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Citta_6 leandro marques_da_costa_paper

Citta_6 leandro marques_da_costa_paper



Abstract ...

The reduction of road fatalities, as a factor of the community’s well-being improvement is one of the objectives for the promotion of the healthy city. Being the pedestrian injury crashes (PIC) more relevant in an urban environment it is fundamental for its understanding know the conditions in which they occurred. This paper presents a statistic survey made in the Seixal municipality, revealing some of the factors that can help to explain the incidence of PIC, giving us some clues as point to measures that should be taken for the promotion of a safer and healthier city.



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    • CITTA 6thAnnual Conference on Planning ResearchRESPONSIVE TRANSPORTS FOR SMART MOBILITY1ROAD SAFETY AND HEALTY CITIES: THE SEIXAL CASESTUDYLEANDRO, HUGO & MARQUES DA COSTA, NUNOCentro de Estudos Geográficos (CEG) – Instituto de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território (IGOT)Universidade de Lisboa, hleandro@campus.ul.pt ; nunocosta@campus.ul.ptPhone/fax numbers: + 351 217940218AbstractThe reduction of road fatalities, as a factor of the community’s well-being improvement is one of the objectives for thepromotion of the healthy city. Being the pedestrian injury crashes (PIC) more relevant in an urban environment it isfundamental for its understanding know the conditions in which they occurred. This paper presents a statistic surveymade in the Seixal municipality, revealing some of the factors that can help to explain the incidence of PIC, giving ussome clues as point to measures that should be taken for the promotion of a safer and healthier city.Keywords: healthy city; road fatalities; pedestrian injuries; road design1. IntroductionPIC’s are a problem that affects the modern society and that, not being a rare occurrence, tends to beconsidered a normal event, not much different from a mere road accident between two road vehicle withjust material damages (Meirinhos, 2010). As a result of this normality, just the road accidents with somedimension end up receiving the media attention, to which a single major road accident involving a largenumber of vehicles without any injuries has more journalistic interest than several PIC, some of themfatalities, in a small 500 meter stretch of road over a given period of time, like a single year. Due to thislack of visibility, at a social level, pedestrian safety tends to be the “poor relative” of road safety research.Therefore, there isn’t much literature about this subject, when compared to the research of road vehicleaccidents.In September 1978, at the Alma Ata’s International Conference on Primary Health Care, it is declared thatthe good health condition cannot be defined solely as the absence of health or of disease but as acomplete state of physical, mental and social well-.being. This health concept, much more comprehensiveand integrating, was on the origin of the development of the movement of the healthy cities, almost adecade later, after the Ottawa Charter (Simões, 2007).On the current administration scenarios, mobility and public transportation are one of the pivotal themes ofthe municipal officials. Equity, environmental impacts and road accidents make three of the maincomponents of the management of mobility and transportation (cf. Marques da Costa, 2007) which, in amore direct way, are related to the well-being of the citizens, the main commitment of the healthy cities.In this paper, we will study the theme of road accidents, namely the PIC and their relation with theconstruction of a healthier city.2. Literature revue and overviewAs the Society develops itself, the concept of Public Health broadens, beyond the simple prevention ofinfectious diseases and food poisoning, to include many more other specific aspects of the collectivehealth, in a perspective that a good collective health is essential for a sustainable economic growth (WHO,2009). In that context, the PIC have started to be considered a public health problem, due to the
