AP World HistoryUNIT IV1750-1914PeriodizationQuestion:Why 1750 –1914?1750 – Start of political revolutions, industrialrevolution, capitalism1914 – WWI, Decline of Empire (Ottoman, China, Russia)
„The West, The “Wannabes”and The Rest‟Unit IV1750-1914
The Two “I‟s”• In Unit III it was the Three S’s in Unit IV it’s the Two I’s:Industrialization and Imperialism.• Nationalism – introduced by the French Revolution –becomes a major category for identity.• Imperialism leads to the development of Land AND Sea-based empires.• In order to justify imperialism the idea of „race‟ isdeveloped by the West to keep their subject peoples inplace.• Traditional/Religious life are brought under immensepressure by the pace of industrial life and new scientificdiscoveries.
Big Picture ThemesPolitical RevolutionsIndustrializationDominance of the WestImperialismReactions to ImperialismGlobal TradeNew Economic SystemsPopulation Shifts
Who is Who?The WestWestern EuropeThe United StatesCanadaAustraliaNew ZealandIndustrialized societieswith industrializedmilitariesHeavily influenced bynationalism and scienceThe WannabesRussiaJapanBoth had governmentsponsored programs toindustrialize theireconomies.Both imported industrialtechnology and westernideas and culture.Everyone ElseEither becomes directlycolonized by the West orbecomes a “sphere ofinfluence” to Westernpowers.All of these areas willattempt to throw out theWest, but fail to do so.Only Latin America will beable to throw theEuropeans out. BUT theywill play a similar role tothe one they played ascolonies.
Political Revolutions andIndependence Movements• Revolutions– Why Revolution now?– Where?• United States (1776)• France (1789)• Haiti (1803)• Latin America
American Revolution• Laws passed by the Englishgovernment to limit expansion aswell as pass laws on the Americancolonies• American colonies looking for moreindependence• On July 4, 1776 the Declaration ofIndependence is issued• Articles of Confederation adoptedon November 15, 1777 makingCongress the sole authority• In 1789, the U.S. sets up a newconstitutional structure with checksand balances between the differentbranches of government as well aslimited voting rights (to wealthywhite males)
French Revolution• The revolution’s start was in the 1780s withresentment towards royal power, food scarcityand the rise of Enlightenment ideas• Louis XVI was forced to convoke the Estates-General• Third estate made up of the lower class wantedmore representation; declared themselves theNational Assembly• On June 20, 1789, the National Assembly sworethe Tennis Court Oath and would not leave untila new constitution had been made (Declarationof the rights of Man and the Citizen)• On July 14, 1789, the prison of Bastile was takenby the rebellion, and served as a symbol of therevolution• Feudalism abolished on August 4, 1789
French Revolution• Radical phase started by 1792; led by MaximilienRobespierre• King was executed and the Reign of Terror occurred inwhich unpopular factions were destroyed• Constitution proclaimed male suffrage, slaverytemporaraliy abolished and spirit of nationalism• Final phase of revolution occurred under Napoleon from1799 to 1815 during which expansion of the Frenchempire occurred• Parliament reduced in power, but religious freedom,equality for men, education, were promoted
Political Revolutions andIndependence MovementsHaitian RevolutionToussaintL’Ouverture
• Began on August 22, 1781• Slave uprising against the French• Francois Dominique ToussaintL’Ouverture organized a smallmilitary groupToussaint LOuverture, whose name means "the opening," opened the way to freedom for Blacks in Haiti and throughout the WHaitian RevolutionToussaintL’Ouverture• Symbol of freedom and hopeto the rest of slaves in NorthAmerica• Slave owners became awareof chance of rebellion of slavesLEGACY
Political Revolutions andIndependence Movements• Latin American Independence Movements• Why?Simon Bolivar
Latin American Revolutions• Political and Social Inequality– Peninsulares– Creoles– Mestizos– Mulattoes– Native Amer./Africans/ZambosCAUSES•Enlightenment Ideas•Napoleon’s Actions•Success of Other Revolutions
Leaders of Latin AmericanIndependence MovementsSimon Bolivar Father Miguel HidalgoJose San Martin Augustin de IturbideDom Pedro
Causes/Motives of theRevolutions• All revolutions resulted from peasant unrest• Industrialization and economic hardships (foodshortages)• Nationalist ideas helped to spur on all revolutions• Media played major role in advocating change;monarchs could publish newspapers supportingtheir actions, controlling the public’s knowledge,revolutionaries could also use media to supporttheir beliefs of overthrowing the government• Need to industrialize nations
Causes/Motives of theRevolutions continued• Enlightenment thinkerschallenged regimes thatdidn’t grant religiousfreedoms or insisted onaristocratic privilege• Commercialization causedmerchants to challenge ideathat aristocrats hold highestpower• Population increase made itharder for anyone notaristocrat to gain office; ledto protesting
