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The cold war-t_sothers

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  • Transcript

    • 1. The Cold War Mr. Thomas Sothars De Smet Jesuit HS
    • 2. Yalta Feb 1945 Big Three – FDR – Churchill – Stalin Agreement to govern Germany jointly
    • 3. Iron Curtain Speech “From Stettin in the  1946 Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron  Fulton Missouri Curtain has  Statement clearly descended across the continent." describing existing situationhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jvax5VUvjWQ
    • 4. Marshall Plan On June 5, U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall – proposes a massive aid program to rebuild Europe from the ravages of World War II. Nearly $13 billion in U.S. aid was sent to Europe from 1948 to 1952. – The Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe decline U.S. aid, citing "dollar
    • 5. COMECON Soviet response to Marshall plan Council for Mutual Economic Assistance Est’d 1949
    • 6. Truman Doctrine March 12, 1947 Greece and Turkey in danger of falling to communist insurgents Truman requested $400 million from Congress in aid to both countries. Successful effort
    • 7. Containment Policy George F. Kennan, Senior State Department official, posted to USSR during war. July 1947, article in Foreign Affairs journal, under author “X” – War originally a Long Telegram sent back to State Department, then published in Foreign Affairs – “...we are going to continue for a long time to find the Russians difficult to deal with. It does not mean that they should be considered as embarked upon a do-or- die program to overthrow our society...
    • 8. Communist Takeover in Czechoslovakia Feb. 1948 Key members of Czech gov’t die mysteriously Pro-western President forced to resign, new constitution ratified – Complete takeover by Czech communists
    • 9. Berlin Airlift Blockade of Berlin began on June 24, ’48 From June 1948 to May 1949, U.S. and British planes airlift 1.5 million tons of supplies to the residents of West Berlin. After 200,000 flights, the Soviet Union lifts the
    • 10. Operation Vittles All of the necessities for the citys 2.5 million residents -- an estimated 4,500 tons of food, coal and other materials each day -- had to enter the city by air. On its biggest day, the "Easter parade" of April 16, 1949, the airlift sent 1,398 flights into Berlin -- one every minute. Before it was all over, more than 278,000 flights would carry 2.3 million tons of relief supplies.
    • 11. Berlin Airlift The airlift marked a rise in tensions between the West and the Soviets, but it also helped heal divisions left by World War II. Almost immediately, The United States, Great Britain, and France shifted from Germanys conquerors to its protectors. "The airlift was the starting point for Germanys inclusion in the West and for the reconciliation with the Western powers," Berlin Mayor Eberhard Diepgen says. Allied cooperation paved way for formation of new military alliance, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO Soviets formed their own alliance called Warsaw Pact in 1955
    • 12. 1949 – Fall of China In June, Jiang Jieshi defeated by Mao – Flee to island of Taiwan Oct 1, Mao proclaims People’s Republic of China (PRC) Two months later, Mao travels to Moscow, – negotiates the Sino- Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance.
    • 13. Korean War, 1950-1953 On June 25, North Korean communist forces cross the 38th parallel and invade South Korea. On June 27, Truman orders U.S. forces to assist the South Koreans The U.N. Security Council condemns the invasion and est’d a 15-nation fighting force. Chinese troops enter the conflict by years end. Cease fire eventually
    • 14. Dien Bien Phu After a long siege, Vietnamese communists under Ho Chi Minh defeat French colonial forces at Dien Bien Phu on May 7. In July, the Geneva Accords divide the country at the 17th parallel, creating a North and South Vietnam. The United States assumes the chief responsibility of providing
    • 15. General Vo Nguyen Giap.
    • 16. Massive Retaliation  On January 12, 1955 U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles first announces the doctrine of Massive Retaliation.  It threatens full- scale nuclear attack on the Soviet Union in response to communist aggression anywhere in the world.John Foster Dulles and MacArthur in Korea, 1950
    • 17. 1956 - Khrushchevs secret speech In a speech, February 14, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev denounces the policies of Stalin. He rejects the Leninist idea of the inevitability of war and calls for a doctrine of "peaceful coexistence" between capitalist and communist systems. 1959 Kitchen debate
    • 18. Sputnik  On October 4, the Soviet Union launches Sputnik, the first man- made satellite to orbit the Earth.  In 1958, the U.S. creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the space race is in full gear.
    • 19. 1959 - Castro takes power January 1, 1959 leftist forces under Fidel Castro overthrow Fulgencio Batista Castro nationalizes the sugar industry and signs trade agreements with the Soviet Union. The next year, Castro seizes U.S.
    • 20. 1960 - The U-2 Affair  On May 1, an American high- altitude U-2 spy plane is shot down on a mission over the Soviet Union.  After the Soviets announce the capture of pilot Francis Gary Powers, the United States recants earlier assertions that the plane was on a weather research mission.
    • 21. The U-2 Affair •Suffering major embarrassment, Eisenhower was forced to admit the truth behind the mission and the U-2 program, although he refused to publicly apologize to Khrushchev. •This refusal caused the Paris Summit to collapse when Khrushchev stormed out of negotiations. Powers was sentenced to ten years in prison, including seven years of hard labor, following an infamous show- trial. He served less than two years, however, and was released