    • H Leandro, N Marques da Costa. Road Safety and Healthy Cities: The Seixal case study 2consequences of the contact between a road vehicle and a pedestrian, which, invariably, is the one who ismore penalized, with the added problem that certain age groups tend to be more vulnerable to PIC. In thisscenario, spatial planning, in its several aspects, from the street and road design to the incentives forpublic transport use (Gaivoto, 2010) and the psychology as a way to understand the behaviours of thedifferent actors and how to raise their awareness to this reality (Rosário, 2009), are essential tools to allowthe understanding of any statistical and geographical data related to this them. This is especially importantwith the growing urban population that, on the next 30 years, is expected to reach 6 billion people, with thechallenges associated with it, not only with regard to the relation between pedestrians and road vehiclesbut also at several other levels of Public Health, as described by Takano (2003).In the entire World, it is estimated that, every year, 1.2 million people lose their life in road accidents (Faria,2008). In Portugal, in the year 2010, 741 people have died in road accidents, 14% of which (104) due to aPIC. In this case, the study intends to be focused, mainly, on the urban environment, which characterizesmany of the areas of the Seixal municipality. The pedestrian deaths in urban roads represented, inPortugal, in 2007, about 39% of the deaths related to urban roads in opposition to values between 14%and 18% on the other roads (Faria, 2008). On the other hand, Faria also demonstrates that 97,7% of theaccidents can be chargeable to human factors, with excess speed as the main cause (33,6%). This datademonstrate the existence of this problem, the origin of which seems to be in the “forced” coexistencebetween pedestrians and road vehicles, due to the way cities were designed, making the sharing of somespaces, between both, unavoidable. The pedestrian, due to its fragility, occupies the bottom of the trafficpyramid (where the heavy vehicles occupy the top), “exiled on its own territory and submitted to the will ofthe others [road users], even of cyclists” (Meirinhos, 2009:6).In this way, pedestrians and road vehicles,have to dispute the space, creating conflicts in that process, either of physical nature (space dispute),either of political nature (according to the different personal and collective interests) being this interests“directly connected to the position that the person occupies on the traffic”. Considering that the eliminationof those conflicts it is impossible, it will be possible the “partial elimination” trough a multidisciplinaryapproach (Campozano, 2008 citing Vasconcelos, 1985), as referred previously.Figure 1, Private car use (passenger/km) in some EU Countries and GNP of Portugal, at current prices,1995 - 2008 (source: INE / Eurostat)Formatada: Legenda, Esquerda
    • CITTA 6thAnnual Conference on Planning ResearchRESPONSIVE TRANSPORTS FOR SMART MOBILITY3The accidents involving pedestrians are a phenomenon of a predominantly urban nature, where there area far greater number of pedestrian movements and the space conflicts are greater. In opposition, thenumber of accidents outside the urban areas is smaller but the injuries tend to be more severe as roadspeeds are usually greater outside urban areas (Zegger and Bushell 2010). In the Portuguese case, thelack of recognized collective mobility solutions, that have not adapted to the new realities of labour (moreflexible and decentralized), even in large metropolitan areas, encourages, or even requires, the use ofprivate cars in many displacements. This is associated with the facility of acquisition of private roadvehicles that enabled the multiplication of families with more than one car, something that can only bedefeated by the existence of a good public transport network (Gaivoto, 2010). On the other hand, it is notwrong to consider that, in an environment where public transport do not provide a good service, lessfavoured population are forced to travel longer distances on foot thus, involving an increased number ofcrossings thereby, increasing the risk of PIC.Figure 2, Origin/Destination matrix (by municipality) with the most used transportation mode in the LisbonMetropolitan Area. (legend translation, top to bottom: private car; train, bus, on foot, others, not relevant).(Source: Vala, 2001)The solutions proposed and implemented to mitigate this problem are varied but, the problemsencountered at the human level are several as, in addition to their own fallibility (inherent to the humannature), the behaviour of road users is strongly influenced by rooted cultural practices. Thereforenecessary to also act within the "material component" (as described by Faria, 2008) since pedestrians andcyclists, are not subjected to a "specific training for context of road interaction" and not need a license todo so (Meirinhos . 2,009). Thus, of the various aspects, on the material components to be intervened, wehighlight the spatial planning component and, within it, the traffic calming measures, which in a generalway, "involve reducing the speed of vehicles, increase road safety and improved quality of life" (Meira,2006).