Comparison of Causes andMotivations of RevolutionsAmerica France Haiti LatinAmerica Resisted Britainsattempts to imposetaxes and tradecontrols on colonies Overpopulationled young men toseek newopportunities Growingcommerce led tofarmers andartisans looking forways to defendsocial equality andcommunity spirit Stamp Act of1765 on alldocuments andpamphlets Large populationas disease, foodshortages&mortality declinedCapitalismintroduced,economy grewIn lean years, 90%of peasantry lived ator belowsubsistence level Kings competedwith officers forauthority; kingswanted monarchy King had beeninvolved in religiouscontroversies Slaves wantedvengeance Slaves retainedculture, wanted toreinstate it Planters wantedindependence fromFranceFree people ofcolor wantedcitizenship Slaves wantedfreedom (undercruel conditions) Haitians receivedlittle profit fromplantations (Frenchgot it all) Conflict andinvasion in mothercountry (Legitimacyof rulers) Restrictions oneducation and trade Conflict betweenpolitical values(liberals andconservatives)American,French, and HaitianRevolutions Resented taxationand policies ofmother countries
Global Connection• Revolutions spurred onmovements in other countries• Introduced new political ideas(democracy, constitutions,etc.) used world wide• In case of Haitian Revolution,inspired other slave rebellions• Gave power tocommoners/slaves; knewthey could overthrowgovernment• American Revolution led toindependence movements inother colonies escaping fromEuropean control
The West At Its Peak• Unit IV is the highpoint of WesternHistory.• We begin with the FrenchRevolution which introduced theidea of nationalism.• The French Revolution washeavily influenced by theEnlightenment whichemphasized natural rights,rationality and science.• The French Revolution gave birthto nationalism as primary andidentity and the belief that societycould break with tradition andremake itself on rational/scientificgrounds.
New Political Ideas• Rise of Nationalism• Growth of Nation-states/ empires• Rise of Democracy
The Industrial Revolution• Definition: A radical change in organization of labor andproduction which shatters traditional forms of production, lifeand ritual.• Innovations in farming and the enclosure acts freed up muchof the labor force to move into cities and work in factories.• Western society’s class system changes to one divided byMiddle Class and Working Class.• Women and Industry• Working class women continued to work inside and outsidethe home.• Middle Class women were now confined to the running of thehousehold.
Inventions Spur Technological AdvancesBritain’s textile industry would be the first to be transformed. By 1800,several inventions had modernized the cotton industry.Improvements in Transportation also came about:New RoadsRailroadsSteam Power
Factory ConditionsFactory Work Was Harsh:• There were rigid schedules with long hours and few breaks• Work was the same day after day, week after week.• There were high injury rates. Frequent accidents•There was no job security. Workers were fired for being sick, working too slow, orfor no reason at all.• Women and children were paid less than men• Wages were low
Living ConditionsUrbanization:• Cities became more common and more populated – some doubled ortripled in size• People migrated to cities looking for work, especially unemployedfarmers due to the Enclosure Acts.• Cities were dirty and dangerous. There was a lack of sanitation laws, nofire and police departments, no running water.
Results of the Industrial RevolutionI. Change in Social StructureA. The traditional eliteAristocratic nobles and landowners were still in controlB. The Capitalist Upper ClassThey were entrepreneurs who used their money to buy andbuild factories and run large businesses.C. The New Middle ClassProfessionals, investors, merchantsThey were financially stable, educated, and they aspire tobecome upper class.D. The New Working ClassLowly, unskilled, mechanical, poor, uneducated workers.
III. Labor movements• Formed seeking better wages and working conditions.• Workers organized into unions and threatened to strike.• Eventually, laws limiting child labor, shorter working hours, and saferworking conditions were introduced.IV. New economic structures• Emerge to address the new industrial society.V. New government functions• School compulsive until age 12, and even beyond• Wider welfare measures and regulatory roles• Reform Bill of 1832 – Gave the Parliamentary right to vote to mostmiddle-class men
Rise of Western DominanceScramble for Africa
Imperialism• Why? Industrialization led to a new demand for markets, resourcesand labor.• Industrialization also provided steam power and better gunpowderweapons as well as ways to deal with diseases in the interior ofAfrica and Asia.• The Enlightenment and Darwinism gave the West a sense ofsuperiority. This justified the imperialist venture. The other raceswere inferior and needed to be enlightened.• The Creation of Race: Race is what separates the WesternEmpires from all previous empires. It created an impermeable linebetween ruler and ruled.• Besides its economics benefits, colonies also became a sign ofnational greatness and so there was immense pressure to gain asmany colonies as possible.
