Review 2005-5
Ajuda de Desenvolvimento
de Povo para Povo em Angola
(ADDP)
Review/appraisal of possible Norwegian support
N...
Page 2 of 46
Review of ADPP Angola 2005
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...................................................................
Page 3 of 46
Review of ADPP Angola 2005
APPENDIX 3 WORK PROGRAMME ...........................................................
Page 4 of 46
Review of ADPP Angola 2005
Executive Summary
Background
The Norwegian Embassy requested a review of ADPP in A...
Page 5 of 46
Review of ADPP Angola 2005
Graduated teachers are employed by the Government. No teachers have been
recorded ...
Page 6 of 46
Review of ADPP Angola 2005
Financial aspects
Income to EPF schools in the period 1995-2004 amounts to USD 10,...
Page 7 of 46
Review of ADPP Angola 2005
leadership etc. The team furthermore agrees that Norway can best support
ADPP by s...
Page 8 of 46
Review of ADPP Angola 2005
1 Introduction
1.1 Background
Norway has not yet supported ADPP financially, but t...
Page 9 of 46
possible to follow up the planned meetings with the international NGO
community.
The team would like to expre...
Page 10 of 46
percent (GRA 2002)1
. The dropout rates are often high, as the following
example from Cabinda Province illus...
Page 11 of 46
pupils enrolled from approximately 1.5 million to 5 million by 2015.
Enrolment in the 1st level of primary e...
Page 12 of 46
Centro de basico will most likely discontinue. Unless upgraded, these
teachers are not qualified to teach at...
Page 13 of 46
3. Brief overview of ADPP
Geographical distribution of projects, ADPP-Angola
C.A.
Children’s Schools
Teacher...
Page 14 of 46
administration, primary school education with children with special needs,
community development, HIV/AIDS p...
Page 15 of 46
Directorate to be deployed in rural schools. All graduates get official certificates
and diplomas issued by ...
Page 16 of 46
(v) All candidates have to sign a Terms of Agreement where they dedicate 3
years after graduation to teachin...
Page 17 of 46
Number of students in long term practice (11 months) 2000-2005
EPF 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Huambo 19 2...
Page 18 of 46
seem to vary between the EPF schools. For example, according to the Annual
Report, Huambo planned to hold 5 ...
Page 19 of 46
MOE Provincial
Education Directorate
Project Leader
Sub (vice)
Director
Teacher
(programme staff)
Teacher Te...
Page 20 of 46
5.2 ADPP’s organisational structure
PL
TTC
PL
TTC
PL
TTC
PL
TTC
PL
TTC
PL
TTC
PL
Ch.Sch.
PL
Ch.Sch.
PL
Ch.Sc...
Page 21 of 46
ADPP consists of a General Assembly with 38 individual members out of which
21 members are national and the ...
Page 22 of 46
to the war and partly to the fact that high level-educated staff in the education
sector easily gets absorbe...
Page 23 of 46
one is working with a NGO. Five are either not working, dead or ADPP has no
information on them.
Graduates f...
Page 24 of 46
development, inflow of consultants and other technical assistance, common
concepts and ideology and possibil...
Page 25 of 46
Sources of income to EPF schools 1995-2004
34 %
18 %
25 %
9 %
2 %
6 % 6 %
ADPP Angola Humana People to Peopl...
Page 26 of 46
Trendsinpartner support 1995-2004(Income toEPFschools)
0
100000
200000
300000
400000
500000
600000
700000
80...
Page 27 of 46
Contributions for Investments in EPF schools in Angola 1995-
2004
0 %1 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %
0 %
23 %
6 ...
Page 28 of 46
Total expenditure ADDP programmes in Angola 2003-2005
(estimated)
50 %
2 %
2 %7 %
1 %
7 %
2 %
2 %
7 %
20 %
C...
Page 29 of 46
ADPP Comparison between e xpenditures at projects USD
Figures from
accounts
Figures from
accounts
Budget fig...
Page 30 of 46
Type of expences EPF schools
16 %
12 %
47 %
24 %
1 %
Education and programme
development
Food
Salaries
Opera...
Page 31 of 46
available staff worked twice as hard. The holistic approach, every day of
the year (no holidays are included...
Page 32 of 46
7. Pedagogical approaches
The General Layout of the Education
The 1st year
4
5 months
School Practice
And fu...
Page 33 of 46
“experiences”, which are of many sorts and of both common and personal
nature.
Voices have been raised again...
Page 34 of 46
and constitute part of their exam. There is currently no focus on creating
sustainable development structure...
Page 35 of 46
9. Recommendations
There were basically three scenarios which were discussed for possible
Norwegian support....
Page 36 of 46
ADPP is in a process of educating sufficient leadership and teacher
trainers that can take over critical pos...
Page 37 of 46
consider the possibility of channelling the funds through the provincial
government.
The EU is currently in ...
Page 38 of 46
Appendix 1 List of people met
- Rikke Viholm (ADPP head office).
- Anneli Barregren (ADPP head office).
- Nu...
Page 39 of 46
- Ngana Mabiola Maria, ADPP student in practice, M’Paolo Primary
School, Cabinda.
- Venancio Chiamba, ADPP s...
Page 40 of 46
Appendix 2 Terms of Reference
1. Background
The Norwegian Embassy in Luanda has requested assistance from No...
Page 41 of 46
The aim of this appraisal is to examine ADPP’s teacher education programme with a view to
providing recommen...
Page 42 of 46
In the preparatory phase, the team shall familiarise themselves with relevant documentation.
The following d...
Page 43 of 46
Appendix 3 Work Programme
April Morning Afternoon
18
19 Arrival Luanda.
20 Introduction meeting with team. V...
Page 44 of 46
Appendix 4 List of Members of the Humana Federation
________________________________________________________...
Page 45 of 46
Appendix 5 History of ADPP Angola
Source: ADPP
ADPP - How did it start and develop:
1983:
The Danish UFF mad...
Page 46 of 46
registered. Since the founding and registration of ADPP Angola, the national association has been the
implem...
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Humana People to People ADPP Review/Appraisal of Possible NOrwegian Support

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ADPP’s own initiatives still appear to be in a somewhat experimental stage. There are no clear indicators to measure accomplishments, unit costs (cost per teachers being trained), feedback from teachers on what they had learned. Nor is there any follow-up of whether EPF teachers and non-EPF teachers both benefit from a curriculum that is based on the Humana charter and ideology as well as methodology. If ADPP would like to move into fairly large-scale operations as far as in-service training is concerned, issues such as transport costs, per diem or allowance or other incentives schemes need to be further clarified.

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Humana People to People ADPP Review/Appraisal of Possible NOrwegian Support

  1. 1. Review 2005-5 Ajuda de Desenvolvimento de Povo para Povo em Angola (ADDP) Review/appraisal of possible Norwegian support Norad Janne Lexow, LINS/DECO/NCG Eva Kløve, Norad June 2, 2005
  2. 2. Page 2 of 46 Review of ADPP Angola 2005 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..........................................................................................................4 1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................8 1.1 Background..................................................................................................................8 1.2 Methodology and scope...............................................................................................8 2. THE ANGOLAN CONTEXT..................................................................................................9 2.1 The teacher situation ...................................................................................................9 2.2 Provincial differences...................................................................................................9 2.3 The education reform.................................................................................................10 2.4 Current pre-service teacher training programmes .....................................................11 3. BRIEF OVERVIEW OF ADPP...........................................................................................13 4. CURRENT STATUS OF EPF TRAINING...........................................................................14 4.1 Enrolment and graduation..........................................................................................14 4.2 Recruitment procedures of students..........................................................................15 4.3 Gender aspects .........................................................................................................16 4.4 Location of graduated teachers .................................................................................16 4.5 Pedagogical Workshops ............................................................................................17 5. ORGANISATION AND NETWORKING .............................................................................18 5. 1 ADPP Angola and Networks.....................................................................................18 5.2 ADPP’s organisational structure ................................................................................20 5.3 ADPP staff .................................................................................................................21 6. FINANCIAL ASPECTS.......................................................................................................23 6.1 Income to ADPP since 2001......................................................................................23 6.2 Income to EPF Schools .............................................................................................24 6.3 Expenditure................................................................................................................27 6.4 Efficiency and effectiveness.......................................................................................30 7. PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES.......................................................................................32 8. CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................................................33 8.1 Relevance..................................................................................................................33 8.2 Sustainability..............................................................................................................33 8.3 Efficiency and effectiveness.......................................................................................34 9. RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................................................................35 APPENDIX 1 LIST OF PEOPLE MET.................................................................................38 APPENDIX 2 TERMS OF REFERENCE .............................................................................40
  3. 3. Page 3 of 46 Review of ADPP Angola 2005 APPENDIX 3 WORK PROGRAMME ..................................................................................43 APPENDIX 4 LIST OF MEMBERS OF THE HUMANA FEDERATION...............................44 APPENDIX 5 HISTORY OF ADPP ANGOLA......................................................................45
  4. 4. Page 4 of 46 Review of ADPP Angola 2005 Executive Summary Background The Norwegian Embassy requested a review of ADPP in Angola with the purpose of assessing possibilities for future support to the organisation’s teacher training programme. The review was carried out from 19-30 April 2005. Methodology The review team visited three of the six teacher training colleges, Escola de Professores do Futoro (EPF) and conducted several interviews with ADPP staff, students, teachers, project leaders, community leaders and other stakeholders within the education sector in Angola such as MEC, Unicef and EU. Due to unfortunate illness in the team, the NGO community could not be addressed to the extent desirable. Angolan context Angola is currently implementing an educational reform that includes restructuring of the primary school level from being separated into two levels, Grade 1-4 and 5-6, to a full 1-6 primary cycle. The reform has implications for the country’s teacher training programmes. Until recently pre-service teacher training was given through IMNE (Instituto Medios Normal de Ensino). However, only 5 % of IMNE graduates have taken up the teacher profession and this education has therefore only produced negligible results in terms of teacher production. This system is therefore in the process of being totally redefined and restructured. Other programmes that addressed only the first level of the old primary cycle are being discontinued. The EPF schools have since the very start been based on the most essential reform issues such as producing teachers for all subjects and for the whole 1-6 primary cycle. EPF and Magisteiro Primario are currently the only schools to educate teachers for the new primary school system Grade 1-6. Brief overview of ADPP ADPP’s involvement in Angola has its roots in UFF Denmark and the Humana People to People movement. ADPP in Angola became a legal NGO entity in 1992. ADPP runs 24 different projects in the country ranging from the selling of second hand clothes, child related activities, HIV/AIDS, vocational training, to women‘s projects and similar activities. ADPP has a strong rural and community based focus. ADPP receives contributions from numerous partners, some of which have been small and ad-hoc and others larger contributions of more than USD 100,000. Current status of the EPF schools The annual teacher training capacity is 360 students. As of January 2005 1,143 teachers have graduated from the six EPF schools after 2.5 years of training.