    • H Leandro, N Marques da Costa. Road Safety and Healthy Cities: The Seixal case study 43. Road accidents and the Healthy CitiesIn recent decades we have witnessed the rapid rise of the road vehicle numbers and of its use for dailyjourneys. According to data from Transport Statistics of the European Union 2012, between 1990 and2010, the number of road vehicles, in Portugal, increased from about 1.9 million to more than double tonearly 4.5 million in 2010, corresponding to a rate average annual growth of 4.52%. Compared to theaverage of the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU27), the growth rate of the Portuguese fleetwas twice more than the EU27 average, which was 1.92% in the same period. Following this trend, the useof cars in Portugal grew similarly, rising from 40 billion passenger-kilometre in 1990 to 84 billion in 2010,corresponding to an average annual growth rate of 3.76%.Despite the rapid growth in both the road vehicle fleet and in its use, road accidents with victims havedecreased, either due to the improvement of the road infrastructure, either due to the improvement of thecar systems of active and passive safety of vehicles or by improvement of the civic behaviour of roadusers. However, despite this downward trend, Portugal still has road accidents with victims rates muchhigher than the EU27 average, either when weighted by population (88 vs 62 deaths per millioninhabitants), the car park (210 vs 131 deaths per million passenger cars) or by passenger-kilometre (110vs 64 deaths per billion passenger-kilometre).In 2010 were registered in Portugal 35 426 road accidents with casualties which, resulted in 937 deathsand 46,365 wounded. Despite the reduction in the number of accidents, 21% less than in 1990, andparticularly of the number of fatalities (which decreased to less than a half in two decades), road safety willcontinue to be a central concern of the entities responsible for road management. The significant socialimpact, particularly on individuals and families directly affected by road accidents (Gifford & Steg, 2007)largely justify this political option.Taking into account the number of victims, by category of road users, we observed that 12.6% of thevictims are pedestrians. This value is even more relevant if we consider only the fatalities, wherepedestrians represent 20.8%, i.e. for each five deaths on the roads one is a pedestrian. These are themost vulnerable users of the road, as highlighted by the World Health Organization (Peden et al., 2004).Resulting of the dispute between pedestrians and car traffic for road use, PIC are accidents that occurpredominantly in urban areas where increased population density and road traffic intensity increase thisconflict. Moreover, due to the characteristics and reduced circulation velocity in urban areas, accidentvictims are predominantly the ones resulting from PIC since the remaining accidents normally result inmaterial losses only.The road accidents with victims have recognized negative effects on the welfare of citizens and today arealready recognized by the World Health Organization as a public health problem (Peden et al., op. cit.).Consequently, the achievement of a healthy city must, necessarily, pass through intervention at the level ofmobility management and of the control and road accident mitigation in urban areas.4. MethodologyThe data on PIC in Seixal municipality, in 2008 and 2009, was obtained from the website of the CivilGovernment of Setúbal and, for the year 2007 directly, from the Seixal municipality, having been compileda database that was subsequently corrected for data inaccuracies and duplications. At a later stage were
    • CITTA 6thAnnual Conference on Planning ResearchRESPONSIVE TRANSPORTS FOR SMART MOBILITY5selected the roads with five or more pedestrian accidents in Seixal, with a recognition visit to this roadshaving been done at a later stage.Later, in selected pedestrian crossings of those roads, a visual survey was conducted about conditions ofthe crossing and the behaviour of pedestrians. We must emphasize that the intention of this was to surveythe behaviour of pedestrians and drivers and not an exhaustive survey of the conditions of the crossingsand routes, something that was not within the scope of this investigation.Observations were made over a period of 15 minutes and recorded in an observation form composed oftwo parts. In the first part we noted the conditions of the crossing, the way pedestrians used pedestriancrossing and the apparent age (> 20, 20-64 or 65 years). On the second part, we counted the passingvehicles and the attitude of the drivers upon the intention of a pedestrian using the crossing (namely if ityielded or not).It has also conducted a survey to 155 residents, workers or students in the Seixal municipality, consideringfour big age groups:• Up to 19 years - a group statistically susceptible to PIC• 20 to 39 years - the statistical data indicate that this is the age group with higher mortality due to roadaccidents, with special focus on the ages of 20 to 24 years and 25 to 29 years (J. Faria 2008) .