The vietnamwar
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The vietnamwar

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  • Ho Chi Minh had been fighting for Vietnamese independence since World War I.\n\nThe U.S. gave France aid to win its support in American anticommunist efforts in Western Europe.\n
  • Ho Chi Minh had been fighting for Vietnamese independence since World War I.\n\nThe U.S. gave France aid to win its support in American anticommunist efforts in Western Europe.\n
  • Ho Chi Minh had been fighting for Vietnamese independence since World War I.\n\nThe U.S. gave France aid to win its support in American anticommunist efforts in Western Europe.\n
  • Ho Chi Minh had been fighting for Vietnamese independence since World War I.\n\nThe U.S. gave France aid to win its support in American anticommunist efforts in Western Europe.\n
  • Ho Chi Minh had been fighting for Vietnamese independence since World War I.\n\nThe U.S. gave France aid to win its support in American anticommunist efforts in Western Europe.\n
  • Ho Chi Minh had been fighting for Vietnamese independence since World War I.\n\nThe U.S. gave France aid to win its support in American anticommunist efforts in Western Europe.\n
  • Realizing he would Diem backs out of elections.\n
  • Realizing he would Diem backs out of elections.\n
  • Realizing he would Diem backs out of elections.\n
  • Realizing he would Diem backs out of elections.\n
  • Realizing he would Diem backs out of elections.\n
  • Realizing he would lose, Diem backed out of elections.\n
  • Realizing he would lose, Diem backed out of elections.\n
  • Realizing he would Diem backs out of elections.\n
  • Realizing he would Diem backs out of elections.\n
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  • Kennedy’s advisors were clearly fighting a covert war by 1963. \n\nMacNamara has suggested that he believes Kennedy would have pulled the U.S. out, but evidence in inconclusive.\n\nJFK realizes Diem is a liability; offers quiet support to a Vietnamese military coup d’etat.\n\nThe coup results in the brutal murders of Diem and his brother\n\nThe Vietnamese generals overthrow one another. A relatively stable, but tyrannical government emerges. It is little better than Diem’s.\n
  • Kennedy’s advisors were clearly fighting a covert war by 1963. \n\nMacNamara has suggested that he believes Kennedy would have pulled the U.S. out, but evidence in inconclusive.\n\nJFK realizes Diem is a liability; offers quiet support to a Vietnamese military coup d’etat.\n\nThe coup results in the brutal murders of Diem and his brother\n\nThe Vietnamese generals overthrow one another. A relatively stable, but tyrannical government emerges. It is little better than Diem’s.\n
  • Kennedy’s advisors were clearly fighting a covert war by 1963. \n\nMacNamara has suggested that he believes Kennedy would have pulled the U.S. out, but evidence in inconclusive.\n\nJFK realizes Diem is a liability; offers quiet support to a Vietnamese military coup d’etat.\n\nThe coup results in the brutal murders of Diem and his brother\n\nThe Vietnamese generals overthrow one another. A relatively stable, but tyrannical government emerges. It is little better than Diem’s.\n
  • Kennedy’s advisors were clearly fighting a covert war by 1963. \n\nMacNamara has suggested that he believes Kennedy would have pulled the U.S. out, but evidence in inconclusive.\n\nJFK realizes Diem is a liability; offers quiet support to a Vietnamese military coup d’etat.\n\nThe coup results in the brutal murders of Diem and his brother\n\nThe Vietnamese generals overthrow one another. A relatively stable, but tyrannical government emerges. It is little better than Diem’s.\n
  • What Johnson told Congress\nWhat he didn’t tell Congress:\nHe had already written the resolution before the “incident.”\nThe U.S. naval vessels were aiding ARVN in commando raids in North Vietnam at the time.\n He learned that the attack probably hadn’t occurred.\nThe U.S. navy was not on the “high seas” but in N. Vietnam’s 12 mile territorial limit.\n
  • What Johnson told Congress\nWhat he didn’t tell Congress:\nHe had already written the resolution before the “incident.”\nThe U.S. naval vessels were aiding ARVN in commando raids in North Vietnam at the time.\n He learned that the attack probably hadn’t occurred.\nThe U.S. navy was not on the “high seas” but in N. Vietnam’s 12 mile territorial limit.\n