  5. 5. Page 5 of 46 Review of ADPP Angola 2005 Graduated teachers are employed by the Government. No teachers have been recorded not to have been employed after graduation. On the contrary, EPF teachers were in high demand and often “headhunted “by the Provincial governments. Recruitment of students is partly done by the MEC on a scholarship basis and partly by ADPP through actively promoting EPF opportunities to eligible candidates with 10th grade. Not all schools run to their full capacity. This might be due to recruitment starting too late or not being active enough to seek candidates from areas beyond immediate vicinity. Female students have always been underrepresented in EPF schools. This probably relates more to the general unfavourable gender situation in Angola than to ADPP itself. Efforts are made to encourage female students, but these have clearly not been sufficient. ADPP’s own mapping shows that the majority of teachers are working in rural primary schools. They are spread across 64 municipalities all over the country. It is worth noting the rural profile in a country where many municipalities are completely without qualified teachers. As part of their education, the EPF students practice nearly a full year as teachers, often being the only teachers in the school. This is appreciated by the community, but has also caused additional burdens. The communities have to sustain teachers’ livelihood because provincial governments delay in fulfilling their agreed responsibility to support the practicing students with a small allowance. This problem has been articulated by ADPP students and staff for years. Solutions are said to be in sight, but in practice this remains to be seen. As a supplement to the regular teacher training, EPF schools have offered pedagogical workshops for teachers in service. These workshops may be of value for the participants, but ADPP has done little to demonstrate their effects on the teachers’ performances. Practical problems such as who should pay for transport, per diem and other incentives for participating teachers also need to be addressed. Organisation and networking ADPP has a staff composition of 618 members out of which 104 are employed in EPF schools. Five out of six project leaders at the EPF schools are international. This is higher than for other ADPP projects in Angola. The reasons were said to be a combination of war-related factors and lack of qualified Angolans. ADPP offers continued training for staff through the Frontline institute in Zimbabwe and One World University (OWU) in Mozambique, both part of the Humana Federation. The team found that there are delays in graduation and too little strategic staff development planning in the project and that a strategy for “Angolanisation” is compelling. ADPP has wide network relations. It is firmly embedded in the MEC in the sense that trainers at EPF schools are all employed by the MEC. It is also firmly embedded in the Humana Federation through its membership, the supply of international staff, supply of management systems, material and continuous education opportunities. ADPP Angola saw only advantages to these associations.
  6. 6. Page 6 of 46 Review of ADPP Angola 2005 Financial aspects Income to EPF schools in the period 1995-2004 amounts to USD 10,595,429. Each school has key sponsors through ADPP’s own funds (income from sales of clothes and shoes), the MEC, the oil companies’ social funds, United Nations and private companies. Of the total amount, USD 7,328,619 was allocated for investments in school construction and facilities. 47% of expenditures were spent on salaries (covered by the government). It is difficult to compare EPF costs with that of other pre-service teacher training programmes, because so many variables differ. EPF's rural profile justifies a boarding system, but this will invariable be more expensive than regular day- schools. Another critical aspect is that EPF costs are kept down by extremely devoted and committed staff as well as the students’ own contributions to the maintenance and even construction of the school. Whether or not EPF is really cost-effective can only be assessed when the 21,000 newly recruited teachers have become fully operational. If they are of the same quality as EPF teachers, each of them is trained at a considerable lower cost. However, concerns were raised in nearly all interviews that these teachers did not even possess basic skills and that many of them were not fit for the training profession at all. The team cannot make any conclusive comments on the matter on the basis of the available information. Given that graduates from the new Magisteiro Primario start working as teachers in urban or rural areas, this public pre-service teacher training will constitute another source for comparison. Until then, ADPP is alone at providing primary school teachers. Pedagogical approaches The pedagogical approaches are based on the individual’s own responsibility for learning. This is done through self-investigation and own critical analysis of available information. Students are supposed to access the internet but in some cases this has not been possible. The written material available appears not to be of such richness that it can substitute what can be found on the internet and some of the material seems to be based on less diverse sources and to be less updated than desirable. Conclusions and recommendations The team found that support to the teacher training component of ADPP is a relevant approach in the Angolan context. The component has a high degree of government and partner support and sustainability is at least partly ensured by the fact that all teachers both at the EPF schools and the graduates are on the government’s payroll. It might seem like quality teachers come at a relatively high price. However, all stakeholders met during the review felt that ADPP’s key strength is its ability to deliver enthusiastic quality teachers for the rural areas, and most were of the opinion that ADPP does indeed deliver in a very efficient manner. The team did not obtain enough information about the cost of alternative providers to make a firm conclusion on the matter. There is room for improvements e.g. in terms of ensuring operation to full capacity by more stringent recruitment procedures, enrolment of more female students, ensuring that students get continuous access to state-of the art information, that micro- projects are sustained by more focus on training communities to take on
  7. 7. Page 7 of 46 Review of ADPP Angola 2005 leadership etc. The team furthermore agrees that Norway can best support ADPP by supporting its expansion of core activities; namely teacher training for the benefit of rural communities.
  8. 8. Page 8 of 46 Review of ADPP Angola 2005 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Norway has not yet supported ADPP financially, but the Embassy in Luanda has, since 1999, been in regular contact with ADPP to discuss this possibility. In 2003 ADPP’s project proposal for support was not approved. Representatives from the Embassy have expressed strongly that ADPP over the years have gained an outstanding reputation in the country for having delivered long lasting, sustainable assistance to the education sector by establishing teacher training institutions in Angola under very difficult circumstances during the war. On the basis of this, as well as positive recommendations from a recent consultancy report (Haaland and Dow, 2005) Norad was requested by the Norwegian Embassy to assist them in assessing possibilities for future support in the teacher training sector. The timing was favourable as ADPP and the Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC) would be reviewing ADPP’s experience from ten years of operation in the teacher training sector during the same period. This self-evaluation exercise was planned to be of six weeks duration. The team was initially to play an observer role in this exercise, but in practice the team participated actively in gathering information during the little less than two weeks stay in Angola. The team travelled together with Anneli Barregren from ADPP and David Eclesiastre from the MEC. 1.2 Methodology and scope The terms of reference state that in addition to assessing the programme content, the team should look at various organisational aspects of ADPP as well as its various networks. Related to this latter, it should be noted that the scope of this assessment did not allow for any detailed information about the Humana federation or the relationship with other member organisations. Prior to the visit to Angola, the team requested specific information with regards to project results, organisational, administrative and management matters. The team visited three of ADPP’s in total six teacher training colleges, in Caxito, Cabinda and Ramiro, and held discussions with college staff, students, and community leaders and members, ADPP practising students, school directors, and non-ADPP teachers. Several in-depth discussions were held with key ADPP staff in Luanda, in particular on topics such as financial matters, organisation, administration and management, monitoring and evaluation. Of external partners, the team met with representatives from MEC, and other donors such as Unicef, EU and the donor groups for coordination in the education sector. Limited out-of office talks were held with representatives from the Norwegian Embassy. Due to illness among team members it was not
  9. 9. Page 9 of 46 possible to follow up the planned meetings with the international NGO community. The team would like to express great appreciation of the assistance granted by ADPP, both in terms of transport, translation as well as provision of necessary documentation about the project. 2. The Angolan context 2.1 The teacher situation During the war, the teacher population was greatly depleted. The number of teachers in 1995/96 represented only two-thirds of the total number of teachers in 1981 (Unicef 1999 cited in Johannessen 1999). The demand for education has remained high and shortages are particularly critical in the provinces. In Huambo, in May 2003, 28,000 children were listed but not able to attend school because of the lack of classrooms and teachers (Global Survey in Education in Emergencies: Angola). Teacher situation primary education 2003 Num ber of Te achers 72769 (MF) 26784 (F) Num ber of students 2.492,274 Av. Teache r : pupil ratio 1:60 184 pupils /classroom The Government has taken major steps to recruit and retrain teachers into the system. As part of its “Back to School “campaign, Unicef and the Ministry of Education in 2003 recruited 29,000 teachers to be trained for the primary school. The Government committed approximately USD 40 million for hiring these teachers. The training part cost approximately USD 2.5 million (Unicef contribution). Most of the teachers trained had often little more than basic skills and many partners, including representatives from the MEC itself, question the quality of these teachers. Some apparently have so low qualifications that voices have been raised that the children would have been better without them! It is feared that as many as 70-75% would not have the necessary skills required for teaching in Angolan schools. This, however, remains to be seen. The next phase in this program is to recruit another batch of 21,000 teachers to the primary schools. 2.2 Provincial differences As one would expect, access to educational opportunities varies greatly between and within Angola’s provinces. The government estimates that the coastal provinces, which were reasonably secure for the majority of the war period, have the highest enrolment rates – all above 60 percent. The provinces that have been hit the hardest by the war (Huambo, Bié, Uige, Bengo, Cuando Cubango, Malange and Moxico) have gross enrolment rates of less than 40
  10. 10. Page 10 of 46 percent (GRA 2002)1 . The dropout rates are often high, as the following example from Cabinda Province illustrates. In 2004 pupils in the province were distributed as follows: Grade 1: 25,000, Grade2: 18,000, Grade 3: 13,000, Grade 4: 9,000, Grade 5-6: 11,000, and Grade 7-8: 5,000. In one school visited (II and III Nivel Luis Sambo) in the same province, the high drop out-rate was clearly manifested in the classes 5th to 8th with 50 pupils (38 girls) enrolled in 5th grade out of which 39 were repeaters and 7 dropped out completely. In 7th grade there were only 42 pupils (19 girls) and in 8th grade 21 pupils (8 girls). In Bié province there is an average of 88 students per teacher compared to the national average of 60: teacher. This pictures the situation of a country urgently in need of more teachers. 2.3 The education reform The Angolan education sector is currently engaged in a process of reform, aimed at modernising the sector and meeting the objective of “education for all” (EFA2 ) which is adopted by the Government of Angola. The reform is currently in process and will, in accordance with the new basic law on the education system approved by the National Assembly in 20013 , comprise the following key points: ensino de base (currently the first primary cycle Grade 1-4) and ensino de medio (5-6) will become primary cycle Grade 1-6. The third level is currently Grade 7 and 8, and will be included in the new secondary education going up to Grade 12. implementation of the reform started in 2003 and the first batch to have completed a full 9 Grade cycle under the new system is expected to graduate in 2008. taking into account the high growth rate of the school-age population, universal primary enrolment will require an increase in the number of 1 Source : Global Survey on Education in Emergencies Angola Country Report 2 National Plan on Education for All 2000-2015, approved by the Council of Ministers in August 2001 3 Basic Law of the Education system by the National Assembly (Law no 13/01) of December 2001, published in the Republic Official Journal 1 Series 65
