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  • 1. Middle EastU.S. PolicyIsrael & Its IssuesArab World & Arab IssuesMonday, May 13, 13
  • 2. Jihad versus McWorldby Benjamin BarberMonday, May 13, 13
  • 3. Jihad versus McWorldby Benjamin Barber Meaning?Monday, May 13, 13
  • 4. Jihad versus McWorldby Benjamin Barber Meaning? Forces today:– Globalization– Tribalism (nationalism, fundamentalism)Monday, May 13, 13
  • 5. Jihad versus McWorldby Benjamin Barber Meaning? Forces today:– Globalization– Tribalism (nationalism, fundamentalism) American foreign policy in the MiddleEastMonday, May 13, 13
  • 6. Monday, May 13, 13
  • 7. OILMonday, May 13, 13
  • 8. David Ben-GurionZIONISM or the creation of the State of IsraelMonday, May 13, 13
  • 9. RELIGIONSMonday, May 13, 13
  • 10. FundamentalismMonday, May 13, 13
  • 11. JudaismMonday, May 13, 13
  • 12. 9Monday, May 13, 13
  • 13. Monday, May 13, 13
  • 14. Monday, May 13, 13
  • 15. Israel: A Brief History Zionism Balfour Declaration (1917)– Palestine for Jews & Arabs? Israel– 1948 created.– War (same year)Monday, May 13, 13
  • 16.  Suez Crisis 1956 Six Days War 1967 Munich Games 1972 Black September Yom Kippur War 1973 Camp David Accords 1978– Israel (Begin) and Egypt (Sadat)– Sinai returned to Egypt– Egypt recognizes Israel Lebanese War 1982-3Monday, May 13, 13
  • 17.  West Bank Uprisings 1987-9 1988 PLO recognizes Israel Oslo Accord (1993) p. 226– Israel withdrawal from Gaza, West Bank Shepherdstown, W.V.– Syria & Israel– Issues: Golan Heights, Israeli security, &water.– Palestinians returning to IsraelMonday, May 13, 13
  • 18. Monday, May 13, 13
  • 19. Monday, May 13, 13
  • 20. Monday, May 13, 13
  • 21. Arab WorldMonday, May 13, 13
  • 22. Arab World End of Ottoman Empire: Turks are notArab.Monday, May 13, 13
  • 23. Arab World End of Ottoman Empire: Turks are notArab. Mandate system after WW I.Monday, May 13, 13
  • 24. Arab World End of Ottoman Empire: Turks are notArab. Mandate system after WW I. Pan-Arab movements have not beenvery successful.Monday, May 13, 13
  • 25. Arab World End of Ottoman Empire: Turks are notArab. Mandate system after WW I. Pan-Arab movements have not beenvery successful. Islamic fundamentalism in Egypt,Algeria, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia andIran.Monday, May 13, 13
  • 26. Arab World End of Ottoman Empire: Turks are notArab. Mandate system after WW I. Pan-Arab movements have not beenvery successful. Islamic fundamentalism in Egypt,Algeria, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia andIran. Anti-Americanism & Anti-Soviet.Monday, May 13, 13
  • 27. Monday, May 13, 13
  • 28. Monday, May 13, 13
  • 29. The Suez Crisis1956 Nasser becomes leader of Egypt Aswan Dam Project US funding cancelled Sealed off Port of Eilat (cause) IsraeliArmy invades (effect) Nationalizes Suez (cause) French &British invade (effect)Monday, May 13, 13
  • 30.  U.N.E.F. United Nations EmergencyForce responds– Defeated in Security Council (Why?)– Overridden in General Assembly (Can.Min. of For. Affairs Lester B. Pearson)– Indian, Yugoslavian, and Canadian troopsMonday, May 13, 13
  • 31. Monday, May 13, 13
  • 32. Six Day War 1967 Great victory for Israel: pre-emptivestrikes against Egypt, Syria and Jordan Gain more territory: Jerusalem andWest Bank; Sinai; Gaza; Golan Heights Arabs via OPEC (Organization ofPetroleum Exporting Countries)discover power of oil.Monday, May 13, 13
  • 33. Yom Kippur1973 Huge Arab force attacks Israel Israelis suffer loses. Counter offensive successful Soviets & US supply their allies Close to nuclear war (Cuban MissileCrisis)Monday, May 13, 13
  • 34. Big Events in the Middle East:IranMonday, May 13, 13
  • 35.  Dr. MohammadMossadegh P.M. of Iranearly 1950s. Anglo-Iran Oil Comp.was nationalized. British and Americansforced his resignation…coup? Power goes to…Monday, May 13, 13
  • 36. Iranian Revolution Muhammad Reza Pahlavi: The Shaw ofIran (1941-79)– White Revolution: modernize nation.– Used terror: SAVAK Iran was important to US during muchof Cold War. Ayatollah Khomeini Islamic Republic Taking of US Embassy.Monday, May 13, 13
  • 37.  This ended Carter’s administration.Monday, May 13, 13
  • 38. Iran/Iraq War, “War of theCities”, “Gulf War (the FirstOne)” 1980-88 Neither Super Power supported eitherside. US feared that its supply of oil could bethreatened, as well as friendly nations inthe area, Kuwait, UAE, and Saudi Arabia. Use of chemical weapons. Summer, 1988 USS Vincennes Incident. Lockerbie, Scotland American Airlines ‘88Monday, May 13, 13
  • 39.  Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses 1989 Khomeini dies. His fatwa : ‫ﻑفﺕتﻭوﻯى‬"I inform the proud Muslimpeople of the world that theauthor of the Satanic Verses book,which is against Islam, theProphet and the Quran, and allthose involved in its publicationwho are aware of its content aresentenced to death."Monday, May 13, 13
  • 40. Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan A left wing coup in 1979. Amin asked for Soviet aid to defend therevolution. Amin murdered. Karmal takes over. Mujaheddin (=Vietcong) aided by USand Pakistan. 1988 Soviets withdraw.Monday, May 13, 13
  • 41.  Civil war and radical IslamicFundamentalism dominate this countryto this day. Usama bin Laden now an enemy of theUS.– Had ties to the bombing of US embassiesin east Africa.Usama bin LadenMonday, May 13, 13
  • 42. Gulf War: IraqMonday, May 13, 13
  • 43. The Gulf War July 1990:– Baghdad accuses Kuwait of exceeding oilquotas. August 1990:– Iraq invades Kuwait. Security Council imposes embargo. No success. 15 January, 1991 Coalition forcesattack.Monday, May 13, 13
  • 44.  Hyper-war (extension of the blitzkrieg). Six weeks later the war was over. PP. 219-21.Monday, May 13, 13
  • 45. The Palestinians Refugees from all the Arab-Israeli wars. Camps exist in Lebanon, Syria, Jordon,as well as West Bank and Gaza. Intifada Self-government + territory (goal forPalestinians). Hamas (Pal.) Hazballa (Leb.)Monday, May 13, 13
  • 46. Monday, May 13, 13
  • 47. Monday, May 13, 13
  • 48. Monday, May 13, 13
  • 49. Monday, May 13, 13
  • 50. Monday, May 13, 13