    • 22. 1961 - Bay of Pigs  U.S.-organized invasion force of 1,400 Cuban exiles is defeated by Castros government forces on Cubas south coast at the Bay of Pigs.  Launched from Guatemala in ships and planes provided by the United States, the invaders surrender on April 20 after three days of fighting.  Kennedy takes fullCaptured Cubans responsibility for the disaster.
    • 23. 1961 - Berlin Wall On August 15, communist authorities begin construction on the Berlin Wall to prevent East Germans from fleeing to West Berlin.
    • 24. JFK in Berlinhttp://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5359589
    • 25. 1962 - Cuban Missile Crisis After Bay of Pigs invasion, the Soviet Union installed nuclear missiles in Cuba. After U-2 flights Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of Cuba on October 22 until the Soviet Union removed its missiles. On October 28, the Soviets agreed to remove the missiles, defusing one of the most dangerous confrontations of the Cold War.
    • 26. Copyright 2007 unimaps.com, used with permission
    • 27. 1964 - Gulf of Tonkin Resolution North Vietnamese patrol boats fired on the USS Mattox in the Gulf of Tonkin on August 2. On August 7, the U.S. Congress approves the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, granting President Johnson authority to send U.S. troops to South Vietnam.
    • 28. 1968 - Tet Offensive Viet Cong guerrillas and North Vietnamese Army troops launched attacks across South Vietnam on January 30, the start of the lunar new year Tet. In Saigon, guerrillas battle Marines at the U.S. Embassy. In March, Johnson orders a halt to the U.S. bombing of North Vietnam and offers peace talks.
    • 29. 1968 - Prague Spring  On January 5, reformer Alexander Dubcek came to power as general secretary of the Communist Party in Czechoslovakia, pledging reforms and democratization  The Prague Spring movement swept across the country.  Soviet and Warsaw Pact leaders sent 650,000 troops in August.  Dubcek arrested and hard- liners restored to power.
    • 30. 1969 - Vietnamization 1968, Richard Nixon elected President, defeating Hubert Humphrey On June 8, 1969 U.S. President Nixon announced his "Vietnamization" plan, designed to withdraw U.S ground forces from Vietnam and turn control of the war over to South Vietnamese forces.
    • 31. 1969 -- SALT On November 17, the 1st phase of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks began in Helsinki, Finland. The finished agreement, signed in Moscow on May 26, 1972, placed limits on both submarine-launched and intercontinental nuclear missiles.
    • 32. 1972 –Nixon visits China Nixon becomes the first U.S. president to visit China, meeting with Mao Tse-tung on February 21. The two countries issue a communique recognizing their "essential differences" while making it clear that "normalization of relations" was in all nations best interests. The rapprochement changes the balance of power with the Soviets.
    • 33. 1973 - Vietnam Waragreement (Paris Accords) January 27, 1973, the United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam and the Viet Cong sign the Paris Peace Treaty, establishing a cease-fire. The United States is allowed to continue providing aid to South Vietnam. Saigon falls in April 1975.
    • 34. 1975 - Cambodia “The Killing Fields” Communist Khmer Rouge take power in Cambodia, April 16 1975. Cambodias educated and urban population forced into the countryside as part of a state experiment in agrarian communism. Under the regime of Pol Pot, as many as 3 million Cambodians died from 1975 to 1979.
    • 35. 1979 - Afghanistan December 25, 100,000 Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan as communist Babrak Karmal seized control of the government. U.S.-backed Muslim guerrilla fighters waged a costly war against the Soviets for nearly a decade before Soviet troops withdraw in 1988. Afghanistan—the Soviet “Vietnam”
    • 36. 1980 - Solidarity On August 14, Lech Walesa led massive strikes at the Lenin shipyards in Gdansk, Poland. The strikes soon spread to other cities and formed the nucleus of the Solidarity movement. The communist government conceded to worker demands on August 31, and recognized their right to form unions and strike.
    • 37. 1983 - Star Wars March 23, Reagan outlined his Strategic Defense Initiative, or "Star Wars," a space-based defensive shield that would use lasers and other advanced technology to destroy attacking missiles far above the Earths surface. Soviets accuse the U.S of violating the 1972 Antiballistic Missile Treaty. Soviets forced to spend heavily to match the program causing near economic collapse.
    • 38. 1985 - Gorbachevcomes to power On March 11, Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union. Gorbachev ushered in an era of reform. – perestroika • Economic reform- restructuring – glasnost – means openness, allowed greater free expression and criticism of Soviet policies
    • 39. 1987 - INF On December 8, 1987, Reagan and Gorbachev signed the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty It mandated the removal of more than 2,600 medium-range nuclear missiles from Europe, & eliminated the entire class of Soviet SS-20 and U.S. Cruise and Pershing II missiles.
    • 40. 1989 - Berlin Wall falls Gorbachev renounced the Brezhnev Doctrine, which pledged to use Soviet force to protect its interests in Eastern Europe. On September 10, Hungary opened its border with Austria, allowing East Germans to flee to the West. After massive public demonstrations in East Germany and Eastern Europe, the Berlin Wall fell on November 9.
    • 41. Fall of Berlin Wall
    • 42. 1990 – German unification At a September 12 meeting in Moscow, the United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France and the two Germanys agreed to end Allied occupation rights in Germany. On October 3, East and West Germany united as the Federal Republic of Germany.

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