  11. 11. Page 11 of 46 pupils enrolled from approximately 1.5 million to 5 million by 2015. Enrolment in the 1st level of primary education (grades 1-4) increased by 80% from 1.5 to 2.7 million students after the war. Based on population estimates Unicef has calculated that there are about 1.2 million children in the age group 6-11 who are out of school. 2.4 Current pre-service teacher training programmes ISCED Instituto Do Magisterio Primeiro 4 years Instituto Medios Normal de ensino (IMNE) Centro basico de formadao do professores Escola de Professors do Futuro (EPF-ADPP) 2.5 years Qualified to teach basic education (Grade 1-6) in the "new system" Qualified to teach primary level (1-4) "old system" Qualified to teach secondary education Entry qualifications: sixth grade Entry qualifications: Eighth grade Entry qualifications: Eighth grade but will become 10th grade Entry qualifications: 10th grade Entry qualifications: 12 grade Currently there are 28 IMNEs in all provinces of the country. This basically serves as Angola’s secondary education programme along side with the Instituto medio technicas de ensino, and is a four year programme. Experience has shown that this has been regarded as a stepping stone for entry into the university and as few as 5% (Haaland & Dow 2005) actually become teachers although the graduates are qualified for this. The MEC is in the process of redefining this structure and transforming it into general education institutions and not teacher training institutions that focus on specialised subjects. The following changes are expected as part of the ongoing reform process:
  12. 12. Page 12 of 46 Centro de basico will most likely discontinue. Unless upgraded, these teachers are not qualified to teach at the basic level as defined by the reform (1-6). Instituto Magisteiro Primario will be the new teacher training structure for the future. It is still in its experimental phase, however. So far only two are in full operation, while another four are planned. No batch has graduated following the full four year system, but students who have been recruited after two years of IMNE studies have completed their studies at MP. ISCED (Higher Institute of Education Science) (university level) is the highest level of training for teachers and is required to teach secondary education. In-service teacher training programmes will be intensified. MEC estimates that all the newly recruited 50,000 teachers will need to be upgraded on a continuous basis for the next 10 years. It should be noted that there are several donors already working in this field, EU through its PALOP programme, NRC through TEP, Save the Children and others. Pedagogical workshops or similar centres have gained in importance in in-service programmes, but they are currently not coordinated or streamlined as part of a deliberate strategy that will ensure upgrading of teacher’s qualifications on a large scale or under the leadership of the MEC. Several donors were of the opinion that a Master plan for such programmes would have to be developed and that a possible ADPP programme should fit within this. It should be noted that for the time being it is only EPF and Magisteiro Primario that educates teachers for the new primary education1-6.
  13. 13. Page 13 of 46 3. Brief overview of ADPP Geographical distribution of projects, ADPP-Angola C.A. Children’s Schools Teacher Training Colleges Child Aid Vocational Schools HOPE/TCE Eucalyptus Plantation Construction/Textile Factory TTC Voc.S. HOPEC.A TTC Constr. TTCCh.S. C.ATCE Fundr. Prod. Ch.S.Voc.S. Tex.F. TTC Fundr. Clothes fundraising Clothes small bale production Fundr. Fundr. Fundr. Fundr. Huambo Ch.S. Plant. TTC Fundr. TTC Ch.S. Voc.S. HOPE Fundr. Fundr. Prod. Fundr. ADPP Angola has its roots in UFF Denmark which started working in Angola in 1984. At that time Angola had no legal basis for forming an association, but the law 81/91 on private associations made it possible for ADPP to become registered as one of the first national NGOs in the country in 1992 (source ADPP 2005). In 1995 the Angolan Ministry of Education and ADPP made an agreement4 about the education of teachers for the rural areas through the establishment of pre-service teacher training colleges, i.e. the EPF schools. The agreement includes one EPF in 16 of the 18 provinces of Angola. Until now (May 2005) there are EPF schools in the 6 provinces: Benguela, Huambo, Cabinda, Bengo (Caxito), Luanda (Ramiro) and Zaire (Soyo).The first EPF was established in Huambo in 1995 and the first team graduated from there in 1998. The most recent school was established in Soyo in 2001 (see also table on the next page). The teacher training component constitutes six of the 24 projects operated by ADPP. Other projects include vocational training, construction and business 4 1) Decreto Executivo No 5 1998 4/ 1998 30/10 Gabineto Do Ministro ( for the first four schools) 2) Decreto Executivo No 11 (18/3-2002 ( Ramiro EPF and 29/9- 2002 Soyo EPF)
  14. 14. Page 14 of 46 administration, primary school education with children with special needs, community development, HIV/AIDS programmes, national production projects e.g. manufacturing working clothes and toys, and the promotion of selling of second hand clothes which are shipped in containers from countries in the north. ADPP receives contributions from numerous partners based in and outside Angola. Since 1997 for example, Unicef’s total support to ADPP is USD 1.4 million, ranging from 50,000-300,000 annually. Whereas most contributions are reported by ADPP to be rather small, ADPP has also received 12 larger contributions of a value totalling more than USD 100,000 over the last ten year period. Of these ADPP had a partnership arrangement with 7 partners with a value of more than USD 1 million in sum over the decade of which government partners were the most significant. In general, the Humana People to People member association seem to attract more partnerships in the higher value category for projects directed at the fight against HIV/AIDS than for teacher training. The most recent audit report stems from 2002, when ADPP’s total income amounted to USD 4,790,159 (2001: USD 7,197,962). 6.5% of this income (minus stock variation and contribution from Humana) is paid as a membership service fee to the Humana Federation. In 2002 this amounted to USD 214,354. 4. Current status of EPF training 4.1 Enrolment and graduation Annual teacher training capacity is 360 students. As of January 2005, 1, 143 teachers have graduated from the six EPF schools after 2.5 years of training. Graduated Teachers from EPF Teacher Training Colleges EPF Established 1998-2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 (est) Huambo 1995 89 19 29 26 32 47 Caxito 1996 72 32 49 43 64 46 Benguela 1997 26 32 46 40 44 26 Cabinda 1998 23 48 49 37 26 Ramiro 2000 19 47 58 Soyo 2001 28 46 Total 187 106 172 177 252 249 Accumulated 187 293 465 642 894 1143 Source: ADPP 2005 Graduated teachers automatically enter the government’s payroll. According to Decree no 20/30 from May 2003 the official salary scale for teachers brings a monthly salary of 12,463.20 Angolan kwanza (akz) for beginners. With additional bonus, primary school teachers in the category of “Téchnico Principal de 3a classe” received around 18,000 akz in 2005. EPF teachers are said to be in very high demand and are literally “headhunted” by the Provincial Education
  15. 15. Page 15 of 46 Directorate to be deployed in rural schools. All graduates get official certificates and diplomas issued by the Ministry of Education. According to ADPP all graduates gain employment as teachers if they so wish. Many also go directly into positions as school directors or pedagogical directors at rural primary schools. 4.2 Recruitment procedures of students The various EPF schools “share“ the country between themselves so that each school can recruit students from more than one province. In some areas, ADPP needs to actively recruit students. The number of applicants varies between provinces. Whereas Ramiro has a surplus of applicants due to the proximity to Luanda, Cabinda has had to actively approach students in their communities. Despite having a capacity of 60 students not more than 39 had actually enrolled in EPF-Cabinda this year. Under-enrolment also occurred in other schools e.g. Huambo, which had a planned intake of 60 students in 2002, but only achieved 50. In Cabinda, it was felt that the low enrolment was a result of young people seeking other opportunities, such as private universities that have come as a result of the booming oil industry, and that boarding schools are perceived as a less attractive option than day schools. ADPP’s country representative did not, however, believe that EPF schools compete with those who want university education. ADPP Recruitment of students for EPF schools Provincial Department of Education General Promotion and information Municipal Education Section Leaders to select/ point out teachers for MED scholarships Agreement about MOE (MED) internal scholarship quota for each province (already teachers who lack formal qualifications Contacts with all schools with 10th graders, meetings, pamphlets at each school Radio promotion, general distribution of pamphlets and posters in cities and towns C Common for all: i) All materials have pictures of female students and graduated teachers. (ii) Female candidates are given special encouragements. (iii) All candidates have to pass an admission test in Portuguese and mathematics. (iv) All candidates have to submit original diploma for 10th Grade and ID documents.
  16. 16. Page 16 of 46 (v) All candidates have to sign a Terms of Agreement where they dedicate 3 years after graduation to teaching in a rural primary school. On an average approximately 15 students from each province are selected by the education authorities for EPF scholarships. Those who are already serving as teachers retain their salaries for the support of their families. All students pay an entry fee to EPF for the full training period that also covers all boarding costs. The fees are in the range of USD 2-300 depending upon facilities available at the school. 4.3 Gender aspects The gender imbalance present at all levels of the education system in Angola is also reflected in the EPF schools. ADPP encourages women to apply but has by far succeeded. EPF project leaders often take a personal interest in talking with parents to encourage them to enrol their daughters. Rules and regulations for interaction between the sexes are strict, and girls and boys are strongly encouraged not to date but to focus on their education. Pregnant girls are expelled from the school, but few such instances have occurred. Couples are encouraged to undertake their teaching practice in different schools, to avoid male dominance. ADPP EPF Male-Female Students at EPF Schools from 1995-2004 EPF 1998-2002 M 1998-2002 F 2003 M 2003 F 2004 M 2004 F Total M Total F Benguela 181 28 32 5 35 4 248 37 Huambo 218 22 60 6 57 4 335 32 Cabinda 168 16 38 3 38 2 244 21 Caxito 278 28 57 7 55 4 390 39 Soyo 70 4 30 0 44 2 144 6 Ramiro 90 33 63 13 76 24 229 70 Total 1005 131 280 34 305 40 1590 205 Source ADPP 2005 4.4 Location of graduated teachers The majority of graduated teachers are working in rural primary schools. However, existing information is not fully accurate, and ADPP is currently in a process of upgrading the information on the whereabouts of the graduated teachers. The 1,136 teachers registered in the period 1998-2005 were spread across 64 municipalities, mostly in rural and semi-urban areas. Thus the picture of ADPP as a critical supplier of teachers to rural primary schools is confirmed. Anecdotal information confirmed that in rural areas, female teachers are rare, and that the few EPF female teachers that are available function as important role models. ADPP does not have any documentation on whether the presence of female teachers actually impact positively on the enrolment rate of girls, but staff and teachers clearly have an impression that they play a role in encouraging parents to send their daughters to school.
