1914 – Present20th century and BeyondPeriodization: Why 1914?Major Themes World Conflict – Decline of Empire Decolonization and Nationalism Cold War Conflicts Social Reforms Globalization Environmental Issues
Causes of World War IM – MilitarismA – AlliancesN – Nationalism I – ImperialismA – Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
World War I Promises of self-determination Use of colonial soldiers Machine guns, submarines, planes, tanks,trench warfare = major death and destruction Financial strain on empire Treaty of Versailles
Feb. 14, 1919 -Wilson submitsDraft Covenant fora League of NationsThe Covenantbecomes the first 26Articles of theTreaty , especiallythe key Article 10What did Wilson believeto be the answer to theworld’s problems?Would it work?Wilson’s Idealism
The Treaty of VersaillesLasting-Peace Peace-RevengeGermany pays reparations, Poland is created, Creation of theLeague of Nations, War-Guilt clause, Alsace-Lorraine to France,Germany forbidden to join League, France controls Rhineland,Arms limitation, Polish corridor established, no secret alliancesGermany lost territoryArms LimitationCreation of theLeague of NationsPolish Corridor establishedFrance controls RhinelandPoland is createdWar-Guilt clause- BlameGermany pays ReparationsGermany lost TerritoryGermany forbidden to join LeagueNo secret alliancesAlsace-Lorraine to France
New Map ofEurope!1. Which major empireslost the most land?Why?2. What problems couldoccur due to thestructure of theEuropean landscape?
Acts of Aggression Lead to WWIICountry Area Attacked Reason Allies ReactionJapan 1931 - Manchuria China 1. Need for natural resources.League of Nations condemned theaction but did nothing.Italy Ethiopia - Africa1. Distract Italians fromdepression.2. Promised to build the newRoman EmpireLeague of Nations did nothing.Other nations concerned withtheir own problems.1. Austria (1938)1. German people lived there. 1. None even though it was a directviolation of the treatyGermany2.Czechoslovakia/Sudeten-land (1938)2. German people lived there. 2. Hitler promised he was finished.Britain & France appeasedand didnt fight.3. Poland (1939)3. Desire for land. 3. Britain and France declare war.
AXIS POWERAdolf Hitler (right) isconsidered one of the mostbrutal dictators in history.After purging possible rivalsfor leadership, Hitler rearmedGermany into a modern warmachine. He and Italiandictator Benito Mussolini(left), both Fascists, becameallies in 1936. They are shownhere in Munich, Germany, in1937.
PEACE FOR OUR TIME!“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile,hoping it will eat him last.”- Winston ChurchillOn 15 March 1939, the German armyoccupied the remainder of Czechoslovakia.“My good friends… I havereturned form Germany bringingpeace with honor. I believe it ispeace for our time… Go homeand get a nice quiet sleep.”
World War II Increased nationalist uprisings following WWI andas a result of the global depression Costs of empire US support of anti-colonial liberation movements Atlantic Charter (1941) “right of all people tochoose the form of government under which theylive” Soviets condemned colonialism
Japanese Aggression in PacificAfter Pearl Harbor, the Japanese took over the Philippines, Indochina,Taiwan, and many other Pacific islands.
Turning Points: Africa and ItalyOperation Torch,1942-43 El Alamein,1942-43Invasion of Sicilyand Italy, 1943Operation Overlord(D-Day), 1944
Atomic BombOn August 6, 1945, during WorldWar II, the United States droppedthe first atomic bomb onHiroshima, a Japanese city andmilitary center. An estimated60,000 to 70,000 people were killedor reported missing, according toU.S. estimates, and thousandsmore were made homeless. Sixteenhours after the attack, U.S.President Harry S. Truman’sreport of the event was broadcastto radio listeners.