• From 40 to 64 - This is an age group where there is less susceptibility to accident deaths (J. Faria 2008).• 65 or more years - This is another age group with high susceptibility to deaths due to road accidents (J.Faria 2008).Besides the age, we surveyed about the possession, or not, of a driving license, and the gender of thesurveyed. The survey consisted of three closed-answer questions about the use of pedestrian crossings,namely one about the mandatory use of pedestrian crossings and two about the process of crossing.In addition to the survey, an open questionnaire was delivered to some drivers with over 10 years ofdriving experience, to which only 19 drivers answered. This questionnaire surveyed on the behaviour ofroad users, drivers and pedestrians, and the road characteristics, as perceived by them.5. Pedestrian Injury Crashes, the Seixal case5.1. The Seixal municipality characteristicsThe Seixal is a municipality of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (AML), located on the south bank of the TagusRiver, with a resident population of 157 981, corresponding to a population density of 1688 inhabitants perkm2, according to the provisional results of the Census 2011. The daily population movements recorded inthe municipality are characterized by polarization of the movements to Lisbon which, in 2001, attractedabout one third of the active population residing in the municipality. The private vehicle was the transportmode, used for travel between home and place of work or study, for more than 40% of residents in Seixalin 2001. This followed the trend observed in AML (and the whole national territory) with the sharp increasein the use of individual transport for everyday journeys. The dispersion of the employment in the AML mayhave contributed to this car use increase, as identified by Vala (2003). This dispersion was notaccompanied by the reorganization of public transport, in the AML, causing the growth of the use ofindividual transport due to the lack of alternatives.
    • H Leandro, N Marques da Costa. Road Safety and Healthy Cities: The Seixal case study 6In 1981 the private car was responsible for less than 10% (9.4%) of commuting (to work or school) inSeixal, 21.0% in 1991 and 40.4% in 2001 (Marques da Costa, 2007). This growth has naturally contributedto the deterioration of health conditions of the population due to the generation of higher pollutantemissions and noise increase but also increasing pressure on the road network, thereby enhancing theoccurrence of PIC.The road network of the municipality is characterized by the presence of EN 10 (National Road 10) thatcross the Seixal municipality, from Northwest to Southeast, parallel to the A2 (Highway 2), connecting it tothe neighbouring municipalities of Almada and Barreiro. Additionally, the EN 378 (National Road 378)crosses the municipality, north to south, linking Seixal to Sesimbra. These two roads run through areas ofhigh densities of population, functional units of trade and services, making this the focus of the mostnotorious conflicts between pedestrians and road traffic in the municipality. This situation is particularlyevident, not only in section of the EN10 between A2 access, in Fogueteiro, and Amora as it is, equallysignificant, in initial leg of EN 378, in Seixal, and across the parish of Fernão Ferro. These road sectionshave the characteristics of streets, completely integrated in the urban fabric. Thus, these roads servesimultaneously for local traffic and for regional traffic, generating a conflict of interests between the drivers,enhancing the possibility of disregard of the traffic rules, namely excess speed (circulating above thesigned or ruled speed limit) or, more often, excessive speeding (circulating at a speed within the signed orruled speed limit but above the speed deemed safe for the actual circulating conditions (i.e. heavy traffic,rain, etc.).Figure 3, Seixal Municipality and location of roads with 5, or more, PIC between 2007 and 2009 (source:Seixal municipality / Author)
