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Korea war cocaro 24 slides Korea war cocaro 24 slides Presentation Transcript

  • Cócaro, Nicolá
  • Cócaro, Nicolá
  • On August 15th, 1945, Emperor Hirohito announced on the radio that Japan had surrendered andthat the long war in the Pacific was finally over. The news of the Japanese capitulation waswelcomed with a great deal of relief and joy in Korea. The Japanese surrender to the Allies meantthat forty years of harsh colonial rule would come to an end. The 15th of August, the day that WW IIwas officially over, was also the Day of Liberation in Korea. Unfortunately, liberation from theJapanese would not spell the end for Koreas misfortunes. The division of Korea into two separatestates loomed just beyond the horizon. And perhaps the greatest tragedy of all, the Korean War,lingered not too far behind. The events that would occur between Liberation Day and August 25th(the day that there were two official governments in the Korean peninsula) would set the stage forthe tragedy of the Korean War. To learn more about the liberation of Korea, the American & Soviet occupation of Korea, or the emergence of separate states in Korea just "click " on one of the following choices: Liberation and the division of Korea
  • Liberation and the AftermathOn August 15th, 1945, Emperor Hirohito announced on the radio that Japan had surrendered andthat the long war in the Pacific was finally over. The news of the Japanese capitulation waswelcomed with a great deal of relief and joy in Korea. The Japanese surrender to the Allies meantthat forty years of harsh colonial rule would come to an end. The 15th of August, the day that WW IIwas officially over, was also the Day of Liberation in Korea. Unfortunately, liberation from theJapanese would not spell the end for Koreas misfortunes. The division of Korea into two separatestates loomed just beyond the horizon. And perhaps the greatest tragedy of all, the Korean War,lingered not too far behind. The events that would occur between Liberation Day and August 25th(the day that there were two official governments in the Korean peninsula) would set the stage forthe tragedy of the Korean War. To learn more about the liberation of Korea, the American & Soviet occupation of Korea, or the emergence of separate states in Korea just "click " on one of the following choices: Allied Plans for Korea The Americans enter Korea Liberation and the division of The Emergence of Two Koreas Korea Consolidation and Confrontation Timeline of main events
  • 1943 British foreign minister met with Roosevelt Anthony Eden Discussed what to do with should be agreed governedManchuria Formosa Korea by an international trusteeship after the war For a period of they 30-40 years "schooled" their theories and forms of democracy prior to being granted national independence.
  • The Allied Plans for Korea1943 British foreign minister met with Roosevelt Anthony Eden Discussed what to do with should be agreed governedManchuria Formosa Korea by an international trusteeship after the war For a period of they 30-40 years "schooled" their theories and forms of democracy prior to being granted national independence.
  • The Allied Plans for Korea1943 British foreign minister met with Roosevelt Anthony Eden Discussed what to do with should be agreed governedManchuria Formosa Korea by an international trusteeship after the war For a period of they 30-40 years "schooled" their theories and forms of democracy prior to being granted national independence.
  • Which "the aforesaid three great proclaimed powers, mindful of the Roosevelt that enslavement of the people 1943 announced the "Cairo of Korea are determined Churchill Declaration" that in due course Korea Chiang Kai-shek shall become free and independent." Roosevelt "some period of apprenticeship before full 1944 independence might be attained." Churchill Ask Stalin for Truman general agreement on Churchill left a trusteeship1945 Potsdam Conference Stalin which possessed numerous holes that would later foster conflict between the former war-time allies.
  • Which "the aforesaid three great proclaimed powers, mindful of the Roosevelt that enslavement of the people 1943 announced the "Cairo of Korea are determined Churchill Declaration" that in due course Korea Chiang Kai-shek shall become free and independent." Roosevelt "some period of apprenticeship before full 1944 independence might be attained." Churchill Ask Stalin for Truman general agreement on Churchill left a trusteeship1945 Potsdam Conference Stalin which possessed numerous holes that would later foster conflict between the former war-time allies.
  • Expecting a long and difficult campaign to drive the Japanese out of the Asian mainland and toinvade Japan itself, U.S. military planners General Douglas MacArthur sought Sovietassistance in ending the Pacific War. The American State Department was willing to "swallow"Soviet control of Manchuria and Korea as the price to be paid for the Soviet entrance into the waragainst Japan.The sudden Japanese collapse meant that nothing was in the way of Sovietcontrol of the entire Korean peninsula. The State department now devised a plan which woulddivide the peninsula in half, leaving the Soviets to occupy Korea north of the 38th parallel and anAmerican occupation south of the line. The State Department proposal, otherwise known asGeneral Order #1, was drafted by two young colonels, Dean Rusk and Charles Bonesteel. This hastily drafted division of Korea along the 38th parallel still remains to this day.Depending how one looks at it, the Soviet decision to go along with General Order #1 and halt atthe 38th parallel was simultaneously both predictable and an utter surprise. The Soviet halt wassurprising because nothing was in the way of Soviet domination of the whole of Korea. Japanese forces, were in a state of disintegration in the face of the Soviet juggernaut. American forces were in Okinawa and too far away to meet, much less challenge, the Soviet rush southward down the peninsula.