Democracy in Japan•Japan’s armed forces weredisbanded•The American occupiers had thegoal to end militarism and ensurea democratic government•A new Japanese Constitutionwas drafted by the Americanoccupiers creating aConstitutional Monarchy thatlimited the power of the Emperor•The Japanese accepted this newconstitution and signed a treatythat took away Japan’s overseasempire•In 1952, the Allied occupationofficially ended
Imperialism/ColonialismGreat DepressionCapitalismFascismCommunismIndustrialization ofthe WestMass Production ofweapons/ Development ofNuclear weaponsWestern Imperialpowers are weakenedCost of War: Millionsdead, destruction ofinfrastructureEnds Fascism – Defeatof Nazi Germany,Fascist Italy,militaristic JapanAtrocities: NaziHolocaust, Rape ofNanjing, Bombing ofHiroshima andNagasakiPre- World War II WorldWorld War IIPost- World War II WorldThe Impact of World War IIDecolonization: Creationof the “Third World”India, China, Korea, Vietnam,Israel, MiddleEast,AfghanistanThe Cold War: USA vsUSSR develop intoSuperpowers.Alliance Systems, arms race,proxy wars, propaganda, spacerace, containment, dominotheory, detenteUnited Nations: Worldorganizations created tomaintain peacePeace talks, declaration of humanrights, World forum for issues
The Formula for TwentiethCentury Revolution•Traditional Rural Society•Rapid Industrialization•Corrupt, stubborn, unresponsivepolitical system•Harsh living conditions, unfair treatment•Foreign interventionNew ideas about class and property, land reform
Revolutionary ResultsSome Real Changes:•1917 Mexican Constitution•Land reforms, limited foreignownership of key resources•Guaranteed rights of workers•restrictions on clerical education andchurch ownership of property•educational reforms•Workers organized and wererepresented in governmentThe Mexican Revolution had a limited impact beyond its borders: WHY?
Russian Revolution“Peace, Land , and Bread”1. March 1917 – ProvisionalGovernment replaces Czar2. November 1917 – BolsheviksReplace ProvisionalGovernment3. Lenin pulls Russia out ofWWI
Results•USSR becomes the first Communist nation•Created a new political, economic and culturalstructure without internal challenge•Authoritarian Rule•Supported socialist movementsaround the world•1923 – New constitution created a federalsystem of socialist republics•Capital is moved to Moscow
Comparing RevolutionsRussian Revolution•1905-1923•Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky•peasants want: Land reform, politicalrights, out of WWI•autocratic leader - harsh rule, smallland owning elite•“Peace, land, bread” - Marxist reforms•1917 - March revolution removes Czar -Limited reforms•1917 - Nov revolution (Bolshevik Rev)creation of USSR - Red Army•1918-1921 Civil War (Reds vs Whites)•1924 - Stalin becomes communistdictatorMexican Revolution•1910-1920•Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata•peasants want: Land reform, politicalrights•autocratic leader - harsh rule, small landowning elite, foreign control of industry•“Tierra y Libertad” - Socialist reforms•1910 - Diaz Resigns and flees Mexico,Madero in Power - Limited Reforms•1913 - Madero removed and Killed -General Huerta becomes dictator•1914-1920 Civil War forces Huerta frompower• 1917 - Mexican Constitution•1920 - Obregon becomes President - gov’tled by Revolutionary elite
Chinese RevolutionsSun Yixian – Father of Modern China- Three Principles of the People1911 – Last Emperor of Qing Dynasty is overthrownMao Zedong – 1949 Communist Revolution defeats Jiang Jieshiwho flees to Taiwan
How do these paintingsshow how Mao wassuccessful at gainingpower in China?
China Case study During the war,Communists expanded peasantbase, using appeals for women (health care, divorcerights, education access, graduated taxes,cooperative farming). Growth of party during the war in part through useof anti-Japanese propaganda. Resumption of civil war after Japanese surrender. 1949 Great People’s Revolution- Mao Nationalist leaders fled to Taiwan.
1953 – Guerilla group led by FidelCastro began a revolution againstU.S. supported dictator FulgencioBatista 1959 - Fidel Castro seized power inCuba. He nationalized businessesand executed opponents, createdCommunist state. He threatened to spread Communismto other Latin American countries. Clashed with U.S. and allied withUSSR during Cold WarCuban Revolution
Iranian RevolutionRise of Islamic Fundamentalism1953- Shah Reza Pahlavi came to power with help of CIARepressed opposition and violated constitution1979 - Ayatollah Khomenini led revolution from exile inParis and overthrows the Shah• Creates the first Islamic Fundamentalist government –new constitution based on Islamic law• 55 Americans held hostage for 444 days• 1980-1988 – Iraq-Iran War
Process of Decolonization andNation- Building Surge of anti-colonial nationalism after 1945.Leaders used lessons in mass politicization andmass mobilization of 1920’s and 1930’s. Three patterns:1. Violent Revolutions and Civil War (China, Algeria,Vietnam, Palestine)2. Non-Violent, negotiated independence (India, GhanaTurkey)3. Both violent and non-violent methods (Kenya,Egypt, South Africa)
Decolonization in the Middle East-Palestine and Israel Zionism 1917 Balfour Declaration Immigration of Jews to Palestine European Holocaust Increase of migration 1947- end of British mandate of Palestine and failedUN partition solution 1948 establishment of Israel Regional conflicts->Violent Movements
UN Partition PlanBritain, which had ruled Palestine since 1920, handed over responsibilityfor solving the Zionist-Arab problem to the UN in 1947.The UN recommended splittingthe territory into separateJewish and Palestinian states.The partition plan gave:• 56.47% of Palestine to theJewish state• 43.53% to the Arab state• An international enclavearound Jerusalem.• On 29 November 1947, 33countries of the UN GeneralAssembly voted for partition, 13voted against and 10 abstained.Which Countries are most likely tovote against the U.N. Partition Plan?