    • CITTA 6thAnnual Conference on Planning ResearchRESPONSIVE TRANSPORTS FOR SMART MOBILITY75.2. Pedestrian Injury Crashes distributionThe survey of the pedestrian accidents occurred in Seixal in 2007, 2008 and 2009 identified 299 PIC in themunicipality roads. This survey was conducted using the information gathered from the municipality,regarding the data for the year 2007 (121 records), and with from the Civil Government of Setúbal, for theyears of 2008 (74) and 2009 (104).Of the number of accidents, recorded in the three years, it was possible to identify twelve sections of roadwith a number of occurrences greater than or equal to five PIC. Altogether, these road sections , wereresponsible for 115 occurrences, i.e. two in five pedestrian accidents occurred in the twelve sectionsidentified.Table 1, Streets/Roads, of the Seixal municipality, with 5, or more, PIC in the 2007 - 2009 period.Fi, refersto the absolute number of PIC; fi% refers to the percentage of the total number of PIC in the Seixalmunicipality (source: Seixal municipality)Roads / Streets Parish Fi fi (%)EN 10 Av. 1º Maio Amora 24 8,0EN 10 Av. 25 de Abril Amora/Corroios 22 7,4Rua Foros de Amora Amora 13 4,3Rua 25 de Abril (Cruz de Pau) Amora 12 4,0Av. Afonso Costa Amora 7 2,3Av. Liberdade Fernão Ferro 6 2,0Av. República Seixal 6 2,0Av. Dr. Arlindo Vicente Arrentela 5 1,7Av. Rui Grácio Corroios 5 1,7EN378 Fernão Ferro 5 1,7Rua de Cacheu Amora 5 1,7Rua da Cordoaria Amora 5 1,7Total 115 38,5The occurrence of PIC was particularly common along the EN 10 in the parishes of Amora and Corroios.This national road runs through the consolidated urban fabric in these two parishes, making it a road withurban characteristics where we can find a whole range of trade functions and services on both sides of theroad, consequently inducing the need for multiple road crossings.The existence of schools near these arteries, as is the case of the Afonso Costa Avenue, in the parish ofAmora, is another risk factor when associated to the need to cross traffic intensive roads by a large volumeof younger individuals. This risk is increased as, by their physical characteristics, the younger whenstarting to cross the roads between parked cars, or street furniture, frequently become invisible to drivers.The visit to the locations with the highest concentration of PIC, also allowed us to identify another relevantfeature that allow us to explain the high incidence of pedestrian accidents in these road sections. Thestraight alignment of the road, accompanied by a lane width lacking of any measure forcing the speedreduction of road vehicles, is a factor that can induce excess speed or, at the least, excessive speed,increasing the likelihood of occurrence of PIC and decreasing the chance of survival of the pedestrian in
    • H Leandro, N Marques da Costa. Road Safety and Healthy Cities: The Seixal case study 8case of impact. In fact, the likelihood of survival of a pedestrian, in a PIC, decreases 8 times as the speedincreases from 30 to 50km / h (Peden et al. 2004).Table 2, Context of the PIC, in the Seixal municipality, in 2007 (source: Seixal municipality)Situation Fi fi (%) si (%)Crossing in a pedestriancrossing49 40,5 40,5Crossing outside of apedestrian crossing and at lessthan 50 meters from apedestrian crossing.17 14,0 54,5In open road 17 14,0 68,6Appearing, unexpectedly, onthe road from behind anobstacle.11 9,1 77,7Walking by the roadside orsidewalk.9 7,4 85,1Crossing outside of apedestrian crossing and atmore than 50 meters from apedestrian crossing.6 5,0 90,1Entering or exiting a vehicle 3 2,5 92,6Crossing in a traffic lightsigned pedestrian crossing indisrespect to the signage3 2,5 95,0Walking by the right side ofthe roadside3 2,5 97,5In a road works area 2 1,7 99,2Walking by the left side of theroadside1 0,8 100,0Total 121 100,0 -The analysis of the 121 pedestrian accidents, recorded in 2007, gives us evidence that the majority ofpedestrian accidents occur on the marked pedestrian crossings, commonly known as “zebra crossings”.The 40.5% recorded are consistent with the data of the National Authority for Road Safety, which revealthat more than a third of PIC, occurring within Portuguese districts, occurs in pedestrian crossings withouttraffic lights. Failure to follow the rules set out in the Highway Code and the relative relaxation, of thepedestrians, to cross in a place that they perceive as more protected, may help explain the extremely highvalues recorded.On the other hand, the behaviour of the pedestrians also seems to contribute to the occurrence of PIC. Infact, if we add the occurrences that resulted from crossing outside the pedestrian crossings, less than 50meters from a signed pedestrian crossing (the distance to a signed pedestrian crossing within which thepedestrian is required to use the said crossing), outside the vicinity of any crossing, appearingunexpectedly on the roadway from behind an obstacle or disrespect of traffic lights, we will get a result of39.6% of the 121 pedestrian accidents occurred in 2007 in Seixal thus also revealing a less careful in theuse of public roads.