  17. 17. Page 17 of 46 Number of students in long term practice (11 months) 2000-2005 EPF 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Huambo 19 29 26 32 32 60 Caxito 32 49 43 64 47 57 Benguela 32 46 40 44 35 37 Cabinda 23 48 49 37 26 32 Ramiro 0 0 19 47 62 63 Soyo 0 0 0 28 58 30 Total 106 172 177 252 260 279 Source: ADPP 2005 It should be noted that in addition to the graduated teachers, rural schools benefit from receiving the teachers who are in practice. In the real-life of Angola these students are not “apprentice” teachers in any way, but often the main and only teacher in the class they have been allocated to. In Cabinda, the team met with four practicing students who were the only teachers at that school. Even with an incomplete education they were regarded an essential resource that the Provincial Directorate for Education felt did a better job than many of those who had gone through a non-EPF teacher training school. The practice period also includes “micro-projects” which essentially are community-based undertakings of various profiles and content. These can include the building of latrines, pre- school activities, and working with women. Apparently the choice of micro- projects is to the student’s liking and interest. The review team expressed concerns that the running of micro-projects are fully dependent of the presence of an EPF-trained teacher, and that consequent shifting between micro-projects from one year to another may leave a void in the community. There is clearly a need for training community members to take leadership in such activities. As per agreement with the MEC, practicing teachers are entitled to a small allowance to sustain their livelihood in the community. Until now, this has not functioned according to plans. All students met had been without such allowances, trying their best to keep up their livelihood through the goodwill of the communities. Finding solutions to this problem was also part of the recommendations in the 5-year Evaluation Report made by the MEC and ADPP- Angola in September 2001 and it is not clear to the team why the MEC has failed to follow up this commitment. In Cabinda, it was said that the problem was to be solved shortly, as the Provincial Directors had given priority to the ADPP students and was about to fulfil the government obligations as of May 2005. 4.5 Pedagogical Workshops ADPP organises pedagogical workshops as in-service training both as part of the teacher training for students. During the period 2001-2004, 12 Pedagogical Workshops were established and equipped at a total cost of USD 214,500. This amount includes establishment costs and some running costs. The workshops are either stand-alone structures or a designated room within an EPF school or a cluster primary school. They are equipped with TVs, computers and a video. EPF students are trained to organize workshops after they have completed their practice period. The number of such workshops held and their outreach capacity
  18. 18. Page 18 of 46 seem to vary between the EPF schools. For example, according to the Annual Report, Huambo planned to hold 5 workshops but had zero accomplishments in 2001 and this was the case also in 2002. In other EPF schools, e.g. Cabinda the workshops appear to have attracted a wide range of participants. MEC places great emphasis on pedagogical workshops and in-service training initiatives to upgrade teachers’ qualifications. Indeed, other donors such as EU and Save the Children also include such training in their development cooperation. So far, however, there seems to be lack of coordination and overall plans for such initiatives. Undoubtedly such in-service training would be most effective if lead by the MEC and geared towards addressing training needs at school, municipal and provincial levels. ADPP’s own initiatives still appear to be in a somewhat experimental stage. There are no clear indicators to measure accomplishments, unit costs (cost per teachers being trained), feedback from teachers on what they had learned. Nor is there any follow-up of whether EPF teachers and non-EPF teachers both benefit from a curriculum that is based on the Humana charter and ideology as well as methodology. If ADPP would like to move into fairly large-scale operations as far as in-service training is concerned, issues such as transport costs, per diem or allowance or other incentives schemes need to be further clarified. 5. Organisation and networking 5. 1 ADPP Angola and Networks
  19. 19. Page 19 of 46 MOE Provincial Education Directorate Project Leader Sub (vice) Director Teacher (programme staff) Teacher Teacher Teacher Council EPF/TTC EmploymentTTCteachers ADPP Humana People to People MOE Min of Human Resources Managementmanuals Technicalassistance Courses/conferences Curriculum Teachingmaterial 6.5%ofincome Frontline Institute Zimbawe OneWorld University Mozambique Students Min of Finance Primary School Community micro project Higher management training Higher pedagogical training One school year practicing as teachers/ Employed as MOE teachers after exam Employmentregularteachers Approved curriculum Financial ceiling ANGOLA International Projects other countries In order to understand the essence of ADPP, it is necessary to see it in relation to its networks. ADPP is part of a large network within the “International Humana People to People Movement” (hereafter called the Humana Federation), which operates similar projects in several other countries. There is a tight and reciprocal relationship between the different elements of this organisation, despite the legal autonomy of ADPP in Angola as a national NGO. The team did not have a chance to talk to other sections of the Humana Federation, but from ADPP’s point of view only benefits accrued from this relationship. At the same time ADPP has a formal agreement with the MEC, and is closely integrated in the ministry at several levels. ADPP is a recognised partner, and one that enjoys a solid reputation as a NGO that could deliver long-term educational projects at times when most external partners were involved in short-term emergency operations. MEC representatives claim that ADPP has spearheaded the educational reforms and influenced the reform process in positive ways. As with most other actors during the war, ADPP had a close relationship with the leading political party MPLA, but this was said by Unicef and representatives from the Norwegian Embassy to be no different from what other NGOs, multilaterals and bilateral partners had. As a result of long-term operations in the country, there is no doubt that on a personal level some of the ADPP leaders may have close friendship relations with some of the elite groups in Angola. This does not appear, however, to have opened any doors for easy decision-making or irregular approvals of any sort. It was quite apparent that ADPP staff was considered by other donor partners to be working around the clock and that they always took the opportunity to participate in donor coordination meetings, conferences, strategic thematic groups and other events that took place in Angola for the shaping of the future education sector.
  20. 20. Page 20 of 46 5.2 ADPP’s organisational structure PL TTC PL TTC PL TTC PL TTC PL TTC PL TTC PL Ch.Sch. PL Ch.Sch. PL Ch.Sch. PL Ch.Sch. PL Fundr. PL Fundr. PL Prod. PL Prod. PL Fundr. PL Fundr. PL Fundr. PL Fundr. PL Fundr. PL Fundr. PL Fundr. PL Fundr. Organizational chart, ADPP-Angola Education & other projects Fundraising projects PL Construc. PL Textile F. PL Plantation PL Voc.Sch. PL Voc.Sch. PL Voc.Sch. PL Ch.Aid PL Ch.Aid PL Ch.Aid General Secretariat for Projects Fundraising, Nat. Management Fundraising Admin. Nat. Partnership Team Nat. Administr. Nat. Acc. & Audit Presidium General Assembly BoD Ex. Com. PL TCE PL HOPE PL HOPE TTC = Teacher Training College Ch.Sch. = Children’s Schools Voc.Sch. = Vocational Schools Ch.Aid = Child Aid TCE = Total Control of the Epidemic Constr. = Construction Textile F. = Textile Factory Fundr. = Clothes fundraising Prod. = Clothes small bale production ADPP is one of the 26 members of the Humana Federation.