Palestinian Intifada• Protest took the form of civil disobedience, general strikes, boycotts onIsraeli products, graffiti, and barricades, but it was the stone-throwingdemonstrations against the heavily-armed occupation troops that capturedinternational attention.• The Israeli Defense Forces responded and there was heavy loss of lifeamong Palestinian civilians.• More than 1,000 died in clashes which lasted until 1993.A mass uprising - or intifadaagainst the Israeli occupationbegan in Gaza and quicklyspread to the West Bank.
Algeria1954- 1962 war between FLN (nationalist party) and French troops Appeal of Arab nationalism Large French settler population “Part of France” Algerians used guerilla and terrorist tactics French used counter terrorism and torture 300,000 lives lost1962 - Ahmed Ben Bella became the first President Primarily a one-party state Current challenges by Islamic FundamentalistsViolent Movements
India: History of the Movement Indian National Congress - 1885. (Elite group notmass movement) Growth of Indian national identity- presentedgrievances to the British. Congress party attracted mass following. Gandhi and Congress leadership tried to preventmass peasant uprising (as was happening in China)by keeping power centered on middle class leaders.Non-Violent Movements
Militant Nationalists B.G. Tilak urged a boycott ofBritish manufactured goodsand used threats of terrorism. Attracted a violentconservative Hindu following. Tilak was exiled and hismovement was repressed bythe British.
Peaceful Protests Mohandas Gandhi and other westerneducated lawyers led peaceful alternative. Nation-wide protest against colonialismthrough boycotts and campaigns of civilresistance. (Salt March, HomespunMovement) His efforts were not well received by theMuslims who formed a separate organizationin 1906, The Muslim League. Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Muslim League)insisted on partitioned state (Hindu andMuslim).
Indian Independence August 1947 Pakistan andIndia gained independence. Mass killings of Muslimsand Hindus (1 million)followed by massmigrations (12 million).(Gandhi fasted to preventwar-> assassination) Jawaharlal Nehru, firstPrime Minister,beganmodernization campaign.
De-colonization in Africa -1957, Gold Coast (renamedGhana) independence, ledby western- educated,Kwame Nkrumah. Used Non-violent methodsinfluenced by Gandhi Developed a parliamentarydemocracy - By 1963, all of Britishruled Africa, exceptSouthern Rhodesia, wasindependent.Non-Violent Movements
Africa for Africans Nationalists composedof ex-servicemen,urban unemployed andwestern educated elite. Pan-Africanism andNegritude Senghor (Senegal)
Kenya Presence of settlers preventedsmooth transition of power. Jono Kenyatta used non-violentprotests Kenya (20,000 Europeans only)led to violent revolt. Mau-Mau Revolt, 1952, led byKikuyus suppressed by British. 1963 independence granted toblack majority, led by Kenyatta.Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements
Egypt 1906 Dinshawai incident arousednationalist passions. Actions post- Indep (1936) notsufficient. Coup d’etat in 1952 Gamal AbdelNasser Nationalization of Suez 1956protested by Israelis, British andFrench but diplomacy won overeventually. Nasser= symbol of pan-Arabnationalism.Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements
South Africa 4 million white residents Afrikaner-dominated (white) National Partywon 1948 election Apartheid – separation of races No protests tolerated (African NationalCongress, Mandela, Biko, Sharpevillemassacre 1960, Spear of the Nation) World boycotts led by Desmond Tutu 1990- DeKlerk legalized ANC and endedApartheid 1994 –first open election Mandela- first Black PresidentBoth Violent and Non-Violent Movements
FailedTraditionalRebellionWestern InspiredNationalistMovement(Leaders & Goals)WWI, WWII,Cold WarIndependenceViolent orNon-violent(Events/Methods)Resurgence ofIndigenousChallenges(Major Problems)Building aNation-State(Structure of new Gov’t)Modern, but notWestern SocietyDEVELOPMENT OF NATIONALISM1914-Present
Nasser in EgyptAtaturk in TurkeyNkrumah in GhanaNehru in India Kenyatta in KenyaMao Zedong in China
Challenges of Independence Ethnic disputes Dependent economies Growing debt Cultural dependence onwest-> religious revivalismas backlash Widespread social unrest Military responses torestore order Population growth Resource depletion Lack of middle class insome locales Education deficit and later,brain drain. Neo-colonialism througheconomic debt.