    • CITTA 6thAnnual Conference on Planning ResearchRESPONSIVE TRANSPORTS FOR SMART MOBILITY9Although our observations were brief, with a consequently limited statistical validity, they were made atvarious locations and complemented by visits to the roads, which allowed us to observe the uniformity ofbehaviours. Although we have determined that pedestrians know, in a reasonably objective way, in whatcircumstances it is mandatory to use the pedestrian crossing (98.5% of 155 respondents), during our fieldwork it was not unusual verify that any pedestrian that had the opportunity to cross the road safely at thelocation they were (and if appropriate to the direction of travel), they would cross the road, regardless ofthe existence of a marked pedestrian crossings to less than 50 meters or not. Conversely, when using thepassage marked for pedestrian crossings, they would not always take precautions, before crossing, asrequired by the Highway Code. From these behaviours results the bad image that drivers have frompedestrians, classifying them as undisciplined / distracted / bad / aggressive in over half of the interviewsconducted by Martins (2010). Meirinhos (2009) refers the complaints from drivers to a Police stationcommander, which stated that pedestrians cross the road carelessly and himself states that they “lack ofcivility and have bad road behaviour" (Meirinhos, 2009:57). When looking up to the questionnaires wemade to some drivers, we verify that 78.9% of them qualifies negatively the behaviour of pedestrians,when crossing the road. We highlight especially a testimony that qualifies the pedestrians behaviour as"completely irrational, many touching suicidal behaviour", with other responders not being so expressivebut pointing in the same direction.Drivers who, consider themselves as, generally, good drivers have also behaviours of risk. Many of thesebehaviours violate the principles established by the Highway Code in what relates to the approach of thepedestrian crossings (namely the ones not protected by traffic lights), by failing to reduce speed, byovertaking over the pedestrian crossings or even simply by parking their vehicles illegally and thusblocking the mutual visibility of pedestrians and drivers. All of these behaviours were found consistently inthe streets of Seixal. Traffic conditions, in some cases are very difficult, with pedestrians forced to travel onthe roadway, as a result of indiscriminate parking on the sidewalks or even on the road itself, totallyobstructing road lanes, disrupting the flow of traffic, often without regard for pedestrian crossings which arenot respected by drivers that do not always respect by not giving passage to pedestrians.Moreover, many of the routes that have been selected have a relatively straight alignment practicallydevoid of any traffic calming measures thus not creating incentives to decrease the running speeds. Thisraises the possibility of this type of alignment to encourage the increase of speeds practiced andeventually this can be related to the number of PIC. Looking at the numbers, there is certainly arelationship between speed and the severity of PIC. In Portugal in 2007, only 24.7% of deaths from PIChappened in urban roads, with PIC in those roads representing 59.2% of total PIC (Faria, 2008). However,despite traffic generally runs, apparently, within the speed limits (“... the high volumes of traffic in the citiesdoes not allow a very high speed ",Baião, 2010:20) the fact is that, as referred previously, an increasedspeed from 30 to 50 km / h in a hit enhances the probability of death in about eight times (WHO, 2004).