  • What Johnson told Congress\nWhat he didn’t tell Congress:\nHe had already written the resolution before the “incident.”\nThe U.S. naval vessels were aiding ARVN in commando raids in North Vietnam at the time.\n He learned that the attack probably hadn’t occurred.\nThe U.S. navy was not on the “high seas” but in N. Vietnam’s 12 mile territorial limit.\n
  • What Johnson told Congress\nWhat he didn’t tell Congress:\nHe had already written the resolution before the “incident.”\nThe U.S. naval vessels were aiding ARVN in commando raids in North Vietnam at the time.\n He learned that the attack probably hadn’t occurred.\nThe U.S. navy was not on the “high seas” but in N. Vietnam’s 12 mile territorial limit.\n
  • What Johnson told Congress\nWhat he didn’t tell Congress:\nHe had already written the resolution before the “incident.”\nThe U.S. naval vessels were aiding ARVN in commando raids in North Vietnam at the time.\n He learned that the attack probably hadn’t occurred.\nThe U.S. navy was not on the “high seas” but in N. Vietnam’s 12 mile territorial limit.\n
  • What Johnson told Congress\nWhat he didn’t tell Congress:\nHe had already written the resolution before the “incident.”\nThe U.S. naval vessels were aiding ARVN in commando raids in North Vietnam at the time.\n He learned that the attack probably hadn’t occurred.\nThe U.S. navy was not on the “high seas” but in N. Vietnam’s 12 mile territorial limit.\n
  • What Johnson told Congress\nWhat he didn’t tell Congress:\nHe had already written the resolution before the “incident.”\nThe U.S. naval vessels were aiding ARVN in commando raids in North Vietnam at the time.\n He learned that the attack probably hadn’t occurred.\nThe U.S. navy was not on the “high seas” but in N. Vietnam’s 12 mile territorial limit.\n
  • What Johnson told Congress\nWhat he didn’t tell Congress:\nHe had already written the resolution before the “incident.”\nThe U.S. naval vessels were aiding ARVN in commando raids in North Vietnam at the time.\n He learned that the attack probably hadn’t occurred.\nThe U.S. navy was not on the “high seas” but in N. Vietnam’s 12 mile territorial limit.\n
  • Kennedy’s advisors were clearly fighting a covert war by 1963. \n\nMacNamara has suggested that he believes Kennedy would have pulled the U.S. out, but evidence in inconclusive.\n\nJFK realizes Diem is a liability; offers quiet support to a Vietnamese military coup d’etat.\n\nThe coup results in the brutal murders of Diem and his brother\n\nThe Vietnamese generals overthrow one another. A relatively stable, but tyrannical government emerges. It is little better than Diem’s.\n
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  • Nixon’s “secret” plan never materializes.\nHe involved us more.\n“Peace with Honor” We’ll win befoe we withdraw.\nExpansion:Cambodia invaded in 1970: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n Laos invaded in 1971: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n
  • Nixon’s “secret” plan never materializes.\nHe involved us more.\n“Peace with Honor” We’ll win befoe we withdraw.\nExpansion:Cambodia invaded in 1970: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n Laos invaded in 1971: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n
  • Nixon’s “secret” plan never materializes.\nHe involved us more.\n“Peace with Honor” We’ll win befoe we withdraw.\nExpansion:Cambodia invaded in 1970: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n Laos invaded in 1971: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n
  • Nixon’s “secret” plan never materializes.\nHe involved us more.\n“Peace with Honor” We’ll win befoe we withdraw.\nExpansion:Cambodia invaded in 1970: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n Laos invaded in 1971: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n
  • Nixon’s “secret” plan never materializes.\nHe involved us more.\n“Peace with Honor” We’ll win befoe we withdraw.\nExpansion:Cambodia invaded in 1970: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n Laos invaded in 1971: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n
  • Nixon’s “secret” plan never materializes.\nHe involved us more.\n“Peace with Honor” We’ll win befoe we withdraw.\nExpansion:Cambodia invaded in 1970: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n Laos invaded in 1971: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n