  21. 21. Page 21 of 46 ADPP consists of a General Assembly with 38 individual members out of which 21 members are national and the remaining of non-Angolan origin. The majority of these have lived in Angola and supported ADPP in one way or another for years. All project leaders (PL) are appointed by the Board of Directors (BoD), chaired by the country representative of ADPP. BoD members are elected by the General Assembly. In 2005 the BoD met five times. National project leaders are employed by ADPP, international leaders by the Humana Federation and countersigned by ADPP. The General Secretariat for Projects coordinates the development projects, and the technical responsibility for all projects lies here. The National Administration has the overall administrative responsibility. Each project is subject to a monthly project evaluation routine which is participatory in the sense that each project leader evaluates progress together with staff, teachers and directors. This monthly evaluation is based on a colour scheme in which green zone is where the project wants to be, yellow zone is a temporary stage on the way to green, and red zones are when things are not functioning according to plans at all. The ADPP Luanda office receives a quarterly report from each project. An annual project report is based on these principles and facilitates a rapid overview of important aspects related to program, income, administration, people, material conditions, expansion and calendar events. As with other management systems applied in the project, the evaluation routines are also developed in the Humana Federation. ADPP is audited by the Lisboan branch of Ernest & Young. Each teacher training college is subject to a separate audit by the same firm. 5.3 ADPP staff In 2005 ADPP has a total of 618 staff members out of which 104 are employed in EPF schools. Overall 23 ADPP staff members are international staff, coming from: Denmark (13), Sweden (4), Zimbabwe (2), Mozambique (2), UK (1), and Nederland (1). Every six months ADPP is strengthened with 8 volunteer staff, so-called Development Instructors (DI). The DIs are usually young people who have participated in a six month preparatory training at one of the Humana- based institutions in e.g. US or Denmark. The salary level for international staff is built on the UN scale, ranging from USD 1,500 to USD 5,500 and where approximately half the staff earns USD 4,000 per month. Many of the international staff in Angola has stayed in the country for 10-15 years. Angolan staff follows Angolan salary systems. Only 18.2% of the total staff is women. Five out of the six project leaders at the EPF schools are international. This is proportionally a higher number of international project leaders than for other ADPP projects. The reasons were reported to partly relate
  22. 22. Page 22 of 46 to the war and partly to the fact that high level-educated staff in the education sector easily gets absorbed by other international NGOs and the oil sector. The Humana system provides the following avenues for staff who desires to become project leaders: (i) The Frontline Institute in Zimbabwe offers basic and advanced management courses. (ii) One World University in Mozambique offers a BA degree under the Faculty of Pedagogy. Graduates of OWU become teachers at the EPF schools. (iii) Headmaster-training by ADPP (on-the job training). This includes quarterly evaluation of their work by ADPP staff, and close collaboration with the former headmaster. This latter avenue is gradually reduced. Expansion of the system is highly dependent upon both external and national training and ADPP reports that several prospective candidates for national project leaders and teachers for the EPF schools are currently in the “pipeline”. The table below provides an overview of the teaching staff, their qualifications and their present whereabouts. As can be seen, one of the EPF schools (Caxito) in particular has a shortage of teachers. Relatively many of those who have been sent for advanced training are also doing other types of work. Most of them have taken up teaching jobs in other schools. Number of Teacher Trainers and Qualification Cabinda Soyo Caxito Ramiro Huambo Benguela Total Teacher trainers 11 9 5 12 11 12 "Superiores" (univers ity trained) 6 3 1 3 4 3 "Medios" 12th grade 5 6 4 9 7 9 OWU trained, working at an EPF Headmasters trained at OWU 1 1 Dep.Headm aster trained at OWU 1 1 1 3 Teachers trained at OWU 3 3 1 2 1 0 10 Teachers trained at EPF 3 6 4 8 7 8 36 Sent to OWU from each EPF How many sent to OWU in total 3 1 15 0 15 3 37 How many w ork w ith EPF 3 1 7 0 5 2 18 Curr ently doing other w ork 0 0 8 0 10 1 19 Source: ADPP during fieldwork OWU: One World University Mozambique (BA graduation) The majority of those who are not working with an EPF school are still teaching or working within the education system in one way or another. 6 are teaching at 7-8th grade levels, 2 are studying abroad, one is working with the national airline company, one is teaching at the Pedagogical Faculty in Huambo, and
  23. 23. Page 23 of 46 one is working with a NGO. Five are either not working, dead or ADPP has no information on them. Graduates from the OWU in Mozambique receive a formally recognized certificate of Bachelor of Arts in Pedagogy from Universidade Eduardo Mondlane in Maputo. Apparently this process is often cumbersome and delayed as the final examination team either has to be brought over from Mozambique or the candidates have to go there to get their final exam. The team met with several prospective graduates who had waited for several years for their final examination because of such delays. They had therefore not received their salary increase that a completed BA automatically gives. ADPP is currently working on solving this problem. ADPP leadership reports that becoming a fully competent teacher trainer so far takes 8 years in average. Getting the system up and running has taken most of the time and the ADPP leadership is of the opinion that it will be possible to reduce the length of time to 5 years in the next phase. To conclude; the Humana system for continued training offers many possibilities for exposure to other projects and institutions for Angolan staff, although the system can be described as relatively “self-contained” in the sense that all options are based on the same Humana Concepts and ideology. Few staff members appear not to have been trained at institutions closely linked to the Humana Federation, although exceptions to this may be found. It appears that without having reached a full, holistic understanding of this ideology it might become difficult for a teacher coming from an alternative system to adapt fully to the teaching methodologies at an EPF school. It could be of benefit to the EPF schools that input is sought also from outside of the Humana system. 6. Financial aspects 6.1 Income to ADPP since 2001 In 2001 ADPP Angola had a total net income of almost USD 7.5 million. Since then, the income has fallen dramatically - totalling approximately USD 3.2 million in 2004. ADPP receives its income from other member organisations of the Humana Federation, sales of second hand clothes and shoes, Government of Angola (national and provincial levels). Major donors (contributing more than USD 30,000 a year) include World Bank/ Government of Angola program, Italian Cooperation, OPEC Foundation, the UN system in Angola (Unicef, UNHCR, OCHA, WFP and UNDP), and private partnerships in the business sector (Sonangol and partners, Statoil, Norsk Hydro, Angola Telecom and BFA). In addition there are a number of donors contributing less than USD 30,000 a year. As mentioned before, ADPP pays a 6.5% membership service fee to the Humana Federation. This allows the organisation to benefit from programme
  24. 24. Page 24 of 46 development, inflow of consultants and other technical assistance, common concepts and ideology and possibilities for continued training of ADPP staff. Donors (all sums in USD) 2001 (audited) 2002 (audited) 2003 (audited) 2004 (audited) 2005 (estimate) Member organisations of Humana 149,432 166,359 367,895 1,210,331 1,000,000 Clothes sales 2,459,093 1,262,425 727,000 700,000 1,000,000 Government of Angola 1,412,802 1,338,918 977,287 1,023,791 1,440,000 Other major partners (> 30,000) 2,619,669 1,797,365 904,043 662,925 1,476,500 Other partners (< 30,000) 986,456 777,877 959,535 856,879 450,000 Total net income 5 7,478,020 5,176,585 3,567,865 3,243,595 4,366,500 6.5% of total net income 486,071| 336,478 231,911 210,834 283,823 6,5% as audited 486,288 336,254 231,109 - - Source: ADPP 6.2 Income to EPF Schools 5 This total does not include income from other member organisations of the Humana Federation, as the 6.5% is only paid on income generated in Angola.
  25. 25. Page 25 of 46 Sources of income to EPF schools 1995-2004 34 % 18 % 25 % 9 % 2 % 6 % 6 % ADPP Angola Humana People to People Ministry of Education Sonangol and partners United Nations Embassy, NGOs and Private Companies Provincial Governments and Government Source: ADPP Total contributions to the EPF schools in the period 1995-2004 amount to USD 10,595,426. The income to EPF schools has increased significantly from USD 17,921 in 1995 to more than USD 1.5 million in 2004. In 1995 ADPP was the only contributor, but already in 1996 the sources of income included private companies and embassies6 . Contributions from the MEC were secured from 1997 onwards. Overall, ADPP in Angola have been the largest contributor together with the Humana movement. 6 All of these contributions seem to be made in an ad-hoc and non-systematic manner and do not involve any long term agreements. Among the embassies mentioned is the German Embassy.
  26. 26. Page 26 of 46 Trendsinpartner support 1995-2004(Income toEPFschools) 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 800000 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Year USD ADPP em Angola Humana Peope to People Ministry of Education Sonangol and partners United Nations Embassy, NGOs and private companies Provincial Governments and Governments Total income each EPF School 1995-2004 0 500000 1000000 1500000 2000000 2500000 EPF School USD USD 2194495 2350842 2093403 1992556 1124744 833762 Huambo Caxito Benguela Cabinda Ramiro Zaire Each school has key sponsors through ADPP, Humana and the MEC, but sees large variations in possibilities for support from other sources. The Provincial governments in Zaire and Ramiro have not contributed anything up to 2004, whereas the Provincial Government in Cabinda has financed the EPF school in the province with 25.4% of the total income in the same period.
  27. 27. Page 27 of 46 Contributions for Investments in EPF schools in Angola 1995- 2004 0 %1 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 %0 % 0 % 23 % 6 % 39 % 11 % 4 % 11 % 2 % 2 %0 % 2 % 0 % ADPP Em Angola Community rehabiltation Progra, Government Province Benguela Governmen tProvince Cabinda Government Province Bengo Spanish govenrment through Humana Espana Humana Holland German Embassy Sonangol and partners Associations in Cabinda Others The total amount spent on investments was 7.328,619 over the period. The three Provincial Governments of Benguela, Cabinda and Huambo have contributed with about 17% for the establishing costs. As has been noted earlier in the report, ADPP had direct agreements with these provinces that included this purpose. ADPP contributions largely derive from sales of clothes and shoes, and constitute nearly 23% of the total contributions. 6.3 Expenditure
  28. 28. Page 28 of 46 Total expenditure ADDP programmes in Angola 2003-2005 (estimated) 50 % 2 % 2 %7 % 1 % 7 % 2 % 2 % 7 % 20 % Children's School and boarding schools Vocational Schools Teacher Training Colleges Child aid Projects Emergency aid Treeplaning and Environment Hope Projects Fight against AIDS Total Control of the epidemic Administration and Programme Development ADPP Scholarship Programme for Angolans Services for Humana People to People ADPP total expenditure for the period 2003-2005 is estimated to be USD 11,649,3037 , out of which the Teacher Training component consumes approximately USD 5.67 million or 50% of the expenditure for the period. Note that “Services to the Humana People to People 6.5%” in the table below only consist of the share contributed to Humana by national offices (i.e. ADPP Angola in this case). The full amount corresponding to 6.5% is given under 6.1 above. 7 Note that audited reports from 2003 and 2004 are not yet ready. Numbers for 2005 are budgeted costs.
