The Writing Of Sumer
The Writing of Sumer was called
Cuneiform it was drawn with
wedge shapes that were drawn on
The Sumerians worshipped:
Anu as the full time god, equivalent to "heaven" - indeed, the word "an" in Sumerian
means "sky" and his consort Ki, means "Earth".
Enki in the south at the temple in Eridu. Enki was the god of beneficence, ruler of the
freshwater depths beneath the earth, a healer and friend to humanity who was
thought to have given us the arts and sciences, the industries and manners of
civilization; the first law-book was considered his creation,
Enlill, lord of the ghost-land, in the north at the temple of Nippurr. His gifts to
mankind were said to be the spells and incantations that the spirits of good or evil
were compelled to obey,
Inannaa, the deification of Venus, the morning (eastern) and evening (western) star, at
the temple (shared with An) at Uruk.
The sun-god Utuu at Sippar.
the moon god Nanna at Ur.
Sumer, seemed to have been ruled by a type of priest-king,
called in Sumerian, a ; among their duties were leading the
military, administering trade, judging disputes, and engaging
in the most important religious ceremonies. The priest-king
ruled through a series of bureaucrats, many of them priests,
that carefully surveyed land, assigned fields, and distributed
crops after harvest. This new institution of monarchy
required the invention of a new legitimation of authority
beyond the tribal justification of chieftainship based on
concepts of kinship and responsibility.
Division of Labor & Social
Classes Of Sumer
Sumerian society adhered to a caste system comprised of three
classes: amelu, mushkinu, and slaves. The amelu were the at the top
rung of the caste system. Government officials, professional
soldiers, and priests were found in this class. Under the amelu were
the mushkinu, the middle class of Sumerian society.
Themushkinu were comprised of shopkeepers, farmers, merchants,
and laborers. The mushkinu were the largest of the three classes.
A large disparity existed between the rich and the poor, but even
the poor owned their own land and livestock.
The slaves were the ones that lived closest to the water and was
owned by Sumer.
By about 3000 BC, the Sumerians were drawing images of
tokens on clay tablets. At this point, different types of
goods were represented by different symbols, and multiple
quantities represented by repetition. Three units of grain
were denoted by three 'grain-marks', five jars of oil were
denoted by five 'oil-marks' and so on.
Sumerian Art and Architecture
Architecture is probably the oldest serious architecture (not just building houses and
barns) in the world. People living in the area between the Tigris and the Euphrates
rivers (modern Iraq) began to build really big, substantial buildings about 3500 BC.
Because there's practically no building stone in this area, but there's lots of clay,
Sumerian architects built their buildings out of mud-brick or fired brick.
From Sumer have come examples of fine works in marble, diorite, hammered gold, and
lapis lazuli. Of the many portraits produced in this area, some of the best are those
of Gudea, ruler of Lagash.
Assyrians have used two languages throughout their history:
ancient Assyrian (Akkadian), and Modern Assyrian (neo-
syriac). Akkadian was written with the cuneiform writing
system, on clay tablets, and was in use from the beginning to
about 750 B.C.. By 750 B.C., a new way of writing, on
parchment, leather, or papyrus, was developed, and the
peop.le who brought this method of writing with them
Assyrians have practiced two religions throughout their
history: Ashurism and Christianity. Ashurism was, of course,
the first religion of the Assyrians. The very word Assyrian,
in its Latin form, derives from the name of Ashur, the
Assyrian god. Assyrians continued to practice Ashurism until
256 A.D, although by that time, most Assyrians had
accepted Christianity. Indeed, Assyrians were the first
nation to accept Christianity, and the Assyrian Church was
founded in 33 A.D. by Thomas, Bortholemew and Thaddeus.
The Assyrian government was very militaristic and
had a monarchy. It was the Babylonians that
created the code of Hammurabi. The Assyrians
were the first know terrorists and were very
brutal to their enemies. They tortured prisoners
and slaves. The government was successful
because the Assyrians built roads and started a
postal service that enabled faster communication.
Assyrian Division Of Labor and
The Assyrians because of their many victories against their
opponents inherited wealth and prosperity for ages. The royal
family was extremely large since their ancestors trace back over
2000b.c. Even the middle class was traced to be much more
wealthier than any other empires nearby which were some of the
wealthiest in their time. Poverty was not an issue for them.
However, the Assyrians were very particular that every citizen had
to obey the laws of Mesopotamia and live respectfully together
while the powerful empire fought wars with their unbreakable
chariots. If a citizen did not pay their taxes or did not follow the
laws they would be enslaved.
Assyria, and then created an intricate
system of irrigation that would eventually
feed their thriving agriculture. Soon some
of the small villages developed into larger
cities, and these cites would eventually
serve as trade and craft centers, driving
Assyria's budding economy.
The structures were built usually on artificial
mounds, and approached, it is supposed, by great
flights of steps (of which remains composed of
black basalt have been found at Khorsabad). They
consist of series of halls and chambers of no great
The writing in Babylon was the same as the ones I explained
before they used cuneiform the writing on soft clay using
triangles and such.
Babylon had many religious beliefs in gods there were
different gods that represented different things such as
Sun, Fresh water, Salt Water, and Wind.
The New Empire government of Babylon adopted many of
the Assyrian imperial practices, which probably contributed
to its own short life. The king had overall administrative
power, in addition to his central role in important religious
rituals. Governors ruled important provinces on behalf of the
king, but most of these were Babylonians appointed from
outside the local area. Local puppets were often left in place
to rule local kingdoms, but this occasionally led to revolt, as
in the case of Jerusalem.