow and develop properly. 5. Women who are HIV positive. All pregnant women aught to know their HIV status. There exist good measures to reduce the risk for HIV positive mother to transmit the virus to their babies. If measures are not taken 1 out of 3 babies will be infected. The risk for the mother to become sick during labour will also be much reduced if the mother participate in the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission programme (PMTCT). Find out more from the nearest health clinic.
  55. 55. 55 Safe motherhood Safe motherhood can be ensured by following these simple guidelines: The risks of childbirth can be dramatically reduced by going for regular check ups with the nearest health worker during pregnancy: Regular checking of things such as blood pressure, and the progress of the baby’s growth and development will help in early detection of problems or complications ensuring that the woman can be moved to the hospital for the birth. The health worker can also offer advice on breast feeding and caring for the baby, and also help the mother to prepare for the birth. Ensure that a trained person is present to assist at the birth: A trained midwife will know: ? If a mother should be moved to the hospital i.e. if the labour has gone on for more than 12 hours. ? How to keep the birth hygienic and safe, reducing the risk of infection. ? How to cut the cord cleanly and safely. ? What to do, if for instance the baby is in the wrong position for the birth, or if the mother is losing too much blood, or if the baby does not begin breathing straight away. ? If serious problems arise during child birth a trained birth attendant will know, when medical help is needed and how to get it. All women need more food and rest during pregnancy: ? The husband and the family of a pregnant woman should make sure that she has extra food and that she get the best food available to the family such as milk, fruits, vegetables, fish and eggs. A pregnant women need food for two - for the unborn baby to grow in her womb and to keep herself healthy. Too much salt should be avoided as it may cause a rise in blood pressure, which is dangerous to mother and child. The above should come into play as soon as pregnancy is confirmed. ? It is important that a pregnant woman gains weight every month, and should try to gain a total of 10/12 kilos before the baby is born. For this reason a woman should be weighed regularly, beginning as soon as she knows she is pregnant. ? A pregnant women should also have more rest during the day time, especially from the sixth month. It is therefore important, that the husband helps with domestic work. If the woman work too hard, she might miscarry, give birth too early, have problems giving birth or become sick. If a woman smokes or takes alcohol or drugs during pregnancy there is a risk that the child may be damaged in the womb: When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol it passes from the mother to the unborn baby and may slow down growth, causing small weak babies. Babies born to mothers who drink may be born drunk, and may have problems with breathing and suckling from the breasts. There is also the added risk of sudden death syndrome. The dangers of smoking include: ? greater risk of problems during child birth ? higher risk of miscarriage or premature birth and ? heart and blood circulation decreases in the babies body. It is important not to take medicines during pregnancy, unless they are absolutely necessary and prescribed by a trained health worker.
  56. 56. 56 FAMILY PLANNING Introduction: Family planing means, that you plan the number of children you want - and when you want to have them. There are many safe and acceptable methods of avoiding pregnancy. Information and advice on these methods can be sought from a trained health worker or at the clinic. It is important for people to realize that family planning is the responsibility of both men and women. All men and women should be aware, or made aware of the health benefits of family planning and of the various methods available.
  57. 57. 57 Some common questions: ? Is it good to have a lot of children, so that if some die from diseases, there will still be some left? This is not correct, as having many children raise the risk for many of them dying of malnutrition and diseases - as the family will not have enough resources to take good care of them all. ? Is it a good way for a man to prove, that he is a “real man” by having a lot of children? This is not correct - because having more children, then what the family can take good care of, and with a spacing which are unhealthy for mother and children, just show that one is an irresponsible man. ? Is you future secure, if you have a lot of children, which can take care of you, when you grow old? This is not correct. Having few children, which you can afford to bring up to become very healthy and educated adults, is the best way to get assistance, when you become old. With many unhealthy and uneducated children, you might continue being responsible for taking care of them, and the grand children - even when you grow old. ? Is the only way a woman can safeguard her marriage from divorce by having many children, so that the husband will not send her away with the young children? A good marriage build on love, trust and helping each other. If the marriage only build on having children together, it is an unhappy marriage. If the marriage in the end break up - or if one of the partners die - it will be a big problem for the many children. It is in the interest of the parents to limit the size of their family. A small family is easy to look after both socially, and economically. Children from small families receive better education, better nutrition, and better medical attention. These children are more likely to grow into mature, secure, confident individuals. The most common methods of contraception are: ? The pill ?? The woman swallow small tablets every day. This method is very effective, but it need the woman to be very disciplined and remember to take the tablets. As soon as she want another child, she stop to take the tablets and can become pregnant. ? The injection ?? The woman is given an injection on the clinic/ hospital every 2 to 3 months. This method is very effective, and is easy to control. ? Condoms ?? The condom is a very thin flexible rubber worn over the man’s penis during intercourse. If the condom is used correctly it is very effective - and it as well protect against AIDS and other STD. ? Sterilization ?? Sterilization can be done both on men and women, who have decided never to have more children. This is a very good solution to women, who have a severe health risk, from carrying more children. Sterilization is a small operation. It does not effect the sexual ability and pleasure. ? Natural methods. ?? The rhythm method: The woman are most fertile between the 10. day after start of the period up to the 18. day. These days she should avoid having sex. ?? Pulling out: The man pulls out his penis before ejaculation (releasing the sperms) and ejaculate outside the woman. ?? The mucus method: The woman examine the mucus in the vagina. If it is sticky like paste - not slippery or slimy - she can probably not become pregnant. ? These three mentioned methods are not so effective, as one out of 4 women using them become pregnant. ?