  • Nixon’s “secret” plan never materializes.\nHe involved us more.\n“Peace with Honor” We’ll win befoe we withdraw.\nExpansion:Cambodia invaded in 1970: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n Laos invaded in 1971: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n
  • Nixon’s “secret” plan never materializes.\nHe involved us more.\n“Peace with Honor” We’ll win befoe we withdraw.\nExpansion:Cambodia invaded in 1970: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n Laos invaded in 1971: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n
  • Nixon’s “secret” plan never materializes.\nHe involved us more.\n“Peace with Honor” We’ll win befoe we withdraw.\nExpansion:Cambodia invaded in 1970: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n Laos invaded in 1971: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n
  • Nixon’s “secret” plan never materializes.\nHe involved us more.\n“Peace with Honor” We’ll win befoe we withdraw.\nExpansion:Cambodia invaded in 1970: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n Laos invaded in 1971: Ho Chi Minh Trail\n
  • Nixon resigns over the Watergate Scandal in 1974.\n\nFord takes the helm.\n
  • Nixon resigns over the Watergate Scandal in 1974.\n\nFord takes the helm.\n
  • Nixon resigns over the Watergate Scandal in 1974.\n\nFord takes the helm.\n
  • Nixon resigns over the Watergate Scandal in 1974.\n\nFord takes the helm.\n
  • Nixon resigns over the Watergate Scandal in 1974.\n\nFord takes the helm.\n
  • Nixon resigns over the Watergate Scandal in 1974.\n\nFord takes the helm.\n
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  • Many U.S.-loyal South Vietnamese attempt to flee for fear of execution by the North.\n
  • Many U.S.-loyal South Vietnamese attempt to flee for fear of execution by the North.\n
  • Many U.S.-loyal South Vietnamese attempt to flee for fear of execution by the North.\n
  • Many U.S.-loyal South Vietnamese attempt to flee for fear of execution by the North.\n
  • Many U.S.-loyal South Vietnamese attempt to flee for fear of execution by the North.\n
  • Many U.S.-loyal South Vietnamese attempt to flee for fear of execution by the North.\n
  • Many U.S.-loyal South Vietnamese attempt to flee for fear of execution by the North.\n
  • Many U.S.-loyal South Vietnamese attempt to flee for fear of execution by the North.\n
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  • Diversion of capital to the war indirectly caused economic recession: 11% inflation and 12% unemployment!\n
  • Diversion of capital to the war indirectly caused economic recession: 11% inflation and 12% unemployment!\n
  • Diversion of capital to the war indirectly caused economic recession: 11% inflation and 12% unemployment!\n
  • Diversion of capital to the war indirectly caused economic recession: 11% inflation and 12% unemployment!\n
  • Diversion of capital to the war indirectly caused economic recession: 11% inflation and 12% unemployment!\n
  • War Powers Act., 1973, passed over Nixon's veto, requires the President to\nnotify Congress within 48 hours of his use of military force in a foreign country or enlarging an ongoing conflict. \nThe President must secure Congressional approval if he intends to keep these troops overseas for more than 60 days. If he doesn't, he must withdraw the forces.\nCongress can pass a joint resolution to withdraw the troops before the 60 day deadline. (Each President since has denied its validity, though the issue has never been tested.)\n\nNo welcome home (shamed and ashamed), high unemployment, alcohol & drug abuse; poor care of disabled vets: underfunded vets hospitals, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; Agent Orange health problems, birth defects in vets’ children. \n
  • War Powers Act., 1973, passed over Nixon's veto, requires the President to\nnotify Congress within 48 hours of his use of military force in a foreign country or enlarging an ongoing conflict. \nThe President must secure Congressional approval if he intends to keep these troops overseas for more than 60 days. If he doesn't, he must withdraw the forces.\nCongress can pass a joint resolution to withdraw the troops before the 60 day deadline. (Each President since has denied its validity, though the issue has never been tested.)\n\nNo welcome home (shamed and ashamed), high unemployment, alcohol & drug abuse; poor care of disabled vets: underfunded vets hospitals, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; Agent Orange health problems, birth defects in vets’ children. \n
