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  • 1. Dylan Hughes Bio 101
  • 2. What is Opium• A highly addictive drug refined from opium poppies.• Also from the Poppy we can refine Morphine, Codeine, thebaine, and Papverine.• Opium can be made into Heroin which is even more potent than normal opium
  • 3. MEDICALNARCOTIC Heroin (Diamorphine) is a  Morphine is refined from highly addictive drug that opium and is used in medicine as a pain killer for can be fatal in the wrong moderate to severe pain dosage  Codeine is another pain HIV, Hepatitis can be killer found form opium. spread by addicts sharing Which is used to more chronic pains issues. needles to inject.  Thebaine in opium can now A multimillion dollar be tested to determine if a industry is based around person is using medical growing heroin and products with morphine or using illegal substances like selling it. heroin.
  • 4. First time users will feel:• A euphoric feelings – Heroin increases Dopamine activity in the brain• After the Heroin has worn the good feeling goes with it.• People quickly want that feeling back which is why Heroin is so addictive.• In Some European Countries (United Kingdom, Germany, Denmark, Netherlands) it is a LEGAL medicine that can be prescribed.• Heroin is a great drug at blocking pain receptors in the brain and can be used to help treat chronic pain and even provide comfort to terminal cancer patients.• Heroin can be snorted, injected, smoked, and some people have even made opium teaThat is said to have similar but less potent effects.
  • 5. Heroin upon injection goes to the blood brain barrier and goes right pastIt because Heroin is fat soluble.It then binds to the opiate receptors in our brains.Heroin Also causes Analgesic (pain relief) and Anxiolytic ( Anti- Anxiety) forSome people.The drug is so addictive it quickly unbalances a persons brain chemistry creating aBiological dependence on the drug that is extremely difficult to beat withoutMedical support.
  • 6. Long term use does have its risks:• The biggest risk is a fatal Overdose• Users can also contract HIV/AIDS from sharing needles• Heart attack, collapsed veins, Pneumonia, Sores on the body, and slowly the liver begins to fail.• A person can also get infections from any number of other chemicals• That are used in the process of making (cutting) the Heroin for sale.• The different types of heroin can all carry with them their own side effects.
  • 7. • Treatment for Heroin comes in several forms :• Detox (Cold Turkey) is the hardest form of treatment. A person literallygoes through a nightmare of physical and psychological symptoms.• High fevers and chills, vomiting, cramps, uncontrollable shaking, loss of appetite. Headaches and extreme pain all over a persons body.• Some people will receive a opiate blocker especially in cases of a serve overdose of heroin. This will cure a person overnight but if they relapse there is a higher risk over a fatal overdose. This happens because a persons body no longer processes the heroin correctly
  • 8. A Methadone regimen is used to slowly take a person ofHeroin in small amounts .A great deal of people find help from N.A. meetings or from individual therapysessions to help them deal with cravings and make life style changes to helpthem with their remissions.
  • 9.  Used as early as 3400 B.C. Ancient Egyptians used it and sold it on trade routes. Banned during the Inquisition and reintroduced in the 1500’s
  • 10.  First Opium war in 1840 fought over China ordering the end of foreign sale Opium is fist injected in the mid 1800’s 1856 – 2nd opium war in china 1874- Heroin is synthesized
  • 11.  In 1923 Opium is banned in the United states Huge rise in Heroin use after Vietnam 1970’s- Mexican Opium trade is destroyed. The middle east assumes control of opium productions in the 1990’s
  • 12. Most of theOpium today isMiddle Eastmainly inAfghanistanbefore the warbegan and mostof the crops were burned byU.S. forces. But asof 2002 it is stillthe LargestOpium maker inthe world.
  • 13. The Modern war on drugs has largely been unsuccessful in stoppingThe illegal importation of narcotics into the continental United States. More people are becoming addicted every years and stronger variations Of Heroin are flooding the streets everyday.
  • 14.  The sale of illegal drugs is a huge business making billions of dollars per year off of addictions who cannot quit. $205.6 million dollars seized in drug raid in Mexico
  • 15. Farming OpiumFarming of Opium has ranged fromChina to Mexico and back.Vietnam, Burma, Laos, China, India, Mexico, and the United Kingdomare just some of the countries whohas been involved in growingPoppies.It is truly a Global Issue and moreand more farmers and crop sharesare turning to growing poppy tomake quick money to supportthemselves and their families.