  29. 29. Page 29 of 46 ADPP Comparison between e xpenditures at projects USD Figures from accounts Figures from accounts Budget figures Comments on variation Projects 2003 2005 2005 Ru nning and es ta blis hm ent , Childre n's schoo l 673 090 661 031 954 045 The increase in 2005 is because the raise in number of students and teachers, and thus teachers'salar ies. Plans are to get finance for r econstruction of tw o schools in 2005 Ru nning and e stab lishm e nt o f vocatio nal schools 243 776 281 092 280 967 No dif ference Ru nning and e stab lishm e nt o f Teache r Tr aining Colle g es 1 841 473 1531 390 2 323 970 2003 figures include 260,000 USD for investments in tw o schools. The increase from 2004 to 2005 is related to increase in numbers of trainers and s alaries. Budget for maintenance w as not possible to include in 2003 and 2004 because of small contributions from MOE Ru nning and e stab lishm e nt o f Child A id 351 617 272 958 152 412 The sector is under reconstruction for a post-w ar phase- l Ru nning and Establishm e nt of tre e planting and e nvironm e nt 94 675 62 395 61 627 Few er trees have been planet in the plantation in Huambo Ru nning and es ta blis hm ent , Em e rge ncy Aid 140 325 50 873 12823 Emergency w as linked to the programs on post-w ar and refugees Ru nning and e stab lishm e nt o f HOPE HIV /AIDS 142 0280 137 925 89 677 Expect to get more donations in 2005 TCE (com m unity m o bilization in the figh ts against AIDS) 0 0 25 000 This project is to start up in 2005 Adm inistration and prog ram deve lopm ent 481 062 150 000 200 000 High figure in 2003 related to some necessary sav ings Scholars hip program for A ngolans 58 852 110 000 117 111 Training for Angolans Services to the Hum ana People to People 6.5% 52 109 45 000 50 000 More or less the same every year Total 4 079 007 3 302 664 4 267 632 Source: ADPP 2005 during field work
  30. 30. Page 30 of 46 Type of expences EPF schools 16 % 12 % 47 % 24 % 1 % Education and programme development Food Salaries Operational Expenses Pedagogical workshops Total expenses for Teacher Training Colleges (the six EPF schools) in the period 1995-2004 was USD12, 938,212. As has been noted earlier salaries for teachers are paid by the government of Angola. Luanda Province has the highest costs, followed by Benguela and Bengo. In 2004, only 2 percent was spent in Namibe province. 6.4 Efficiency and effectiveness Essential costs EPF USD 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Total run ning cos ts of the EPFs 1.229,129 1.662,187 1.284,621 1.313,900 1.561,387 2.275,350 Cost per com plete teacher training- 30 m onths 8,002 7,592 4,920 3,743 4,273 5,714 Runn ing cost/per student /per annum 3,201 3,037 1,986 1,497 1,709 2,157 Establish m ent cost six EPF Schools* 4.542.844 1.539,272 772,664 166,898 267,443 192,000 * Total establishment of the six EPF schools varies between 1.660,280 USD (Ramiro EPF), 1.525,278 USD (Benguela EPF), 1.382,070 USD (Cabinda), 1.399,719 USD (Soyo), 796,433 USD (Huambo) and 717,258 USD (Caxito). The figures represent actual expenses and are not converted to present-day prices. During the review, all stakeholders met claimed that the ADPP programme has been very efficient in producing teachers who are committed, motivated, and energetic and who actually do become rural school teachers in accordance with the objective of the programme. The impression that EPF schools produced quality teachers was confirmed throughout the review. It therefore seems realistic to assume that ADPP succeeds in terms of effectiveness. When it comes to efficiency, however, information is lacking that would enable the team to conclude. The following aspects are important in this regard: The teaching is labour-intensive; the staff live and work with the students and follow up each and one of them closely. The team even saw examples of how two understaffed EPF-schools managed because the
  31. 31. Page 31 of 46 available staff worked twice as hard. The holistic approach, every day of the year (no holidays are included) and close interaction between teachers and students, are designed to improve the quality of the students own intellectual qualities and the linkage between community development work and practical work. The training is college based and not workshop/seminar based. EPF schools are boarding schools, in which the students pay a small entry fee but otherwise have all costs covered. The practical content has greatly contributed to cost efficiency as students themselves participate actively in the construction of the schools. The speed at which the schools have been erected and become functional is remarkable. ADPP has completed six teacher training colleges over a period of 8 years. At an EPF school it takes 2.5 years to become a certified teacher in comparison to the four years it takes at the Magisteiro Primario. The contributions of EPF students to society during their training are also significant. Most notably is the practicing period in which they function as teachers in schools which often do not have any other teachers. The teachers are therefore highly welcomed by the communities, who even provide contributions in kind to sustain these teachers’ livelihood in the absence of support from the government. So what can be said about public teacher training? Government “pre-service” training for teachers through IMNE had proven not to be successful in terms of outcomes for the teaching sector as less than 5% of the graduates took up work as teachers, and on the top of that very few of those worked in rural schools. The lack of success in this regard was one of the factors necessitating a complete restructuring and redefinition of this particular system. The “new” institution Magisteiro Primario has been established with the goal of producing teachers who take on the profession after graduating, but is 1) neither geared to teaching in rural areas nor located in them, and 2) there are still uncertainties about whether this system also will end up being mainly a stepping stone for entry into higher education / university. The third type of teacher training , the “Back to School” programme, may be regarded as highly efficient in terms of numbers; 21,000 have been trained in the first round and another group of 29,000 have been recruited in 2005. This programme has also low costs, as Unicef has allocated approximately USD 2.5 million for the training. The counter-part contribution has been difficult to obtain, but the Government has recently taken over more of the responsibility for paying allowances and per-diem during training. The advantage of this training is that it is large-scale workshop and seminar based and as such can reach many at a relatively low cost. However, concerns have been raised that differences in the level of initial qualifications of participants will yield highly varied outcomes in terms of quality. In cases of low initial skills benefits of such training may be questionable. As the first batch is to receive their certificates in May 2005, it is too early to make any definite conclusions with regards to the outcomes of this programme.
  32. 32. Page 32 of 46 7. Pedagogical approaches The General Layout of the Education The 1st year 4 5 months School Practice And further studies AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL 1 3 months The World in which We Live 2 3 months Our country 3 1 month We continue building our College The 2nd year AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL 5 5 months Consolidation and Charter Subjects 6 7 months The Teaching Profession as part of the Teacher Training The last 1/2 year 6 4 months The Teaching Profession as part of the Teacher Training, continued 7 0,5 m The Pedagogical Work Shop 8 1,5 m Final Exam DEC DEC JANAUG SEP OCT NOV 240Sport, culture, music 420Distance studies - general 410Construction / Food production Pedagogical Workshop 1.105Teaching Practice 770Micro project & community w. 240Charter Subjects Philosophy of education 140Pedagogic/Methodology 13Psychology Ethics & Social Studies School Administration Sociology Didactic of Physical Education HoursCURRICULUM 230Science & didactic Communication 150The World 150Angola Didactic of Geography 5.460TOTAL CURRICULUM 140Final exam and conclusion 200Maintenance & Cleaning Didactic of Music 100English Economics Didactic of Arts Didactic of History 2Mathematics & didactics 2Portuguese & didactic The curriculum consists of basic subjects (1700 hours) in Portuguese, mathematics, science etc, pedagogical subjects (didactic, psychology, school administration etc) (300 hours), charter subjects (women’s rights etc 500 hours), and teaching practice (2000 hours). In addition the students participate in cleaning, kitchen services and other practical tasks related to the daily running of a boarding school. The curriculum was said by representatives from MEC and Magisteiro Primario to correspond to the government pre-service programme. The difference was that the EPF curriculum has added more topics and that it has a rural profile. The pedagogical methods used are “modern”. Students themselves are the driving force in the process and responsible for their own learning. The students are supposed to rely much on computer-based training, although some schools e.g. EPF-Caxito currently has no internet connection. Studies take up 50% of the time. Each subject is divided into sections, which again are divided into tasks. Completed tasks are corrected by the teachers and given a certain number of credit points. Courses take up 25% of the time. These courses have similarities with conventional lessons and are prepared and conducted by the teachers. They are often based on current media highlights and reflect up-to date information on various topics. The remaining 25% are allocated to
  33. 33. Page 33 of 46 “experiences”, which are of many sorts and of both common and personal nature. Voices have been raised against the use of computers as this does not match with what the teachers eventually would find in the rural schools to which they are supposed to be posted as teachers. The team does not share that concern, as computer literacy may contribute to elevating the status of the teachers both in the village and among pupils. To the extent that computers are not working, however, there might be a concern that students get access to too limited materials during their studies and for their task-solving. The EPF written curriculum basically consists of compendiums of papers contained in 24 A4 files, and may easily get outdated and lack state of the art of contemporary research and professional debates and discussions. So far ADPP has not studied the extent to which its pedagogical approach impact student performance at primary school level. Thus whether or not EPF teachers actually produce better results in terms of the reading, writing, Portuguese and mathematic skills of their students than other teachers remain unknown. This is also the case for whether the EPF teachers actually succeed in reducing dropout rates and repetition rates at least in the schools where they constitute a critical mass among the teachers. 8. Conclusions 8.1 Relevance The project builds on educational reforms worked out in the mid-1990s, which remains pertinent and relevant in the current context of Angola. ADPP has spearheaded and modelled this reform. EPF schools generally have an attractive image as a modern training institution that can supply rural schools with much sought-after teachers. No other pre-service teacher training system is geared entirely to the needs of rural communities. 8.2 Sustainability The links with MEC is strong at all levels. The collaboration is close and the government has supported ADPP financially in various ways, both through central support and through the Provincial Governments. Much of the support from other external partners has gone to investment and establishment of the schools and less to running costs. Salaries for the training of the teachers are covered by the government and they are on the regular government payroll. Five of the schools have non-Angolan project leadership and this was explained as being a result of the war as well as absence of Angolan people who were readily available to take up leadership positions in the system. This point can threaten sustainability in the long run. Interaction with the local communities is strong, although “micro-projects“ may be less sustainable because they are fully dependent on the practicing students
  34. 34. Page 34 of 46 and constitute part of their exam. There is currently no focus on creating sustainable development structures in the same communities. ADPP has a strong network of both national and international partners. As a member of the Humana People to People Federation the organisation can access wide management and technical support. At the same time, the Federation offers continued education for staff who wants to pursue further career possibilities in the system. The system appears “self-contained” in the sense that it reproduces the Humana concepts at various stages and levels of advancement. Possibilities for exploring the value and possible cutting edges of other best practices within the teaching profession and college management appear more closed. One example relates to the pedagogical workshops that currently have become part of many in-service training programmes in countries undergoing educational reforms. Lessons could be learned from exposure to experiences from other countries in this regard. Benefits may accrue from a more streamlined and strategic approach to speeding up the supply of highly qualified Angolans to the EPF schools. The pedagogical approaches employed are based on the Humana ideology and concepts. This presupposes a stringent focus on the individual’s development of own competencies, and access to modern technology such as internet. While this is appreciated by the students, not all EPF schools had fully operational internet systems to support the learning process. Additional written materials were scarce and may easily become outdated and less diverse than desirable. 8.3 Efficiency and effectiveness Does the EPF teacher training education system have a potential to go to scale? To what extent can this system become generally adopted in Angola? The implication of this obviously relates to resource constraints in the education sector. Producing quality teachers who work in remote rural areas is not cheap, but as of yet there are few other alternatives with which to compare the outcomes of ADPP in this regard. Both financial and other resources are central issues which put a limit to the expansion of the EPF school, but this must also be coupled with a judgment of effectiveness and quality. It takes 2.5 years to become an EPF teacher compared to the new government teacher training system of 4 years. Both systems have a practice period that reduces the costs and, in the case of EPF, actually brings down the boarding period to 1.5 years. ADPP produces what is generally acknowledged as “quality” teachers who at least in 85% of the cases appear to be enthusiastically committed to the teaching profession. Many of the graduates move directly into positions as school directors or pedagogical directors at the schools. In some cases they constitute a critical mass of teachers that have the potential of becoming “change agents” in the school and in the surrounding community. Measuring possible effects of this opportunity has remained a weak point to date.