  • War Powers Act., 1973, passed over Nixon's veto, requires the President to\nnotify Congress within 48 hours of his use of military force in a foreign country or enlarging an ongoing conflict. \nThe President must secure Congressional approval if he intends to keep these troops overseas for more than 60 days. If he doesn't, he must withdraw the forces.\nCongress can pass a joint resolution to withdraw the troops before the 60 day deadline. (Each President since has denied its validity, though the issue has never been tested.)\n\nNo welcome home (shamed and ashamed), high unemployment, alcohol & drug abuse; poor care of disabled vets: underfunded vets hospitals, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; Agent Orange health problems, birth defects in vets’ children. \n
  • War Powers Act., 1973, passed over Nixon's veto, requires the President to\nnotify Congress within 48 hours of his use of military force in a foreign country or enlarging an ongoing conflict. \nThe President must secure Congressional approval if he intends to keep these troops overseas for more than 60 days. If he doesn't, he must withdraw the forces.\nCongress can pass a joint resolution to withdraw the troops before the 60 day deadline. (Each President since has denied its validity, though the issue has never been tested.)\n\nNo welcome home (shamed and ashamed), high unemployment, alcohol & drug abuse; poor care of disabled vets: underfunded vets hospitals, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; Agent Orange health problems, birth defects in vets’ children. \n
  • War Powers Act., 1973, passed over Nixon's veto, requires the President to\nnotify Congress within 48 hours of his use of military force in a foreign country or enlarging an ongoing conflict. \nThe President must secure Congressional approval if he intends to keep these troops overseas for more than 60 days. If he doesn't, he must withdraw the forces.\nCongress can pass a joint resolution to withdraw the troops before the 60 day deadline. (Each President since has denied its validity, though the issue has never been tested.)\n\nNo welcome home (shamed and ashamed), high unemployment, alcohol & drug abuse; poor care of disabled vets: underfunded vets hospitals, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; Agent Orange health problems, birth defects in vets’ children. \n
  • War Powers Act., 1973, passed over Nixon's veto, requires the President to\nnotify Congress within 48 hours of his use of military force in a foreign country or enlarging an ongoing conflict. \nThe President must secure Congressional approval if he intends to keep these troops overseas for more than 60 days. If he doesn't, he must withdraw the forces.\nCongress can pass a joint resolution to withdraw the troops before the 60 day deadline. (Each President since has denied its validity, though the issue has never been tested.)\n\nNo welcome home (shamed and ashamed), high unemployment, alcohol & drug abuse; poor care of disabled vets: underfunded vets hospitals, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; Agent Orange health problems, birth defects in vets’ children. \n
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The vietnamwar The vietnamwar Presentation Transcript

  • The Vietnam War1954 - 1975
  • Background to the War
  • Background to the Warz France controlled “Indochina” since the late 19th century
  • Background to the Warz France controlled “Indochina” since the late 19th centuryz Japan took control during World War II
  • Background to the Warz France controlled “Indochina” since the late 19th centuryz Japan took control during World War IIz With U.S. aid, France attempted re-colonization in the postwar period
  • Background to the War
  • Background to the Warz The French lost control to Ho Chi Minh’s Viet Minh forces in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu
  • Background to the Warz The French lost control to Ho Chi Minh’s Viet Minh forces in 1954 at Dien Bien Phuz President Eisenhower declined to intervene on behalf of France.