IMPERIALISMINDIAAFRICAASIAEUROPEJAPAN CHINA•BOER WAR•MEIJIRESTORATION•TAIPINGREBELLION•BOXERREBELLION•MATTHEW PERRY•JEWEL IN THE CROWN•SINO-JAPANESE WAR•SHAKA ZULU•SEPOY MUTINY•OPIUM WAR•TREATY OFNANJING•WHITE MAN’S BURDEN.•BRITISH EAST INDIA CO.•NATIONALISM•BERLIN CONFERENCE•OPEN DOORPOLICY•SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA•AMRITSAR MASSACRE•INDUSTRIALREVOLUTION
POSITIVE NEGATIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE•European medicine &improved nutritionincreased life span ofAfricans. This caused anincrease in population.•Modern transportation &communications;telegraphs, railroads,steamships, and telephones•A small minority receivedimproved education andeconomic opportunities.•European dominationled to an erosion oftraditional Africanvalues and destroyedmany existing socialrelationships•African peopleswere treated a sinferior. Forced towork long hours forlow pay.•Europeans divided upAfrica ignoring tribal,ethnic, and culturalboundaries. Thesedivisions have led toongoing tribal clashes•New roads &railroads link partsof India•Telegraph & postalsystems unite people•Irrigation systemsimprove farming•New laws meanjustice for all classes•British schoolsoffer education•Customs thatthreaten humanrights are ended•Indian resources goto Britain•British made goodsreplace local goods•Farms grow cashcrops rather thanfood crops; Indiansgo hungry•Top jobs go toBritish•Indians are treatedas inferiors•Britain tries toreplace Indian culturewith western ways
How did other civilizations reactto imperialism?• The colonized world was there to provide the West withraw materials, labors and markets for the mothercountries.• The colonized peoples resented being colonized andviewed as inferiors. These civilizations will organize aseries of rebellions – all of which will fail to find freedomfrom the West in Unit IV.• Only Latin America will throw out the West but still playthe economic role of a colony.• Russia and Japan will keep the West out of theircivilizations only by imitating the West.
The “Wannabes”Japan and Russia
Meiji Japan• The arrival of the American navy scared the Japanese into modernizingand industrializing.• This led to the Meiji Restoration. The Meiji Emperor began a massivegovernment sponsored modernization plan that industrialized Japanwithin a generation.• Government bought out the nobles and gave them government bonds fortheir land. This made the nobles dependent on the restoration workingor they would be broke.• Japan played the Western powers off of each other.• Created a Parliament (Diet), but still an oligarchy where the leadersmade the decisions and the rank and file politician followed their lead.• Japan begins to imperialize Korea and China because they too needcolonies to support their industrial revolution.
Russia• Since the time of Peter the Great (Unit III), Russia had beenlooking to the West.• Like Japan, this industrialization/modernization program wassponsored by the government.• There was also intense pressure put upon the conqueredpeoples of the Russian Empire to speak Russian and take onRussian names.• Unlike Japan however, Russia was not able to fullyindustrialize their economy. The Russian economy will bedominated by agriculture – not industry until the time of Stalinand his Five Year Plans in Unit V.
Latin America• In the 19th century most of Latin America freed itself from Spain andPortugal.• Nationalist leaders like Bolivar and San Martin led Latin America topolitical freedom.• However, Latin America still played the same role it did as a colony.Providing raw materials at cheap prices to the US and Britain.
South Asia• Includes modern day: India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka,Nepal, Burma.• A civilization, but not a unified state. Was a series of dozens ofmonarchies and literally hundreds of languages.• Was slowly colonized by the British East India Company.• The East India Company ran the colony until the Sepoy Rebellion,then it became the direct possession of the crown.• Colonization began because the East India Company sent soldiersto destroy India’s textile production facilities.• India became the “jewel in the crown” of the British Empire.• India supplied Britain with cotton, indigo, opium and tea.
China•At the start of Unit IV China is economically andculturally isolated and will have the world’s largesteconomy until 1900.•British East India Company deals opium in Chinaand fights the Opium Wars to open up China’seconomy. This breaks the economic cycle ofChina gobbling up the world’s silver.•China is divided into spheres of influence bythe Western powers and eventually Japan aswell.•There were two rebellions that tried to throw outthe foreigners: The Taiping Rebellion and TheBoxer Rebellion.•Both of the rebellions failed and China continuesto be dominated by the industrial powers untilafter World War II.