  35. 35. Page 35 of 46 9. Recommendations There were basically three scenarios which were discussed for possible Norwegian support. (i) Support to scaling up of the Pedagogical Workshops The need for increased support to Pedagogical Workshops was raised by a number of partners in Angola. While the idea of both up-grading the skills of unqualified teachers and providing continuous education for all teachers in the system is basically a sound one, the team found that many issues need to be further clarified before the effects of such workshops can be demonstrated. ADPP should, in coordination with other donor agencies that already operate in this field, support the MEC to take leadership in this venture and produce a Master Plan that cover the country’s in-service training needs. Measures should be taken so that different donors do not go in different directions but rather follow a common outline and progress. Pedagogical Workshops need to take place both at school, municipal and provincial level and a curriculum for these different levels needs to be worked out. The MEC still seems to depend much upon hands-on support from the different donors in this regard. There is also a need to work out common incentive schemes for transport and allowance and to learn from the experience of neighbouring countries that have already implemented such in-service training programmes as part of their educational reforms. (ii) Support to an Angola-based One World University (OWU) Angola lacks good teachers for the teacher training colleges. This will limit the expansion of the Magisteiro Primario system, which in the long run aims to constitute the pillar for pre-service training in the country. Some representatives from the MEC has visited OWU in Mozambique and found a basis for replication in Angola. There are, however, some arguments against this. Firstly, it may prove to be relatively difficult and cumbersome to obtain accreditation for this BA within the University of Angola. Secondly, one has already seen delays in examination of the candidates, which might point to a lack of preference for these tasks by the University of Mozambique. Thirdly, the Government’s role in supplying tertiary education has to be clarified. For the time being, this alternative seems to be less attractive because of the inherent risks for delays. (iii) Support to a new teacher training college ADPP has concrete plans for establishing a seventh teacher training college in Bié Province, and negotiations with relevant government bodies are already underway. Bié Provincial Government is said to be positive to the idea. There are several arguments for supporting an expansion of the existing system. ADPP has already shown that they can deliver with regards to supplying rural schools with qualified teachers Bié is a province with a large catchment area and recruiting enough students is not perceived as a problem for ADPP in this province.
  36. 36. Page 36 of 46 ADPP is in a process of educating sufficient leadership and teacher trainers that can take over critical positions. ADPP believes that there is a good chance for the EPF school to be ready for the 2006 intake. If Norway considers such support ADPP should comply with the following conditions: A baseline study to provide data on pre-project education information should be conducted. This study should provide baseline information on the situation of primary schools e.g. student enrolment, performance and progress as well as information on teacher qualifications and/or experience. This would make possible the evaluation of the effect over time of introducing EPF teachers trained to use different pedagogical methods. Approval and contributions from the Provincial government should be secured in advance. Possibilities for intake of day-school students should be explored to maximize efficiency and enlarge the pool of students and graduates. The location of the school will be of importance in this regard. Specific measures to encourage female teachers should be sought. Reasons for low female enrolment at EPF should be mapped and analyzed and appropriate measures to stimulate female students should be tested out. Additional costs for this should be worked out. The team also looked at possible channels for support. According to the Norwegian Embassy, direct support to the Angolan government is not an option. The argument is that the Embassy does not have any reason to assume that the development cooperation in Angola will stretch beyond a three year period, since the Norwegian country strategy for Angola signals that other forms of cooperation will increasingly dominate the relationship. Entering into an agreement with the government is therefore considered too time-consuming. In addition, the Embassy emphasises that ADPP works professionally very close to the Angolan government and supports their educational plans rather than deviating from them. Nor is support to ADPP through Unicef a viable option, as the latter does not wish to be a transaction channel only. The upshot is that, for the Embassy, direct support to ADPP is the only possibility. The team did not have the opportunity to look carefully into the aspect of funding channels. However, a few points should be made. Angola is a country expected to break out of the lower income and into the middle income category. If the argument is that Angola will not need external financial contributions in the very near future (3-5 years) but instead long term technical support to build competence and capacity in the administering of funds, one might reach a different conclusion. Is money the most important input to this process, or is it competence building of a system that has sufficient resources to administer? If the latter is the case then one could argue that funds might be better spent assisting the government in educating quality teachers through ADPP’s EPF schools. This would imply channelling the funds through the Ministry of Education to ADPP. Alternatively, and given that Norway decides to support expansion of the teacher training programme to Bié province, one could
  37. 37. Page 37 of 46 consider the possibility of channelling the funds through the provincial government. The EU is currently in a process of assessing support to ADPP. Their main concern is how to reinforce the Ministry of Education in its efforts to provide pre- and/or in-service training. The idea is that this will be done in a manner that secures MEC ownership but where there is a transitional management by ADPP. To conclude; the team recommends support to a new teacher training college and further advices the Norwegian Embassy to assess the choice of funding channels discussed above.
  38. 38. Page 38 of 46 Appendix 1 List of people met - Rikke Viholm (ADPP head office). - Anneli Barregren (ADPP head office). - Nunes Bali Chionga (one of the first to have been educated by ADPP, currently a School Educator in Cazenga township in Luanda). - David Eclesiastre (Ministry of Education, Institute of Staff (Teacher) Training; a professional within education geography). - Simão Augustinho, INIDE, Education Department, Bachelor of Special Needs Education. - Andrea Oatanha, INIDE, Master in Sociology, Working within section for sociology in INIDE. Visits in Caxito: - Jesper Bjerregaard Jensen, Director of EPF Caxito (Project Leader). - Abel Paulo Bonhongua Tinanhe, Director adjunto (EPF Caxito). - Diogo Domingos Gomes, Director of ADPP Children’s Town, Caxito. - Bento Domingos, Provincial Director of Basic Education, Caxito. - Nogueira Hernani, Proivincial Director of Education, Caxito. - Mariana Manuela Pedro Makuende, ADPP teacher who graduated two years ago, Primary School number 351, Musseque Kicoca, Caxito. - Santos Sebastião Morales de Matos, teacher not educated by ADPP, Primary School number 351, Musseque Kicoca, Caxito. - Nelson José Cleto, Sub Pedagogical Director, School number 312, Porto Quipiri, Caxito. Visits in Cabinda: - Gea Eekmann, Director of EPF Cabinda (Project Leader). - Antonio Filipe, Administrator Malembo (Communal level), Cabinda. - Ferando Fransisco Vumbi, Luis Sambo Primary School, Cabinda. - Jony Ananias H. Epalanga, Luis Sambo Primary School, Cabinda. - Leopoldo José Antonio, Luis Sambo Primary School, Cabinda. - João Muanda Matela, Luis Sambo Primary School, Cabinda. - João Chissina Mabiala, Provincial Director of Education. Cabinda. - Agusto Zau, School Director, Tango Palo Primary School, Cabinda. - Antonio Lelo Taty, Teacher, Tango Palo Primary School, Cabinda. - Augusto Fransue de Oliveira, Teacher, Tango Primary School, Cabinda. - Ana Pascal Bugi, Representative of village near M’Paolo Primary School, Cabinda. - Alfonzo Thutala Ngoma, ADPP student in practice, M’Paolo Primary School, Cabinda. - Alexandre Kibinda, ADPP student in practice, M’Paolo Primary School, Cabinda.
  39. 39. Page 39 of 46 - Ngana Mabiola Maria, ADPP student in practice, M’Paolo Primary School, Cabinda. - Venancio Chiamba, ADPP student in practice, M’Paolo Primary School, Cabinda. - Marcus N’Sito, Traditional paramount Soba, Cabinda. Visits in Luanda: - Jusselino Pedro Mateus, Pedagogical Sub-director, Luanda Magisteiro Primario. - Maria Raquel da Gonceitadgorgi, Sub-director, Luanda Magisteiro Primario. - José Luis Encinas, Consultant, Unicef Luanda. - Peter de Vries, Programme Officer Education, Unicef Luanda. - Abel Piqueres, Programme Officer Education, European Union. - Justino Jerónimo (Director INF IMED), Ministry of Education and Culture, National level. - Guilherme Tuluka, Ministry of Education and Culture, National level.
  40. 40. Page 40 of 46 Appendix 2 Terms of Reference 1. Background The Norwegian Embassy in Luanda has requested assistance from Norad to participate as observers in a review of ADPP’s 10 year teacher education programme. Reference is made to the attached TOR for this review. Note that the team for the ADPP review consists of representatives of the Angolan Ministry of Education (MED) and ADPP, and that Norad will join this team. The specific request made by the Norwegian Embassy reads as follows: 1) Participate as observers in ADPP’s 10 year review of their teacher education programme. 2) Prepare terms of reference (TOR) for an organisational review of ADPP in line with the recommendations proposed by Haaland and Dow (2005). The request refers to “AGO 2503 Education where the Embassy formerly has signalled a desire to replace the thought support through the World Bank and instead consider support to teacher education through ADPP and/or Save the Children Norway’s education programme”. This TOR seeks to answer to the second point in the above-mentioned request that will partly be based on the participation in ADPP’s 10 year review. Following a request from the Norwegian Embassy in Luanda in 2003, Norad advised against cooperation with ADPP Angola (cf. letter of 17.12.2003 from Norad). This TOR therefore needs to be seen in light of the reasons for disapproval. However, Haaland and Dow’s report (2005) on the Norwegian Support to Unicef’s programme in Angola states that it is now ‘time to take a fresh look at ADPP’. According to the report, 80% of the newly trained ADPP teachers work in rural primary schools where needs are most pressing. The ADPP teacher training schools apply modern pedagogical methods, as opposed to other teacher training institutes such as IMNE and Basic Teacher Training, and they ensure close follow up of each student. The schools are approved by the Angolan government, which employs all the teachers and finances half of the running costs. Brief description of the Teacher Education programme: ADPP Angola is a member of the International HUMANA People to People Movement. ADPP initiated its activities in 1986, and has since been involved in various social and development projects in Angola. The teacher training schools, called ‘Schools for the teachers of the future’ (Escola de professors do futuro, EPF) offer a 2 ½ year teacher training programme that includes 11 months of teaching practice. 2. Purpose
  41. 41. Page 41 of 46 The aim of this appraisal is to examine ADPP’s teacher education programme with a view to providing recommendations for Norwegian support, either directly or under the new Unicef programme support. 3. Scope of work / priority issues The work shall comprise, but not necessarily be limited to, the following specific objects: 1. Review the results and impact of the teacher education project, and in particular: a. Discuss the programme content in comparison with ordinary teacher training. b. Review the potential of the Rural Pedagogical Workshops to be a centre for supervision and learning for all teachers in the area, and for the ADPP teachers to be active resources in the supervision. c. Discuss the community work of the ADPP teachers. 2. Review the structure (i.e. management and decision making structures) of ADPP Angola, including links with the state and with MPLA, and implications of this link for the teacher education. 3. Determine to what extent the administrative and financial arrangement control for this programme has been satisfactory. 4. Determine all sources of financial support, and analyse the extent to which the use of funds appears to have been effective and efficient. 5. Determine the links between ADPP Angola and Scandinavia, including the philosophical base. 6. Determine the co-operation with other actors such as NGOs, bilateral and multilateral agencies and relevant ministries. 7. Determine the extent to which ADPP is a relevant partner within teacher education, also in terms of building sustainability in the national system. 8. Provide recommendations for the orchestration of Norwegian support to ADPP Angola’s teacher education project. 4. Implementation of the review. Team The review team of the Norwegian organisational review of ADPP shall consist of a consultant with good knowledge of the education sector in Angola, as well as a Norad education adviser. The consultant will be the team leader and will thus have overall responsibility for the report. The Norad education adviser will contribute to the writing of the report. Timetable The consultant will spend two days in Norway in preparation for fieldwork. The fieldwork period will be from 18.04.05- 02.05.05. The Norad education adviser will remain in Angola until 05.05.05 to collect any outstanding information necessary. The consultant will spend approximately three days completing the report together with the Norad education adviser. Methodology This assignment will have three phases: a) preparatory work; b) field work (visit to Angola); c) report writing.