Conclusions Decolonization was sometimes a violent process-dependent in large part on how many settlers hadcome to the colony. In many parts of world, decolonization was notrevolutionary. Power passed from one class ofelites to another. Little economic and social reformoccurred. Significant challenges faced independent nations. Western economic dominance of the global tradesystem continued unabated. WHY?
Democracy in Germany•Germany’s armed forceswere disbanded and theNazi party was outlawed•In Western Germany,Allies helped set uppolitical parties andassisted Germans inwriting a federalConstitution.•In 1949, West Germanyregained self-governmentand named itself theFederal Republic ofGermany
COMPETING IDEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS1. Wanted to spread democracy &capitalism to Eastern Europe.VS.1. Continued to occupy Eastern Europe &turned countries into satellites (puppetstates), to protect the Soviet Union frominvasion from the west.2. NATO - North Atlantic TreatyOrganization. U.S. & severalWestern European Countries.2. Warsaw Pact - Soviet Union & EasternEuropean satellite countries.SOVIET UNIONUNITED STATESOne party leadershipCitizens have basic rightsCitizens elect representativesPeople & corporations can own landGovernment controls all productionCensorshipSecret policeGovernment controls radio, T.V. & NewspapersDictatorshipFreedom of PressFreedom of pressFreedom of ReligionPeople can form own political partiesUse of propagandaCollectivization
U.S. POLICIES2. TRUMAN DOCTRINE - Monetary support given by U.S. to countries thatresisted Communism.3. MARSHALL PLAN- Post WWII assistance program, in which, theU.S. would provide, food, machines, and other materials to any country thatneeded it.1. CONTAINMENT - Policy directed at blocking Soviet influence andpreventing the expansion of Communism.SOVIET RESPONSE1. BERLIN BLOCKADE & AIRLIFT 1948- Soviets closed all road andrail links to Berlin. The Western allies began a massive airlift to feed theWest Berliners.•This caused the creation of the Federal Republic ofGermany (West Germany) in 19492. BERLIN WALL 1961- East Germangovernment built a wall that separated East Berlinfrom West Berlin. Soldiers shot anyone that tried toescape East Berlin.
THE IRON CURTAIN“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in theAdriatic an iron curtain has descended across thecontinent.”1. The Soviet Union drove the Germansback across Eastern Europe.2. They occupied several countriesalong it’s western border andconsidered them a necessary buffer orwall of protection from the west.3. Stalin installed Communistgovernments in Albania, Bulgaria,Hungary, Czechoslavakia, Romania,Poland, and Yugoslavia.4. At the Potsdam Conference Trumanpressed Stalin to allow free elections.5. Early in 1946 Stalin declares thatcommunism & capitalism could notexist in the same world. War betweenthe U.S. & U.S.S.R. was certain. March 5, 1946
KOREAN WAR 1950 - 1953After World War II Korea wasdivided, along the 38th parallel,into North Korea, occupiedSoviet forces and South Koreaoccupied by American forces.North Korean forces, seeking tounify the country undercommunist rule invaded the southin 1950. Commanded by GeneralDouglas MacArthur, UN forcesprevented a northern takeover ofSouth Korea. An Armistice wassigned in 1953.
CUBAN REVOLUTIONBAY OF PIGS INVASION 1961In 1959 Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba. Henationalized businesses and executed opponents,transforming Cuba into a Communist state.He threatened to spread Communism to otherLatin American countries.In 1961 U.S. trained Cuban exilesunsuccessfully invaded Cuba at the Bay ofPigs.
