Before History                                                                                                    1 Copyri...
Before History                                                                                                    1 Copyri...
Prehistory   What is “history”?   Documentation       Written records       Archaeological discovery   Requisite huma...
Development of Hominids   Animals adapt themselves to environment   Hominids adapt environment to themselves       Use ...
Later Hominids   Homo Erectus, “upright man”   Larger brain capacity (1000 cc), improved tool use,    control of fire  ...
Global spread of hominids and Homosapiens                                                                                 ...
The Natural Environment   By 13,000 BCE Homo sapiens in every    inhabitable part of the world   Archaeological finds:  ...
Paleolithic Era (“Old Stone Age”)   Evidence:       Archaeological finds       Extrapolation from modern hunter-gathere...
Relative Social Equality   Nomadic culture precludes accumulation of land-    based wealth       More likely determinant...
Forming the Complex Society   Basic developments:       Hunting and Foraging       Agriculture       Complex Society ...
Paleolithic Settlements   Natufian society (13,000 BCE...)       Modern Israel and Jordan       Wild wheat, herding   ...
Creativity of Homo sapiens   Constructed flexible languages for communication of    complex ideas (collective learning) ...
Neolithic Era (“New Stone Age”)   Distinction in tool production       Chipped vs. polished   Men: herding animals rath...
Origins and early spread ofagriculture                                                                                    ...
Major Turning point for humans...   Went from food gatherers to food producers       gather in bigger numbers (adv?/disa...
Agriculture and Population Growth100 75 50                                                                                ...
Early Agricultural Society   Emergence of villages and towns   Discoveries at Çatal Hüyük – a prominent village    locat...
Social Distinctions   Accumulation of landed wealth initiates    development of social classes   Individuals could trade...
Neolithic Culture   Farmers closely observed the natural world – an    early kind of applied science   Elements of natur...
Beginnings of Urbanization   Jericho: concentration of wealth, building a wall       8,000 BCE oasis in present-day Isra...
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Paleolithic:neolithic keynote

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  • Skeleton of Lucy, www.bbc.co.uk/.../ chronology/contentpage1.shtml \n
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  • Natufian burial w/dog www.sdnhm.org/exhibits/ dogs/facts.html \n
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  • sanat.bilkent.edu.tr/ imot/neolithic/RMO52-27.html \n
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  • Photo of jericho walls www.bobmay.info/ may132003jericho.htm \n
  • Paleolithic:neolithic keynote

    1. 1. Before History 1 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    2. 2. Before History 1 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    3. 3. Prehistory What is “history”? Documentation  Written records  Archaeological discovery Requisite human presence (or “natural” history) 2 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    4. 4. Development of Hominids Animals adapt themselves to environment Hominids adapt environment to themselves  Use of tools  Language  Complex cooperative social structures 3 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    5. 5. Later Hominids Homo Erectus, “upright man” Larger brain capacity (1000 cc), improved tool use, control of fire Homo Sapiens, “consciously thinking human” Largest brain, esp. frontal regions most sophisticated tools and social organization Migrations of Homo Erectus and Homo Sapiens 4 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    6. 6. Global spread of hominids and Homosapiens 5 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    7. 7. The Natural Environment By 13,000 BCE Homo sapiens in every inhabitable part of the world Archaeological finds:  Sophisticated tools  Choppers, scrapers, axes, knives, bows, arrows  Cave and hut like dwellings  Use of fire, animal skins Hunted several mammal species to extinction  Climactic change may have accelerated process 6 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    8. 8. Paleolithic Era (“Old Stone Age”) Evidence:  Archaeological finds  Extrapolation from modern hunter-gatherer societies (anthropologists) Nomadic existence precludes advanced civilization  Groups of 30-50  Division of labor along gender lines 7 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    9. 9. Relative Social Equality Nomadic culture precludes accumulation of land- based wealth  More likely determinants of status: age, hunting skill, fertility, personality  Possible gender equality related to food production 8 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    10. 10. Forming the Complex Society Basic developments:  Hunting and Foraging  Agriculture  Complex Society Key issue: surplus capital (food and human resources) Major development of first complex societies 3500 BCE – 500 BCE 9 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    11. 11. Paleolithic Settlements Natufian society (13,000 BCE...)  Modern Israel and Jordan  Wild wheat, herding Jomon society (10,000-300 BCE)  Japan  Wild buckwheat, fishing Chinook society (3,000 BCE - 1850’s CE!!)  Pacific Northwest  Berries, acorns, salmon runs Groups of 1000 or more 10 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    12. 12. Creativity of Homo sapiens Constructed flexible languages for communication of complex ideas (collective learning) Increased variety of tools – stone blades, spear throwers, sewing needles, barbed harpoons Fabricated ornamental beads, necklaces and bracelets The bow and arrow – a dramatic improvement in humans power over nature “Venus” figurines (fertility) Cave paintings (34,000 BCE-12,000BCE) 11 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    13. 13. Neolithic Era (“New Stone Age”) Distinction in tool production  Chipped vs. polished Men: herding animals rather than hunting Women: nurtured vegetation rather than foraging Spread of Agriculture  Slash-and-and burn techniques, cultivation of crops, domestication of animals  Exhaustion of soil promotes migration  Transport of crops from one region to another  More of a transition than a revolution (approx. 12,000-5,000BCE) 12 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    14. 14. Origins and early spread ofagriculture 13 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    15. 15. Major Turning point for humans... Went from food gatherers to food producers  gather in bigger numbers (adv?/disadv?)  less migration than earlier ages  specialization of labor (not everyone needed to farm)  dramatic population growth (see next slide) 14 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    16. 16. Agriculture and Population Growth100 75 50 Population (millions) West North 25 0 3000 BCE 2000 BCE 1000 BCE 500 BCE 15 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    17. 17. Early Agricultural Society Emergence of villages and towns Discoveries at Çatal Hüyük – a prominent village located in Turkey, occupied 7250-5400 BCE  Pots, baskets, textiles, leather, stone, metal tools, wood carvings, carpets, beads, and jewelry Development of crafts –pottery (7,000 BCE), metallurgy (6,000 BCE - beginning of “Bronze Age), and textile production (6,000BCE) 16 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    18. 18. Social Distinctions Accumulation of landed wealth initiates development of social classes Individuals could trade surplus food for valuable items Archaeological evidence in variety of household decorations, goods buried with deceased members of society at Çatal Hüyük 17 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    19. 19. Neolithic Culture Farmers closely observed the natural world – an early kind of applied science Elements of natural environment essential for functioning Archaeological evidence of religious worship: thousands of clay figurines, drawings on pots, tool decorations, other ritual objects  Fertility: Venus figurines 18 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    20. 20. Beginnings of Urbanization Jericho: concentration of wealth, building a wall  8,000 BCE oasis in present-day Israel/2,000 residents Craft specialization Some trade (salt and obsidian) Social stratification Governance Development of the city – a gradual process  larger & more complex than villages  influenced political, economic, and cultural life of large regions 19 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

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