  • 16. • Opium today is huge issue• Addiction rates are on the rise• History has shown just how violent people will get over Opium• There is a lot of money and politics involved• Money from the sale of Heroin and other opiates help finance Terrorism in in the middle east.
  • 17.  Laçine Aksoy, Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) oil for preparation of biodiesel:  P. Prioreschi, R.P. Heaney, E. Brehm, A quantitative assessment of ancient therapeutics: poppy and pain Optimization of conditions, Applied Energy, in the Hippocratic corpus, Medical Hypotheses, Volume 88, Issue 12, December 2011, Pages 4713- Volume 51, Issue 4, October 1998, Pages 325-331, 4718, ISSN 0306-2619, ISSN 0306-9877, 10.1016/S0306-9877(98)90057-3.  (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ 10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.06.012. S0306987798900573) (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article /pii/S0306261911003825) Peter J. Facchini, Sang-Un Park, Developmental  Sooyeun Lee, Yonghoon Park, Eunyoung Han, Hwakyung Choi, Heesun Chung, Seung Min Oh, and inducible accumulation of gene transcripts Kyu Hyuck Chung, Thebaine in hair as a marker for involved in alkaloid biosynthesis in opium chronic use of illegal opium poppy substances, poppy, Phytochemistry, Volume 64, Issue 1, Forensic Science International, Volume 204, Issues 1- 3, 30 January 2011, Pages 115-118, ISSN 0379-0738, September 2003, Pages 177-186, ISSN 0031-9422, 10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.05.013. 10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00292-  (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ 9.(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/articl S0379073810002677) e/pii/S0031942203002929) Jörg Ziegler, Peter J. Facchini, René Geißler,  A. Yoshida, H. Chanhda, Yan-Mei Ye, Yue-Rong Jürgen Schmidt, Christian Ammer, Robert Liang, Ecosystem service values and land use change Kramell, Susan Voigtländer, Andreas Gesell, in the opium poppy cultivation region in Northern Silke Pienkny, Wolfgang Brandt, Evolution of Part of Lao PDR, Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 30, Issue 2, April 2010, Pages 56-61, ISSN 1872-2032, morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, 10.1016/j.chnaes.2010.03.002. Phytochemistry, Volume 70, Issues 15-16,  (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ October-November 2009, Pages 1696-1707, ISSN S1872203210000065) 0031-9422, 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.07.006.(http://www.s ciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S00319422 09002817)
  • 18. Graham Farrell, John Thorne, Where have all the flowers gone?: evaluation of the Taliban crackdownagainst opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan, International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 16, Issue2, March 2005, Pages 81-91, ISSN 0955-3959, 10.1016/j.drugpo.2004.07.007.(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955395904000945)Peter J. Facchini, Sang-Un Park, Developmental and inducible accumulation of gene transcripts involved inalkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy, Phytochemistry, Volume 64, Issue 1, September 2003, Pages 177-186, ISSN 0031-9422, 10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00292-9.(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942203002929)Peter J. Facchini, Sang-Un Park, Developmental and inducible accumulation of gene transcripts involved inalkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy, Phytochemistry, Volume 64, Issue 1, September 2003, Pages 177-186, ISSN 0031-9422, 10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00292-9.(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942203002929)http://opioids.com/timeline/ - Opium: A history, By martin Booth, 1996, Simon & Schuster, Ltdhttp://www.drugs.com/opium.html - Used for some general information about Opium and Heroin.
  • 19. http://www.flickr.com/photos/cod_gabriel/2223556912/sizes/l/in/photostream/- Cod_gabriel – dec 24, 2007http://www.flickr.com/photos/jamesscottbrown/522074884/ - James scott Brown –May 30th 2007http://www.flickr.com/photos/vculibraries/6032628788/sizes/l/in/photostream/- VCU Libraries August 11,2011http://www.flickr.com/photos/planspark/4415256988/ -Planspark – march 7, 2010http://www.flickr.com/photos/31256440@N07/5618788689/ - Nsikander28 – April14, 2011http://www.flickr.com/photos/wdwbarber/534617732/Bill barker April 27th 2007http://www.flickr.com/photos/theklan/2316132157/Mr. Theklan – March 7th, 2008http://www.flickr.com/photos/theklan/2316132157/Mr. Theklan – March 7th, 2008