Mesopotamia keynote
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Mesopotamia keynote

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Mesopotamia keynote Mesopotamia keynote Presentation Transcript

  • Introducing the earliest “civilizations”:Larger more complex societies developaround 3500 BCE (give or take a day...)4 major centers: ME, Egypt, NW India, N.China (around rivers - know them!)Small portion of inhabited world BUT mostdensely populated for the next 2500 yrs.
  • MesopotamiaFor early Civilizations “Rivers Deliver”…Why are rivers essential for them?
  • Mesopotamia:“Land between the rivers”
  • Mesopotamia:“Land between the rivers”
  • Mesopotamia: “Land between the rivers”Dikes and canals helptame floods (earliestirrigation began around6000 BCE)
  • Mesopotamia: “Land between the rivers”Dikes and canals helptame floods (earliestirrigation began around6000 BCE)Agricultural technologieslead to food surplus
  • Mesopotamia: “Land between the rivers”Dikes and canals helptame floods (earliestirrigation began around6000 BCE)Agricultural technologieslead to food surplusBy 3000 BCE,population of Sumer isnear 100,000! (inc.migrants from otherareas)
  • Technological Development in MesopotamiaBronze (copper with tin), c. 4000 BCE Military, agricultural applicationsIron, c. 1000 BCE Cheaper than bronzeWheel, boats, c. 3500 BCEShipbuilding increases trade networksCities built with government and publicworks and develop into city-states (controlinside AND outside city walls) 4
  • The Sumerian Civilization - thebeginning of the whole “Mess”Develop cuneiform as a system of writing (Impact?) Record laws, treaties, social & political customs… Via trade, written language spreads to other Civs.Develop 12 month calendar and use geometry todevelop arches and columns.Polytheistic religion using Ziggurats to worship gods.Fell to invaders, but the culture did not die (why?)
  • Sumerian City-StatesCities appear 4000 BCEDominate region from 3200-2350 BCE Ur (home of Abraham, see Genesis 11:28), Nineveh (see Jonah)Ziggurat home of the godDivine mandate to KingsRegulation of TradeDefense from nomadic marauders 6
  • cuneiform
  • Development of WritingSumerian writing systems form 3500 BCEPictographsCuneiform: “wedge-shaped” Preservation of documents on clay Declines from 400 BCE with spread of Greek alphabetic script 8
  • Uses for WritingTradeAstronomyMathematics Agricultural applicationsCalculation of time 12-month year 24-hour day, 60-minute hour 9
  • Ziggurats
  • The Ziggurat of Ur 11
  • Political Decline of SumerSemitic peoples from northern Mesopotamiaovershadow Sumer Sargon of Akkad (2370-2315 BCE) Destroyed Sumerian city-states one by one, created empire based in Akkad (strong personal presence, controlled and taxed trade) Empire unable to maintain chronic rebellionsHammurabi of Babylon (1792-1750 BCE) Improved taxation, legislation Used local governors to maintain control of city-statesBabylonian Empire later destroyed by Hittites fromAnatolia, c. 1595 BCE (IRON WEAPONS!) 12
  • Akkadians, then Babylonians, thenHittites, then… you get the picture.
  • Akkadians, then Babylonians, thenHittites, then… you get the picture. The Akkadians develop the first known code of laws using Sumerian Cuneiform.
  • Akkadians, then Babylonians, thenHittites, then… you get the picture. The Akkadians develop the first known code of laws using Sumerian Cuneiform.
  • Akkadians, then Babylonians, thenHittites, then… you get the picture. The Akkadians develop the first known code of laws using Sumerian Cuneiform. The Babylonian King Hammurabi developed the Code of Hammurabi (impact?)
  • Akkadians, then Babylonians, thenHittites, then… you get the picture. The Akkadians develop the first known code of laws using Sumerian Cuneiform. The Babylonian King Hammurabi developed the Code of Hammurabi (impact?)