  58. 58. 58 ? Traditional medicine. ?? Tightening a string with certain herb around the waste, cannot prevent pregnancy, as it not in any way prevent the egg in the mothers womb to be fertile by the sperm from the man. Abortion. ?? The foetus is removed from the mothers womb. This can only be done, before the foetus is 3 month old, or it will be a great risk for the mothers life. Abortion is illegal in most countries, except in case the child birth give a great risk for the mothers life. Some women try to provoke abortion using various medicine. It is dangerous and many women have died in the process. For more details and information regarding the various contraceptive methods visit the nearest clinic.
  59. 59. 59 FOURTH MONTH OF THE STARTING UP PROGRAM IMPROVE YOUR INCOME Introduction. Under this headline the group will go through some of the following lessons in the manual (The group can chose those of most interest for the members): ? Methods to improve your income ? Get more out of the land ? Livestock rearing ? Vegetable growing ? Budgeting ? Crop storage Southern Province is one of the poorest regions of Zambia. Again Zambia is one of the poorest countries in the world. Why is it like that? Can it be changed? Can we contribute to change it? Do we talk about big investments or can we do much with the means available to us. Using good planing, hard work and commitment. The objective of this month is for the members of the group to understand how much can be done and to start implementing. There is a lot of background material and you will have to chose those of most interest. The remaining topics the group can cover later. IMPROVE YOUR INCOME 1. Topic no 13 ?Start with a short introduction to the headline for the month. ?Read the first case story. Discuss if this could be truth in your village. ?Let all members come with some ideas of how to improve the income for the family. Add eventual points if needed from the following . ?Grow trees and vegetable. ?Improve crop management. Use conservation farming methods. Grow new cash crops. Diversify the crops. Do not sell when grains are cheap and buy when expensive. Use good storage methods. ?Improve management of livestock. ?Run small productions or businesses. ?Work together on marketing of crops and livestock. ?Budget well and use the earned money wisely. ?Prevent diseases (do avoid time in bed and to avoid medical expenses). ?Plan ahead of time ?Work hard and committed. ?Read the case story about Mr. Mwanza. Lead a discussion using the attached questions. End up discussing realities in your village. ?Let one of the members volunteer to be the place to meet next week, for a practical study on income improvement.
  60. 60. 60 IMPROVE YOUR INCOME 3 Optional) LAND MANAGEMENT Topic no 15 - 16 Minimum tillage: Start with exercise in minimum tillage. You should have a marking string ready and members should have been told to bring hoes. Have some grains (legume and maize), a little manure and some fertilizer (or sand to illustrate). Dig some holes and explain the advantages along the way. Methods to improve soil fertility: Discuss the following methods - Crop rotation, growing more legume, green manure, compost, leaving crop residues = NO burning, planting Tephrosia on exhausted land, leaving Musangu trees (Acacia Albida) on the land... Avoid soil erosion (where applicable) Find out which members do experience soil erosion. Discuss the consequences. Explain about construction of contour bounds. Agree who in the group could learn the technique and help interested members to measure the contour lines. IMPROVE YOUR INCOME 3 Optional) LIVESTOCK Topic no 15 - 16 Goat rearing: Explain about improved goat rearing using the back ground information. You should conduct this lesson in a farmers home, so you can discuss which changes could be done to the goats there. Questions for inspiration: 1) Could and should the bread be improved - if so how? 2) Would it be good to improve the goat shelter - why? 3) How many goats are advisable to keep? 4) Which type or medicine should be given and when? 5) Additional fodder? 6) Marketing Traditional chickens: Discuss methods to improve the local chickens - while inspecting the chickens where the lesson is conducted. Questions for inspiration: 1) How many chicks should you expect from one hen? 2) How many of these chicks should survive and which measures to bring in place? 3) Which medicine will improve survival? 4) Is additional fodder advisable? 5) Is the physical structures in place? 6) Marketing? 7) Improvement of the breed? Cattle: Discuss methods to improve cattle rearing - while inspecting the cattle the cattle facilities. Questions for inspiration: 1) Is it possible to avoid corridor disease - and if so which measures should be in place? 2) Which vaccine, medicine is available and which are advisable to use? 3) Should measures be taken to improve the bread? - how? 4) Should additional fodder be given? - how? 5) How to improve milk production? Dogs: Discuss why we keep dogs and why we should keep them well. Questions for inspiration:
  61. 61. 61 1) Why is it important to rabies vaccinate dogs? - how ? 2) How to see if a dog is healthy? 3) How to feed a dog? 4) How to avoid diseases. 5) How to teach a dog. Conclusion: Wind up the discussion by electing one in the group to learn more about animal rearing and to keep good contact with the local veterinary. The responsible should be the one keeping the group informed and organize ex. buying of medicine, the veterinary to come and teach the group etc... IMPROVE YOUR INCOME 3 Optional) VEGETABLE GROWING Topic no 15 - 16 Visit one or more vegetable gardens. You should in advance have decided the best gardens to visit. Let the farmer present how he grow the vegetables and put questions to the farmer. Use the background information to bring in additional ideas. Inspiration for questions: 1) Soil/ bed preparation. 2) Use of manure/ compost/ fertilizer. 3) Chemical use (incl. natural measures). 4) Nursery and transplanting. 5) Irrigation. 6) Type of vegetables. 7) Marketing. 8) Planning. 9) Inter cropping with fruit trees. IMPROVE YOUR INCOME 3 - 4. BUDGETING Topic no 15 - 16 ?Read and discuss the case stories. ?Go through the budgeting exercise ?Encourage each member to go home and make a budget with the family. ?Remember on the next meeting to hear how many did the budgets and listen to and comment on a few budgets.

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