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS 1962In 1962 the United States discovered thatCuba was secretly building bases to installSoviet missiles with nuclear warheads.After President Kennedy ordered a navalblockade of Cuba and threatened andinvasion, Khrushchev agreed to withdrawthe missiles for a pledge that the U.S.would not invade Cuba.BAY OF PIGS INVASION 1961In 1961 U.S. trained Cuban exilesunsuccessfully invaded Cuba atthe Bay of Pigs.
Vietnam French rule since 1880’s –rice, mining, and rubberexports Rise of foreign educatedintelligentsia (Ho Chi Minh) Formation of Viet Minh in1941 Guerrilla War with France(1946-1954) Divided country in 1954 led togradual US entry to containcommunism.
VIETNAM WAR 1954-1975When the French withdrew fromIndochina in 1954, Vietnam wasdivided. Ho Chi Minh FoundedCommunist North Vietnam, WhileSouth Vietnam established ties to theWest.Communists known as Vietcong began aguerrilla war in South Vietnam withNorth Vietnamese support.The U.S. entered the conflict to resistcommunism. Although the U.S. hadsuperior technology, and used 500,000soldiers it could not defeat the NorthVietnamese.In 1973 U.S. troops withdrew under theParis Peace Accords. In 1975 theSouth fell to the North.
ARMS RACEThe United States developed the Atomic Bomb during WWII.Soviet scientists developed one in 1949.For 40 years the superpowers spent huge amounts of money todevelop more & more powerful weapons. This raised the tensionsbetween the two countries. It also raised the fears among manypeople that the superpowers might become involved in a conflict thatwould destroy the world.
SPACE RACEThe superpowers alsocompetedin space.In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, a satellite, into orbit around theEarth.Soon after the United States established NASA. The race was on.In 1958 the U.S. launched its own first satellite. In 1961, the Soviets sentthe first man into space.In 1969 the U.S. was the first nation to put a man on the moon. Both theSoviets and Americans explored the use of satellites for military purposes.
Fall of Communism•Due to growing sense of nationalism and desire formore political rights – Eastern European nations pushfor reforms•Russian Communist grip begins to loosen due to pooreconomy and global pressure.•Mikhail Gorbachev’s policies of Glasnost andPerestroika allow some political and economicfreedoms.•Poland – Solidarity Movement led byLech Walesa•Czechoslovakia – Velvet Revolution ledby Vaclav Havel•Hungary – Revolution in 1956 led byImre Nagy failed•East Germany – Berlin Wall removed in1989•Romania – Violent revolution removesand kills Dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu
Fall of Communism•LOW WORKER MORALE•FOOD SHORTAGES•NATIONALISM AND ETHNIC DIVERSITY•COST OF THE WAR GLOBAL PRESSUREGLASNOSTNew political policy by MikhailGorbachev means “openness”Allowed the following:Free flow of ideas, no censorshipReligious freedomPublic criticism of gov’tContested elections (secret ballots)Release of political prisonersBooks freely printed“Socialism with a Human Face”PERESTROIKAEconomic policy by MikhailGorbachev means “restructuring”Allowed the following:Some private propertySome small business – profitsSome Free tradeLocal managers more control andauthority over farms and factoriesDecentralization of economiccontrolATTEMPTED COUPSome high level officials (communist hard-liners) wanted Gorbachev to resign in 1991He refused – the group staged a coup in Moscow by placing Gorbachev under house arrest and senttanks into Moscow to seize control.Boris Yeltsin called to the people to resist the coup and gained the support of the militaryThe Coup was foiled and the USSR soon split into 15 republics – the CIS
Global Economics Global Depression North and South Interdependence Emergence of Pacific Rim Globalization– pros and cons? NAFTA and W.T.O. Consumerism Religious response to Globalization
International Organizations andDecolonization League of Nations United Nations Organization of African Unity (1963)
Human Rights Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 Genocide Convention, 1948 Armenian 1918 Jewish Holocaust 1930’s- 1940’s Cambodia- Pol Pot 1975- 1979 Rwanda, 1994 Child Labor, Soldiers, Slavery
Social Reforms Rise of Feminism (suffrage for women) Civil rights movements globally Anti-apartheid movement in South Africa Class, religious, racial, gender, and sexualorientation, reforms worldwide
Human EnvironmentalInteraction Continued Urbanization Green Revolution Deforestation Ozone depletion Global environmental efforts