  • Akkadians, then Babylonians, thenHittites, then… you get the picture. The Akkadians develop the first known code of laws using Sumerian Cuneiform. The Babylonian King Hammurabi developed the Code of Hammurabi (impact?) Babylonian bronze weapons fall to the Hittites iron weapons that fall to the Assyrian’s stronger iron that fall to the Chaldean King Nebuchadnezzar who rebuilds Babylon and then eventually falls to the Persians.
  • Code of HammurabiWhat language would the code of Hammurabi be in? How does thecode show social status and role of men, women and children? (p. 43)
  • Patriarchal Society Men as landowners, relationship to status Patriarchy: “rule of the father”  Right to sell wives, children Double standard of sexual morality  Women drowned for adultery  Relaxed sexual mores for men Yet some possibilities of social mobility for women  Court advisers, temple priestesses, economic activity Introduction of the veil at least c. 1500 BCE 15 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • Mesopotamian Empires, 1800-600 BCE 16
  • The broader influence...Wealth attracted attention (migrants andenemies)People migrated out (took ideas withthem)Trade networks established (connectedregions and societies - assimilation andadaptation!)Military ventures... 17
  • Other Mesopotamian societies and their contributions...
  • Other Mesopotamian societies and their contributions...
  • Other Mesopotamian societies and their contributions...The Lydians (coin money)
  • Other Mesopotamian societies and their contributions...The Lydians (coin money)Phoenicians (trade and communicationnetworks AND alphabet)
  • Other Mesopotamian societies and their contributions...The Lydians (coin money)Phoenicians (trade and communicationnetworks AND alphabet)Hebrews (Moses and Judaism)  Hebrews shared polytheistic beliefs of other Mesopotamian civilizations  Moses introduces monotheism, belief in single god  Denies existence of competing parallel deities  Personal god: reward and punishment for conformity with revealed law  The Torah (“doctrine or teaching”)
  • Israel and Phoenicia , 1500-600 BCE 19 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • Indo-European MigrationsCommon roots of many languages ofEurope, southwest Asia, IndiaImplies influence of a single Indo-European people Probable original homeland: modern-day Ukraine and Russia, 4500-2500 BCEDomestication of horses, use of Sumerianweaponry allowed them to spread widely 20
  • Implications of Indo-European MigrationHittites migrate to central Anatolia, c. 1900BCE, later dominate BabyloniaInfluence on trade Horses, chariots with spoked wheels Iron Migrations to western China, Greece, Italy also significant See map (migration in WH) 21
  • Indo-European migrations 3000-1000 BCE 22
  • Other pre-classical river valleycivilizations Egyptian Civilization  trade w/Mes.  unified for most of history Irrigation led to org/gov’t Pharaoh (sun god) pyramids  from 2700 B.C.E.  polytheistic, mummification adv. math (24 hrs.)/365 day calendar, medicine, astronomy Patriarchal (women some privileges) Kush invades Egypt, Kush and Axum 23
  • Indian civilizations Indus River by 2500 BCE (little known) Harappa, Mohenjo Daro  running water, streets in grids  trade contacts w/ Mes. but own alphabet/art Indo-Europeans  blend of Aryans and Indus valley peoples (see map)  along w/natural calamities destroy early cities  combined their rel./pol ideas w/ earlier ones 24
  • Chinese civilizations Huanghe (Yellow) River in relative isolation (although some trade) Pan Ku (mythic ancestor of Chinese) Developments  carefully regulated irrigation  ride horses, iron, coal,  ideographic symbols (language) Shang dynasty (from 1766-1122 B.C.E.)  bronze metallurgy (helped with warfare)  “Mandate of Heaven” led to the Zhou dynasty  Social structure (stratified and patriarchal) 25
  • What about the Americas?Olmec, Mayan and later Incan civilization no knowledge of wheel polytheistic terraced pyramids (also temples) pictographic writing astronomy (predicted eclipses) lack of pack animals kept them isolated not in river valleys (mts/ocean/smaller rivers) smaller city-states ruled by kings/warlike 26
  • The Heritage and legacies of the earlyRiver Valley Civilizations *Be able to compare and contrast these early civs in terms of their ways of life. *Describe the legacies of the river valley civs. carried forward to the classical civilizations and even today? 27