  • Background to the War
  • Background to the Warz International Conference at Geneva
  • Background to the Warz International Conference at Geneva P Vietnam was divided at 17th parallel
  • Background to the Warz International Conference at Geneva P Vietnam was divided at 17th parallel O Ho Chi Minh’s nationalist forces controlled the North
  • Background to the Warz International Conference at Geneva P Vietnam was divided at 17th parallel O Ho Chi Minh’s nationalist forces controlled the North O Ngo Dinh Diem, a French- educated, Roman Catholic claimed control of the
  • Background to the War
  • Background to the Warz A date was set for democratic elections to reunify Vietnam
  • Background to the Warz A date was set for democratic elections to reunify Vietnamz Diem backed out of the elections, leading to military conflict between North and South
  • U.S. MilitaryInvolvement Begins
  • U.S. Military Involvement Beginsz Repressive dictatorial rule by Diem P Diem’s family holds all power P Wealth is hoarded by the elite P Buddhist majority persecuted P Torture, lack of political freedom prevailz The U.S. aided Diem’s government P Ike sent financial and military aid
  • Early Protests ofDiem’s Government
  • Early Protests of Diem’s GovernmentSelf-Emolation by a Buddhist Monk
  • U.S. MilitaryInvolvement Begins
  • U.S. Military Involvement Beginsz Kennedy elected 1960
  • U.S. Military Involvement Beginsz Kennedy elected 1960z Increases military “advisors” to 16,000
  • U.S. Military Involvement Beginsz Kennedy elected 1960z Increases military “advisors” to 16,000z 1963: JFK supports a Vietnamese military coup d’etat – Diem and his brother are murdered (Nov. 2)
  • U.S. Military Involvement Beginsz Kennedy elected 1960z Increases military “advisors” to 16,000z 1963: JFK supports a Vietnamese military coup d’etat – Diem and his brother are murdered (Nov. 2)z Kennedy was assassinated just
  • Johnson SendsGround Forces
  • Johnson Sends Ground Forcesz Remembers Truman’s “loss” of China  Domino Theory revived
  • Johnson Sends Ground Forcesz Remembers Truman’s “loss” of China  Domino Theory revived I’m not going to be the president who saw Southeast Asia go the way China went.
  • Johnson SendsGround Forces
  • Johnson Sends Ground Forcesz Advised to rout the communists by Secretary of State, Robert S. McNamara
  • Johnson Sends Ground Forcesz Advised to rout the communists by Secretary of State, Robert S. McNamaraz Tonkin Gulf Incident  1964 (acc. to Johnson, the attacks were unprovoked)
  • Johnson Sends Ground Forcesz Advised to rout the communists by Secretary of State, Robert S. McNamaraz Tonkin Gulf Incident  1964 (acc. to Johnson, the attacks were unprovoked)z Tonkin Gulf Resolution
  • Johnson Sends Ground Forcesz Advised to rout the communists by Secretary of State, Robert S. McNamaraz Tonkin Gulf Incident  1964 (acc. to Johnson, the attacks were unprovoked)z Tonkin Gulf Resolution P “The Blank Check” *
  • U.S. TroopDeployments
  • The Ground War 1965-1968
  • The Ground War 1965-1968z No territorial goals
  • The Ground War 1965-1968z No territorial goalsz Body counts on TV every night (first “living room” war)
  • The Air War1965-1968
  • The Air War 1965-1968z 1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnam
  • The Air War 1965-1968z 1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnamz Operation Rolling Thunder (March 2, 1965)
  • The Air War 1965-1968z 1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnamz Operation Rolling Thunder (March 2, 1965)z 1966-68: Ongoing bombing of Hanoi nonstop for 3 years! Esp. targets the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
  • The Air War 1965-1968z 1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnamz Operation Rolling Thunder (March 2, 1965)z 1966-68: Ongoing bombing of Hanoi nonstop for 3 years! Esp. targets the Ho Chi Minh Trail.z Downed Pilots: P.O.W.s
  • The Air War:A Napalm Attack
  • Who Is the
  • Who Is thez Vietcong:
  • Who Is thez Vietcong: P Farmers by day; guerillas at night.
