Post-WWII to the present Some Themes...^New Tensions - The Cold War and birth of theUnited Nations^End of Colonialism and birth of new nations^Progress towards Democracy (with some setbacks)^Increased Global Interdependence^Current Global Issues/Unresolved problems
New Tensions - The Cold War *Series of actions/reactions^Europe and Asia in ruins, UN is born, US andUSSR emerge as rival superpowers^Cold war confrontations dominate for next half-century -differing situations and aims after WWII -US: relatively untouched by war; goal is to stop Communism from spreading! -USSR: devastated by war; goal is to stop the democracies from spreading!
Action...Reaction US: Truman Doctrine (support for countries that reject Communism)-$400 million to Greece and Turkey-The Marshall Plan *provided $12.5 billion to help rebuild W. Europe
Action...Reaction USSR Communist governments installed in Eastern Europe Controlled by Stalin COMECON established by USSR to aid these countries
Action...ReactionEurope Divides East Germany becomes German Democratic Republic (GDR) West Germany becomes Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) Berlin also divided Churchill: “An Iron Curtain has descended across Europe”
Action...Reaction USSR: free elections in Eastern Europe forbidden Stalin: “Communism and Capitalism cannot exist together in this world.”
Action...Reaction US begins policy of CONTAINMENT foreign policy centered on making sure that Communism did not spread beyond where it already existed.
Action...Reaction USSR creates a ‘buffer’ zone with Eastern Europe to protect itself from Western Europe and the democracies West Berlin (controlled by US, UK and France) is cut off by USSR
Action...Reaction US and her allies begin an 11 month airlift of supplies into West Berlin defying Stalin’s blockade (1948-49)
Action...Reaction Stalin lifts the blockade in 1949 but begins putting up barbed wire and blockades between eastern and western Berlin.
Action...Reaction US and her allies in W. Europe form a mutual defense pact in 1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Does this sound familiar?
Action...Reaction USSR creates its own defense pact with Eastern Europe in 1955 Warsaw Pact
Action...Reaction US and USSR begin an arms race More powerful nuclear weapons built on both sides US tests an “H-Bomb” in ’52 which was thousands of times more powerful than the “A-Bomb” used on Japan USSR tests its H-Bomb in ’53
Action...Reaction Along with the Arms race came the Space race USSR creates ICBM’s and launches world’s 1st satellite - SPUTNIK in ’57 US launches satellite in ’58
Action...Reaction In ’60, US pledges it will land man on moon and get him back by end of the decade In ’61, USSR sends the 1st human into orbit - YURI GAGARIN
Action...Reaction In ’62 US sends up JOHN GLENN USSR sends a probe to Venus July ’69 - US lands NEIL ARMSTRONG on moon
Meanwhile.... Communists take power in China in ’49 “Hot Spots” Korea (’50-’53) Vietnam (’45-’75) US involved 1957-73. 3rd World (developing countries; case study: Cuba and the missile crisis - ’61) Middle East (case study: Iran ’79)
End of the Cold War...Collapse of Soviet Union brought democraticreforms all over Eastern Europe by the early1990’s Gorbachev attempts to save USSR through reforms but ends up triggering its breakup (’85-’91) Former Soviet Republics move toward democracy (‘90s)
Aftermath of the collapse...• Soviet Union disintegrated into 15 separate nations• Economic problems = high inflation, high unemployment, and poorer quality of life• No history of democracy = tough political transitions and overall political instability• Old tensions rose to surface = Yugoslavia (Croatia, Bosnia, and Serbia civil wars)• Czechoslovakia → Czech Republic and Slovakia• Nuclear weapons were spread out over former Soviet republics = more countries with nukes than ever before• 1991-2: START Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties signed with the goal of reducing nuclear warheads in each country to 3,000 each
Berlin Wall falls and Germany reunites! (’89/’90)
China under Deng Xiaoping (’80-’97)some moves toward modernization but stillauthoritarian
The End of Colonialism and Birth of New Nations India gains independence and then splits (’47) Philippines from the US (’46???) Burma (’48), Malaysia (’57) & Singapore (’65)free from British Indonesia from the Dutch (’49) Conﬂict in the Middle East Israel and Arab confrontations (’47 to present)
Progress towards Democracy (with some setbacks)Most Latin American countries wereindependent by 20th century BUT coloniallegacies often led to dictatorships... powerful militaries economies too dependent on a single crop large gaps between rich and poor
Progress towards Democracy (with some setbacks)African colonies began gaining independencefrom Europe in 1950’s BUT many were NOTprepared for independence because ofcolonial policies many ethnic and cultural conﬂicts because of colonial borders economic dependency on 1 or 2 cash crops many civil wars and dictators rise to power movement back now to more democratic governments