  42. 42. Page 42 of 46 In the preparatory phase, the team shall familiarise themselves with relevant documentation. The following documentation shall be made available to the review team: - Haaland, A, and Dow, S (2005): ‘Norwegian Support to Unicef’s programme in Angola’, Scanteam Analysts and Advisers, Oslo. - Helgø, C, and Sanchez, M (2003): ‘Assessment of Basic Education in Angola’, Scanteam, Oslo. - Johannesen, E (2000); ‘They are our children. A study on basic education in Angola’, Educare, Oslo. 5. Reporting. The report shall respond to the objectives and scope of work of the assignment as outlined above. The report shall be written in English and should not exceed 30 pages (excluding annexes). The draft report should be presented to Norad no later than 10.05.05. Norad shall provide comments within 25.05.05. The final report shall be no later than 01.06.05.
  43. 43. Page 43 of 46 Appendix 3 Work Programme April Morning Afternoon 18 19 Arrival Luanda. 20 Introduction meeting with team. Visit to EPF Ramiro: teacher training programme, teaching methods and materials, etc. Visit continues. Meeting in Ramiro with school inspector and pedagogical director. Return to Luanda. 21 Go to Barro do Kwanza, visit school, teachers and community. Go to visit school, teachers and community in Tanque Serra. Alt: Attend donor coordinationmeeting in Luanda. Go back to Luanda. Meeting with Moxico Education Director or with Samba Municipal Education Director 22 Go to Caxito. Visit EPF Caxito. Meet with headmaster and teachers. Meet Provincial Education Director. Visit Pedagogical Workshop in Porto Quipiri, Meet administrator. 23 24 25 Travel to Cabinda province, Go to Landana Visit EPF School Meet headmaster and teachers. Meet with vice-administrator of Landana. Meet with sobas. 26 Visit primary schools: Chiloango, Pequeno, Landana School. Malembo Secondary School. Meet head master (EPF graduate). Meet communal administrator. 27 Go to Cabinda. Meeting with Provincial Eduation Director. Return to Luanda. 28 Misc. meetings in Luanda. This day there is a presentation by INIDE, ADPP, Unicef about measurement. 29 Travel to Huambo province. Meetings with Provincial Education Authorities. Visit primary schools close to EPF. Praticipate in cultural evening at the school. 30 Visit EPF school. Go to Caála. Visit Pedagogical Workshop. Meeting with administrator. Visit graduated teachers. 31 Return to Luanda and Oslo.
  44. 44. Page 44 of 46 Appendix 4 List of Members of the Humana Federation _____________________________________________________________ Official list of members, 03.01.2005 1. HUMANA - Verein zur Förderung notleidender Menschen in der Dritten Welt (Austria), 2. Planet Aid Canada, Inc. - Aidons La Planète Canada, Inc. (Canada), 3. U-landshjælp fra Folk til Folk - Humana People to People (Denmark), 4. Ühendus Humana Estonia (Estonia), 5. Landsföreningen U-landshjälp från Folk till Folk i Finland r.f. (Finland), 6. HUMANA People to People - Greece (Greece), 7. Stichting HUMANA (Holland), 8. HUMANA People to People Italia O.N.L.U.S. (Italy), 9. HUMANA People to People Baltic (Lithuania), 10. U-landshjelp fra Folk til Folk i Norge (Norway), 11. Associação Humana (Portugal), 12. HUMANA (Spain), 13. Fundación Pueblo para Pueblo (Spain), 14. Biståndsföreningen HUMANA Sverige (Sweden), 15. Planet Aid UK Ltd (UK), 16. Planet Aid, Inc. (USA), 17. Ajuda de Desenvolvimento de Povo para Povo em Angola (Angola), 18. Humana People to People Botswana (Botswana), 19. Ajuda de Desenvolvimento de Povo para Povo ná Guiné Bissau (Guinea Bissau), 20. Humana People to People India (India), 21. Development Aid from People to People in Malawi (Malawi), 22. Associação Moçambicana para a Ajuda de Desenvolvimento de Povo para Povo (Mozambique), 23. D.A.P.P. Namibia (Namibia), 24. Humana People to People in South Africa (South Africa), 25. Development Aid from People to People in Zambia (Zambia), 26. Development Aid from People to People in Zimbabwe (Zimbabwe)
  45. 45. Page 45 of 46 Appendix 5 History of ADPP Angola Source: ADPP ADPP - How did it start and develop: 1983: The Danish UFF made the first contacts to the Angolan Government back in 1983 and signed the first agreement with LASP (Liga de Amizade com os povos), which at this time, were the organization/association assigned by the government to make contacts with other solidarity organizations in the world. In 1983 UFF as well launched the initiative to start up in Angola, Zambia, and Tanzania and to increase the training and activities in Zimbabwe, Guinea Bissau and Mozambique. For the purpose of starting up activities in Angola an agreement with the Ministry of Education was signed with the purpose to train 10 Angolans in Denmark at Frontline Institute and after one year of training start activities in Angola together with 10 Scandinavians. In 1985 the first 10 Angolans arrived in Denmark. In the same year another agreement was signed with the Ministry of Education about the establishment of a Technical School, or rather a boarding school of the kind, which at this time was called the “Escolas Provisorias” - which were a combined boarding school for orphan children and youth, The main source of income for the construction of the schools came from the donation and selling of second hand clothes. 1986: In April 1986 the 10 Angolans together with the 3 first project staff of UFF in Angola together with a team of Development Instructors (at that time called solidarity workers) started to work in Caxito, Province of Bengo, Angola, with the construction of the Technical School. From 1986 to 1988 the construction of the Technical School in Caxito was the only project of UFF Denmark in Angola. At the same time, each year new groups of Angolans were trained in Denmark at Frontline Institute in teams together with youth from all the Frontline States. In 1988 new projects were started: • An agricultural centre for production of food. • A tree planting and environment project. • A Child Aid and community program. • All projects with its base in Bengo Province and the municipality of Dande. In Luanda the first initiative to start the project ADPP Catering took place. In terms of Funding from 1988, at the level of Angola, ADPP also started to get funds from other sources than the providers from the sale of second hand clothes. In 1988 a donation from USA for Africa to start the Agricultural Centre in Caxito and as well the first donations from the oil sector, from the American Oil company Conoco was obtained. In 1989 UFF Sweden and UFF Denmark signed the first agreement with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs about general cooperation with the government of Angola in many different fields of humanitarian assistance. Based on the fact that more and more Angolans had been trained to take part in the work of ADPP in Angola, the initiative to start the Angolan Association, ADPP Angola, was taken. Objective, statutes, etc. developed. At this time, there were no laws on private associations. ADPP was told to present the objective and statutes to the MPLA, which took place. In 1991 the new law on private associations was approved in parliament. In 1992 the Angolan ADPP Angola was
  46. 46. Page 46 of 46 registered. Since the founding and registration of ADPP Angola, the national association has been the implementer and legal body to the projects in Angola. Important new steps in ADPP Angola’s history: During the years from 1989 to 1992 ADPP started in Huambo province (Children’s Town and Agriculture/Plantation), Luanda Province (ADPP Catering, Street children School in Kazenga, a small shipyard for fibre glass boats, a small production unit for ready made clothes and underwear, school construction in the townships of Luanda). When the actions of war hit Angola in the aftermath of the elections in 1992 and as well several of the places where ADPP was working in 1992, actions of humanitarian assistance to displaced people started, at the same time as ADPP decided to start it work in new areas of the country as to continue development, especially in areas of education. ADPP started in Tombwa, Namibe in 1993 with the Tree plantning and Environment project. ADPP started in Benguela with the school for street children and as well the beginning of the vocational school in Benguela. ADPP started in Cabinda with the Vocational school in Cabinda in 1994. During this period many Angolans were trained in the different project skills and as well every year teams of Angolans participated at the management courses at Frontline Institute in Zimbabwe together with young managers from the other ADPP or DAPP associations in Southern Africa. 1994-1995: By the end of 1994, when the Lusaka agreement was signed, ADPP started to think about important new steps to take in new times of post war. Teacher training and Vocational Training were taken as key sectors of work. Based on the many years of experience within education in Angola and as well based on the experiences in Mozambique with the start of the first school “The Teachers of the Future” in Maputo, ADPP proposed the start of the Schools for the Teachers of the Future in Angola aiming at training teachers prepared for the task to open up schools in areas, where there so far were no schools and no education. Since the beginning of the EPF schools in Angola, this has been the main program of the organisation and has been a way to both using the already existing experience on community programmes in rural areas as well as the experience from primary education as such. From 1995 to 2001, 6 teacher training colleges were started. In 1998 the first graduated teachers were sent for further education as trainers to Mozambique at One World University. This was done to secure the expansion of the EPF schools and to secure the quality of the teachers’ councils. 1997 - 2005: Fight against AIDS: Adding to the programs, ADPP started the first program on HIV AIDS in 1997 in Benguela and in 2000 in Cabinda and in addition increasing activities in the fight against HIV AIDS to “Hope on all projects”. The TCE program (Total Control of the Epidemic) is in its staring phase in the provinces of Bengo and Cabinda and ADPP has proposed the program for the Cunene and Zaire provinces as well.

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