  • Who Is thez Vietcong: P Farmers by day; guerillas at night. P Very patient people willing to accept many casualties.
  • Who Is thez Vietcong: P Farmers by day; guerillas at night. P Very patient people willing to accept many casualties. P The US grossly underestimated their resolve and their
  • Who Is thez Vietcong: P Farmers by day; guerillas at night. P Very patient people willing to accept many casualties. P The US grossly underestimated their resolve and theirThe guerilla wins if he does not lose,the conventional army loses if it doesnot win. -- Mao Zedong
  • Who Is the
  • Who Is the
  • Who Is the
  • Who Is the
  • The Ground War 1965-1968z General Westmoreland, late 1967:
  • The Ground War 1965-1968z General Westmoreland, late 1967: We can see the “light at the end of the tunnel.”
  • The Tet Offensive, January 1968
  • The Tet Offensive, January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon)
  • The Tet Offensive, January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon)z Take every major southern city
  • The Tet Offensive, January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon)z Take every major southern cityz U.S. + ARVN beat back the offensive
  • The Tet Offensive, January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon)z Take every major southern cityz U.S. + ARVN beat back the offensivez Viet Cong destroyed
  • The Tet Offensive, January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon)z Take every major southern cityz U.S. + ARVN beat back the offensivez Viet Cong destroyedz N. Vietnamese army debilitated
  • The Tet Offensive, January 1968z N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously (67,000 attack 100 cities, bases, and the US embassy in Saigon)z Take every major southern cityz U.S. + ARVN beat back the offensivez Viet Cong destroyedz N. Vietnamese army debilitatedz BUT…it’s seen as an American defeat
  • The TetOffensive, January 1968
  • Impact of theTet Offensive
  • Impact of the Tet Offensivez Domestic U.S. Reaction: Disbelief, Anger, Distrust of Johnson Administrationz Hey, Hey LBJ! How many kids did you kill today?
  • Johnson’spopularitydropped in1968 from48% to 36%.
  • Impact of the Vietnam WarJohnson announces (March, 1968):
  • Impact of the Vietnam WarJohnson announces (March, 1968): …I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your President.
  • American Morale Begins to Dip
  • American Morale Begins to Dipz Disproportionate representation of poor people and minorities.
  • American Morale Begins to Dipz Disproportionate representation of poor people and minorities.z Severe racial problems.
  • American Morale Begins to Dipz Disproportionate representation of poor people and minorities.z Severe racial problems.z Major drug problems.
  • American Morale Begins to Dipz Disproportionate representation of poor people and minorities.z Severe racial problems.z Major drug problems.z Officers in combat 6 mo.; in rear 6 mo. Enlisted
  • Are We Becoming the Enemy?Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry
  • Are We Becoming the Enemy?Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry z Mylai Massacre, 1968 z 200-500 unarmed villagers
  • Are We Becoming the Enemy? Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry z Mylai Massacre, 1968 z 200-500 unarmed villagersz Lt. William Calley, Platoon Leader
  • Anti-WarDemonstrations Columbia University 1967
  • Hell no, we won’t go!
  • Anti-War Demonstrations Student Protestors at Univ. of CA in Berkeley, 1968Democratic Convention in Chicago, 1968
  • “Hanoi Jane”Jane Fonda: Traitor?