    • H Leandro, N Marques da Costa. Road Safety and Healthy Cities: The Seixal case study 10Figure 4, Probability of pedestrian death, against the speed of a vehicle, in a PIC (source: WHO)Thus the straight alignment, stripped out of traffic calming measures, is something that potentiates PIC.However, a proper and thorough analysis implies, also, the traffic density, the number of crossings, theroad width, the presence of bus stops and schools nearby (Zegger and Bushell, 2008 citing Harwood etal.).Figure 5, Speed reduction expectation according to the traffic calming measures (Left to right: Nomeasures; improved horizontal signage; reduction of the road width, roundabouts and right of waychanges ; speed bumps)(Source: BHTRANS, 1999)Another of the findings relates to the age of the victims of PIC. The data shows that 22.3% of victims wereless than 16 years and 21.5% over 65 years. This is consistent with international data as, in Seixal, theyreveal that the younger and the older are the main victims of PIC.The presence of schools is a factor to take into account when regarding PIC. The Highway Code highlightsthis fact by recommending drivers that they specially moderate speed when approaching schools; WHOstresses that one of the specific situations to consider in road planning are the conflicts betweenpedestrians and vehicles, on busy roads, nearby schools (WHO, 2004); the New York City streets inresidential areas and nearby schools are subject to strong calming measures traffic (City of New York,2009), among other examples. However, our analysis only identifies some cases where there is proximityof schools to streets with five or more pedestrian accidents between 2007 and 2009. In 2007, of the 30PIC involving individuals under the age of 20 (ages the victims of 9, 12, 14, 15 and 19), five occurred onthe 1º de Maio avenue (EN10) in the Amora parish, accounting for 36% of pedestrian accidents in thatpathway, between 07:45 and 18:30, on school days. Considering the elderly, and the day care centres, the
    • CITTA 6thAnnual Conference on Planning ResearchRESPONSIVE TRANSPORTS FOR SMART MOBILITY112007 data are distributed fairly and not allow us an association between their presence and the number ofpedestrian accidents. However, one must consider that it is normal that middle and high schools, insuburban areas, have well over a thousand students, while day centres, for the elderly, have a muchsmaller size. However, we note that drivers seem to be especially aware that the risk groups are theelderly and children as, in a question "Considering his experience which the most vulnerable pedestrians?"with an open answer, 15 of the 19 respondents gave a response that included elderly and childrensimultaneously.We also note that, more than the awareness of the population, the design and maintenance of roads issomething to consider. During the fieldwork, it was impossible not to notice the lack of attention devoted tothe roads by the authorities. What immediately strikes us is the almost complete absence of roadmarkings, whose importance tends neglected by the authorities (Vicente, 2005), despite having beendemonstrated “by Johansson and Backlund (1970), that the driver focuses much more attention on theroad markings than in the vertical signs, since they have the advantage of remaining visible under certainconditions such as high traffic density."(Vicente, 2005:3). It is also clear the irregular parking in pedestrianspaces in an urban area which is clearly not prepared for the levels of car ownership that exist in themunicipality. Also, despite the clear need for reorganization of public space, traffic calming measures areplaced isolated, disconnected from a global policy, existing mainly near schools, many times just a simplebump or a pedestrian refuge islet on the middle of the road.5.3. Analysis of the research resultsThe results indicate that the occurrence of pedestrian accidents cannot be explained alone by humanfactors, although this is, often, the easier explanation to find, namely by the authorities responsible formanagement, supervision and traffic supervision or by the entities responsible for the prevention of roadaccidents.The results allow us to identify that, beyond the human factor, the design of the streets and roads and theinterventions at the spatial planning level are important elements in the prevention of road accidents. Thus,after this survey, conducted in Seixal, it was possible to identify four enhancing factors of PIC:• The human factor, due to the disrespect of pedestrian crossings by both drivers and pedestrians;• The presence of social and functional units of trade and services along, or near, roads of intensive traffic;• The inexistence of a clear definition of the road hierarchy;• Relatively straight road and streets alignment, without any measure that forces the speed reduction onthe roads where conflicts between pedestrians and motorists are more frequent.6. ConclusionsHuman and urban factors play an important role in the decline of road accidents. The awareness ofcitizens, pedestrians, drivers, young and elderly, is certainly a key focus on the intervention to combat roadaccidents. However, the burden of this cannot just fall on the individual, either it being driver or pedestrian.The street design and the construction of a more intelligent road are issues on which decision-makersshould be aware. The hierarchy and road signage should be clear and widely perceived by all users. Inareas of significant conflict between pedestrians and motor traffic and when it is not physically possible to