The Islamic Heartlands• The Ottoman Empire tried to reform its society and industrializewith the Tanzimat Reforms – but it was too little too late.• Hamstrung by a Janissary Corp that was very conservative andfeared change and the West’s unwillingness to share technologywith the Turks.• Egypt falls under the sway of the British and provides the Empirewith cotton and grain.• The Mahdi Army believed that if they returned to true Islam, theywould be able to kick the British out. They failed to kick the Britishout but they were able to control the southern parts of Egypt.• Persia is independent but becomes a sphere of influence for bothRussia and Britain.
Sub-Sahara Africa• Europeans exacerbate tensions between ethnic groups in Africa andcolonize most of the continent.• The Berlin Conference divided up the continent among theWestern powers.• Became a big supplier of natural resources for the Europeans.Mostly metals and tropical crops as well as ivory.• The Zulu Wars were the great rebellion against the British Empire.• Led by Shaka Zulu who tried to revive the idea and mythology ofthe traditional African “big man”.• Lasted for many years, did significant damage to the British Armybut eventually the Zulus could not overcome industrial ageweapons.• The Boer War in South Africa – Britain takes South Africa from theDutch and brings it into the British Empire.
Best Examples• Nationalism – Germany and Italy or Bolivar in Latin America• Industrialization – England• Imperialism – The British Empire• Reactions to Imperialism – Japan vs. China OR The Belgians inthe Congo. The Ottomans for attempts to modernize that failed.• Anti-Imperialist Movements – Sepoy, Taiping, Boxer Rebellionsare the most well known.• White Settler Colonies – Relationship between Europeans andIndigenous peoples – Aborigines in Australia or Africans and theBritish and Dutch in South Africa.• Tropical Colonies – India and the British Raj.
Changes in Global Commerce,Communication and Technology• Modes of Transportation/ communication– Impact of railroad, steam, telegraph– Suez Canal, Panama Canal
Changes in Global Commerce,Communication and Technology• Industrial Revolution– Origins of I.R. – where, whatand when– Rationale of capitalism –Adam Smith– Impact of I.R. on time, family,work, labor– Relationship of nations during I.R.– Intellectual responses to I.R. – Marxism, socialism
Demographic andEnvironmental Changes• End of Atlantic Slave Trade• New Birthrate Patterns• Disease prevention and eradication• Food Supply
Changes in Social and Gender Structure• Political Revolutions• Industrial Revolution• Intellectual Movements• Commercial developments• Tension between work patterns and ideas about gender• Emancipation of Serfs and SlavesBrought About By:
Effects of Revolutions on WomenBefore Revolutions After Revolutions Women expected to be wives andmothers; could not vote or hold politicaloffice Unmarried women under authority oftheir fathers Once married, couldnt work, enterinto contracts, or control own estateswithout husband’s permission Enlightenment ideas enforced beliefsthat women biologically and sociallydifferent from men and should stick todomestic tasks Women secluded within homes; hadto wear long skirts or dresses Lower class women had morefreedom than those of upper class Women allowed to be educated: atfirst the sole purpose was to train themfor “enlightened” role within the home Demand for teachers allowed forhigher education; women became moreconfident and advocated women’s rightsAs 20th century progressed, womengained right to vote in addition to othercivil liberties (Ex: raised hemline ofdresses) (Not until Unit V) When men went off to war, leftopenings in factory positions whichwere filled by women (provedthemselves able to work in even heavyindustry, including munitions) (Not untilUnit V)
European women 19th centuryBritish familyin IndiaQueen Victoria’sfamilyRussian peasant family
Changes in Social and Gender Structure• Women’s emancipation movements
Comparisons• Industrial revolution in western Europe andJapan (causes and early phases)• Revolutions (American, French, Haitian, LatinAmerican, Mexican, and Chinese)• Reaction to foreign domination in OttomanEmpire, China, India and Japan.
Comparisons• Nationalism• Forms of intervention in 19th century LatinAmerica and Africa• Roles and conditions of upper/ middle versusworking/ peasant class women in westernEurope
Conclusions• What are the global processes that are atplay? Which have intensified? Diminished?• Predict how the events of the 19th centuryare a natural culmination of earlierdevelopments.• Speculate what historical events in the 19thcentury would have most surprisedhistorians of earlier eras.