  • Anti-War Demonstrations z May 4, 1970 z 4 students shot dead. z 11 students wounded z Jackson State University z May 10, 1970Kent State University z 2 dead; 12 wounded
  • Nixon on Vietnam
  • Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor
  • Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor P Appealed to the great “Silent Majority”
  • Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor P Appealed to the great “Silent Majority”z Vietnamization
  • Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor P Appealed to the great “Silent Majority”z Vietnamizationz Expansion of the conflict  The “Secret War”
  • Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor P Appealed to the great “Silent Majority”z Vietnamizationz Expansion of the conflict  The “Secret War” P Cambodia
  • Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor P Appealed to the great “Silent Majority”z Vietnamizationz Expansion of the conflict  The “Secret War” P Cambodia P Laos
  • Nixon on Vietnamz Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor P Appealed to the great “Silent Majority”z Vietnamizationz Expansion of the conflict  The “Secret War” P Cambodia P Laosz Agent Orange
  • “Pentagon Papers,” 1971
  • “Pentagon Papers,” 1971z Former defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg leaked govt. docs. regarding war efforts during Johnson’s administration to the New York Times.
  • “Pentagon Papers,” 1971z Former defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg leaked govt. docs. regarding war efforts during Johnson’s administration to the New York Times.z Docs. Govt. misled Congress & Amer. People regarding its intentions in Vietnam during mid-1960s.
  • “Pentagon Papers,” 1971z Former defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg leaked govt. docs. regarding war efforts during Johnson’s administration to the New York Times.z Docs. Govt. misled Congress & Amer. People regarding its intentions in Vietnam during mid-1960s. P Primary reason for fighting not to eliminate communism, but to avoid humiliating defeat.
  • The Ceasefire, 1973
  • The Ceasefire, 1973z Peace is at hand  Kissinger, 1972 P North Vietnam attacks South P Most Massive U.S. bombing commences
  • The Ceasefire, 1973z Peace is at hand  Kissinger, 1972 P North Vietnam attacks South P Most Massive U.S. bombing commencesz 1973: Ceasefire signed between P U.S., South Vietnam, & North Vietnam
  • The Ceasefire, 1973z Peace is at hand  Kissinger, 1972 P North Vietnam attacks South P Most Massive U.S. bombing commencesz 1973: Ceasefire signed between P U.S., South Vietnam, & North Vietnamz Peace with honor (President Nixon)
  • PeaceNegotiations
  • Peace Negotiations z US & Vietnamese argue for 5 months over the size of the conference table!Dr. Henry Kissinger & Le Duc Tho
  • The Ceasefire,
  • The Ceasefire,z Conditions:
  • The Ceasefire,z Conditions: 1. U.S. to remove all troops
  • The Ceasefire,z Conditions: 1. U.S. to remove all troops 2. North Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V.