    • H Leandro, N Marques da Costa. Road Safety and Healthy Cities: The Seixal case study 12separate these two circulations, traffic calming measures should be developed, opting for more effectivesolutions than simply installing bands perpendicular to the road lanes.The improved mobility will, necessarily, be achieved by minimizing road accidents. The interventions at thelevel of awareness, despite its contribution to safety, will certainly be insufficient, requiring interventions onthe street design and spatial planning. This will require the concerted efforts of various actors that relate tothe management of the roads, transport and mobility, thus allowing an improved mobility. Implemented inan environmentally responsible manner, this measures, will lead to environmental benefits. This willcontribute to a more sustainable growth, especially if implemented to be "future proof", with the economicgains associated with the longevity of infrastructure.ReferencesBaião M. (2010) Sinistralidade rodoviário urbano – Caso de estudo do Montijo.Dissertação para a obtenção do Grau deMestre em Engenharia Civil. Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa.BHTRANS (1999) Manual de Medidas Moderadoras de Tráfego. Empresa de Transportes e Trânsito de Belo Horizonte.Campozano. T (2008) Estudo sobre a mobilidade de pedestres: condições ergonômicas, intenções e comportamentosno centro da cidade de Campo Grande – MS. Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Católica Dom Bosco, CampoGrandeCity of New York (2009) Street Design Manual – Department of Transportation, City of New York, Nova Iorque.CMS (2004): Plano de Desenvolvimento de Saúde do Município do Seixal, Seixal, CMS.Faria J (2008) Mortalidade rodoviária em Portugal – Uma abordagem sócio-demográfica. Dissertação de mestrado,Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa, LisboaGaivoto C (2010) A propósito do “tram-train” do Mondego - Incongruência de uma “de cisão” por falta de conhecimentoe sabedoria. Transportes em Revista, 94:30-31GÄRLING, T; STEG, L. (ed.) Threats from car traffic to the quality of urban life. Problems, causes and solutions, Oxford,Elsevier, p. 33-52.GIFFORD, R.; STEG, L. (2007):«The impact of automobile traffic on quality of life», in Martins M. (2010) Acidentesrodoviários: culpa e comportamento preventivo. Dissertação de Mestrado (requisito parcial) em Risco, Trauma eSociedade, ISCTE – IUL, LisboaMARQUES DA COSTA, N. (2007): Mobilidade e Transporte em Áreas Urbanas.O caso da Área Metropolitana deLisboa, Dissertação de Doutoramento apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa.Meira R (2006) Análise crítica da infra-estrutura viária voltada para o pedestre visando a redução de atropelamentosem Porto Alegre. Trabalho para obtenção de título de Engenheiro Civil, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,Porto AlegreMeirinhos V (2009) Pedonalidade em risco – Estudo antropológico dos atropelamentos em Lisboa. Dissertação deMestrado, Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa, LisboaPEDEN, M.; SCRURFIELD, R.; SLEET, D.; MOHAN, D.; HYDER, A.; JARAWAN, E.; MATHERS, C. (2004): Worldreport on road traffic injury prevention, Genebra, World Health Organization.Rosário, L (2009) Agressividade na condução e mecanismos de defesa em condutores infractores – Perspectivapsicodinâmica. Dissertação de mestrado, Faculdade de Psicologia e Ciências da EducaçãoSIMÕES, J.M. (2007): «Construindo a Cidade Saudável», in SANTANA, P. (ed.) A Cidade e a Saúde, Coimbra,Almedina.Takano T. (2003) Development of Healthy Cities and need for research In Takano T (Ed.) Healthy Cities and UrbanPolicy Research :1-9
    • CITTA 6thAnnual Conference on Planning ResearchRESPONSIVE TRANSPORTS FOR SMART MOBILITY13Vala, F. (2003). “Movimentos Pendulares e modos de transportes na AML”. Comunicação apresentada no PalácioConde Penafiel, Lisboa 25 de Fevereiro de 2003Vasconcelos, E (1985) O que é o trânsito? Colecção Primeiros Passos. Brasiliense, São PauloVicente, J. (2005) Características de visibilidade das marcas rodoviárias. Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestreem Vias de Comunicação. Universidade do Porto, Porto.WHO (2009) Zagreb Declaration for Healthy Cities, World Health Organization, Zagreb.Zegger C. e Bushell M. (2010) Pedestrian crash trends and potential countermeasures from around the world.University of North Carolina.