  • The Allies move into KoreaExpecting a long and difficult campaign to drive the Japanese out of the Asian mainland and toinvade Japan itself, U.S. military planners General Douglas MacArthur sought Sovietassistance in ending the Pacific War. The American State Department was willing to "swallow"Soviet control of Manchuria and Korea as the price to be paid for the Soviet entrance into the waragainst Japan.The sudden Japanese collapse meant that nothing was in the way of Sovietcontrol of the entire Korean peninsula. The State department now devised a plan which woulddivide the peninsula in half, leaving the Soviets to occupy Korea north of the 38th parallel and anAmerican occupation south of the line. The State Department proposal, otherwise known asGeneral Order #1, was drafted by two young colonels, Dean Rusk and Charles Bonesteel. This hastily drafted division of Korea along the 38th parallel still remains to this day.Depending how one looks at it, the Soviet decision to go along with General Order #1 and halt atthe 38th parallel was simultaneously both predictable and an utter surprise. The Soviet halt wassurprising because nothing was in the way of Soviet domination of the whole of Korea. Japanese forces, were in a state of disintegration in the face of the Soviet juggernaut. American forces were in Okinawa and too far away to meet, much less challenge, the Soviet rush southward down the peninsula.
  • The American proposal it was construed by the Soviets as an American test was predictable because of Soviet intentions in the post-war era. a direct Soviet challenge to the United States in Korea was deemed too "expensive" and risky, given the Soviet need to come to terms with the Americans in the post-war order of The Soviets Europe, an area that was of greater strategic importance to conclusion the Soviet Union. that the possible gains in seizing the whole of Korea were not worth inherent risks. PyongyangThe Soviets moved to occupy Hamhung all the major cities north of the 38th parallel.The Americans arrived in a full month after the Soviets crossed the border into Korea. Inchon Harbor on September 8th The American military quickly occupied the southern half of the peninsula Seoul Korea was now occupied militarily by two foreign nations with separate and conflicting agendas. Their influence on the hapless nation and its people would soon be felt.
  • The American proposal it was construed by the Soviets as an American test was predictable because of Soviet intentions in the post-war era. a direct Soviet challenge to the United States in Korea was deemed too "expensive" and risky, given the Soviet need to come to terms with the Americans in the post-war order of The Soviets Europe, an area that was of greater strategic importance to conclusion the Soviet Union. that the possible gains in seizing the whole of Korea were not worth inherent risks. PyongyangThe Soviets moved to occupy Hamhung all the major cities north of the 38th parallel.The Americans arrived in a full month after the Soviets crossed the border into Korea. Inchon Harbor on September 8th The American military quickly occupied the southern half of the peninsula Seoul Korea was now occupied militarily by two foreign nations with separate and conflicting agendas. Their influence on the hapless nation and its people would soon be felt.
  • suggested aU.S. a multi-lateral conference China could be swayed to follow the involving because before the United Nations Britain American line U.S favored Soviet Union 1947 rejected American proposal because United Nations passed a resolution It was not agreed at the Moscow Conference."United Nations Temporary Committee on Korea" UNTCOK watchdog national elections to be scheduled sometime before March 31st 1948. in denied entrance American Occupational Zone Soviet Zone so The Committee opted for separate elections to be held in the South
  • The Emergence of Two Koreas suggested aU.S. a multi-lateral conference China could be swayed to follow the involving because before the United Nations Britain American line U.S favored Soviet Union 1947 rejected American proposal because United Nations passed a resolution It was not agreed at the Moscow Conference."United Nations Temporary Committee on Korea" UNTCOK watchdog national elections to be scheduled sometime before March 31st 1948. in denied entrance American Occupational Zone Soviet Zone so The Committee opted for separate elections to be held in the South
  • The Emergence of Two Koreas suggested aU.S. a multi-lateral conference China could be swayed to follow the involving because before the United Nations Britain American line U.S favored Soviet Union 1947 rejected American proposal because United Nations passed a resolution It was not agreed at the Moscow Conference."United Nations Temporary Committee on Korea" UNTCOK watchdog national elections to be scheduled sometime before March 31st 1948. in denied entrance American Occupational Zone Soviet Zone so The Committee opted for separate elections to be held in the South
  • separate elections would lead to a permanent partition of the Because they country believed that some rejected theKoreans U.N. planSyngman Rhee approved of the U.N. plan for separate electionsbecause Only a South Korean government would be able to raise a South Korean Army to repel an invasion from the north.Rightist leader Kim Ku leftist leader Kim Kyu Sik broke with Rhee over the issue of separate elections for South Korea Both attended a in"unity conference" Pyongyang voiced opposition against the idea of separate elections that transcended all political faithsBut the U.S. military government in Korea decided to implement the U.N. plan.