  • The Ceasefire,z Conditions: 1. U.S. to remove all troops 2. North Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V. 3. North Vietnam would resume war
  • The Ceasefire,z Conditions: 1. U.S. to remove all troops 2. North Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V. 3. North Vietnam would resume war 4. No provision for POWs or MIAs
  • The Ceasefire,z Conditions: 1. U.S. to remove all troops 2. North Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V. 3. North Vietnam would resume war 4. No provision for POWs or MIAsz Last American troops left South Vietnam on March 29, 1973
  • The Ceasefire,z Conditions: 1. U.S. to remove all troops 2. North Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V. 3. North Vietnam would resume war 4. No provision for POWs or MIAsz Last American troops left South Vietnam on March 29, 1973z 1975: North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam
  • The Ceasefire,z Conditions: 1. U.S. to remove all troops 2. North Vietnam could leave troops already in S.V. 3. North Vietnam would resume war 4. No provision for POWs or MIAsz Last American troops left South Vietnam on March 29, 1973z 1975: North Vietnam defeats South Vietnamz Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City
  • The Fall of Saigon
  • The Fall of Saigon South VietnameseAttempt to Flee the Country
  • The Fall of Saigon April 30, 1975America Abandons Its Embassy
  • The Fall of Saigon
  • The Fall of Saigon North Vietnameseat the Presidential Palace
  • A United Vietnam
  • A United VietnamFormerly Saigon
  • The Costs
  • The Costs1. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed
  • The Costs1. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed2. 58,000 Americans killed; 300,000 wounded
  • The Costs1. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed2. 58,000 Americans killed; 300,000 wounded3. Under-funding of Great Society programs
  • The Costs1. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed2. 58,000 Americans killed; 300,000 wounded3. Under-funding of Great Society programs4. $150,000,000,000 in U.S. spending
  • The Costs1. 3,000,000 Vietnamese killed2. 58,000 Americans killed; 300,000 wounded3. Under-funding of Great Society programs4. $150,000,000,000 in U.S. spending5. U.S. morale, self-confidence,
  • The Impact
  • The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds vote
  • The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds votez Nixon abolished the draft all-volunteer army
  • The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds votez Nixon abolished the draft all-volunteer armyz War Powers Act, 1973 ‫٭‬
  • The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds votez Nixon abolished the draft all-volunteer armyz War Powers Act, 1973 ‫٭‬ P President must notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying military force
  • The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds votez Nixon abolished the draft all-volunteer armyz War Powers Act, 1973 ‫٭‬ P President must notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying military force P President must withdraw forces unless he gains Congressional approval within 90 days
  • The Impactz 26th Amendment: 18-year-olds votez Nixon abolished the draft all-volunteer armyz War Powers Act, 1973 ‫٭‬ P President must notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying military force P President must withdraw forces unless he gains Congressional approval within 90 daysz Disregard for Veterans  seen as “baby killers”
  • Some American POWs Returned from the “Hanoi Hilton”
  • Some American POWs Returned from the “Hanoi Hilton”Senator John McCain (R-AZ)
  • 2,583 American POWs / MIAsstill unaccounted for today.
  • 2,583 American POWs / MIAsstill unaccounted for today.
  • Andin the End….Ho Chi Minh:
  • And in the End…. Ho Chi Minh: If we have to fight, we will fight. You will kill ten of our men and we willkill one of yours, and in the end itwill be you who tires of it.
  • Lessons for FutureAmerican Presidents
  • Lessons for Future American Presidents1. Wars must be of short duration.
  • Lessons for Future American Presidents1. Wars must be of short duration.2. Wars must yield few American casualties.
  • Lessons for Future American Presidents1. Wars must be of short duration.2. Wars must yield few American casualties.3. Restrict media access to battlefields.
  • Lessons for Future American Presidents1. Wars must be of short duration.2. Wars must yield few American casualties.3. Restrict media access to battlefields.4. Develop and maintain Congressional and public support.
  • Lessons for Future American Presidents1. Wars must be of short duration.2. Wars must yield few American casualties.3. Restrict media access to battlefields.4. Develop and maintain Congressional and public support.5. Set clear, winnable goals.
  • The Vietnam Memorial,Washington, D.C.
  • Memorial to USServicemen in Vietnam
  • Memorial to USNurses in Vietnam
  • 58,000
  • President Clintonformally recognized Vietnam on July 11, 1995
  • Where Were Youin the War, Daddy?
  • Where Were Youin the War, Daddy? This war haunts us still!
  • AND TODAY…..The “Light” at the
  • AND TODAY….. The “Light” at the2003 to ?: “Operation Iraqi Freedom”3000+ American dead and counting…?
  • Another Vietnam? ORA transformation of the Middle East?Only time & history can tell!
  • Bibliographyz Nash, Gary, et al. The American People, Harper & Row, 1986z Compton’s Encyclopedia 2000 Deluxe, Broderbund, 1999.z The Americans, McDougal Littell, 1998z A myriad of web sites on the internet