  • separate elections would lead to a permanent partition of the Because they country believed that some rejected theKoreans U.N. planSyngman Rhee approved of the U.N. plan for separate electionsbecause Only a South Korean government would be able to raise a South Korean Army to repel an invasion from the north.Rightist leader Kim Ku leftist leader Kim Kyu Sik broke with Rhee over the issue of separate elections for South Korea Both attended a in"unity conference" Pyongyang voiced opposition against the idea of separate elections that transcended all political faithsBut the U.S. military government in Korea decided to implement the U.N. plan.
  • 1948 elections were held in the South UNTCOK "a valid expression of the free will of the electorate declared them in those parts of Korea which were accessible to the Commission"The new Representatives established the in the Republic of Korea southern end of the peninsula theThree months later National Assembly elected Syngman Rhee to become the president of the ROK autumn of 1948 Elections were in held in the North born Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea elected as its first premier Kim Il Sung The creation of two separate regimes was due tothe formation of quasi-governmental bodies that possessed some administrative
  • 1948 elections were held in the South UNTCOK "a valid expression of the free will of the electorate declared them in those parts of Korea which were accessible to the Commission"The new Representatives established the in the Republic of Korea southern end of the peninsula theThree months later National Assembly elected Syngman Rhee to become the president of the ROK autumn of 1948 Elections were in held in the North born Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea elected as its first premier Kim Il Sung The creation of two separate regimes was due tothe formation of quasi-governmental bodies that possessed some administrative
  • such as in the the Interim Peoples Committee North in the the Interim Legislative Assembly South With these elections the division of Korea had an air of permanenceBoth regimes faced similar challengesThe first challenge attaining legitimacy the existence of the "other" state was an obstacle in achieving it ROK led by Syngman Rhee competition for the allegiance of the nation DPRK led by Kim Il Sung domestic opposition that seriously endangered the consolidation of one-man rule.
  • such as in the the Interim Peoples Committee North in the the Interim Legislative Assembly South With these elections the division of Korea had an air of permanence Consolidation and ConfrontationBoth regimes faced similar challengesThe first challenge attaining legitimacy the existence of the "other" state was an obstacle in achieving it ROK led by Syngman Rhee competition for the allegiance of the nation DPRK led by Kim Il Sung domestic opposition that seriously endangered the consolidation of one-man rule.
  • such as in the the Interim Peoples Committee North in the the Interim Legislative Assembly South With these elections the division of Korea had an air of permanence Consolidation and ConfrontationBoth regimes faced similar challengesThe first challenge attaining legitimacy the existence of the "other" state was an obstacle in achieving it ROK led by Syngman Rhee competition for the allegiance of the nation DPRK led by Kim Il Sung domestic opposition that seriously endangered the consolidation of one-man rule.
  • Syngman Rhee The second challenge contend with the politically powerful southern landlords had to that grew suspicious of Rhees growing autocratic ways Kim Il Sung confront what was left of the Left in South Korea who began threatening his rule by engaging in armed rebellions and mass demonstrations throughout the country As head of the Korean Workers Party so he use all the autocratic means at his disposal to insure his position at the top. a union of various communist groupingswas faced with a party that had four different "voices". leader of the Soviet faction The first "voice was accented by Russian headed by Ho Kai-I The second "voice“ led by Pak Hon yong which had a southern Korean accent The third "voice" led by Kim Tu Bong had a heavy Chinese accent leader of the Yenan faction The last "voice" was Kim Il Sungs own Kapsin "guerrilla" faction
  • Syngman Rhee The second challenge contend with the politically powerful southern landlords had to that grew suspicious of Rhees growing autocratic ways Kim Il Sung confront what was left of the Left in South Korea who began threatening his rule by engaging in armed rebellions and mass demonstrations throughout the country As head of the Korean Workers Party so he use all the autocratic means at his disposal to insure his position at the top. a union of various communist groupingswas faced with a party that had four different "voices". leader of the Soviet faction The first "voice was accented by Russian headed by Ho Kai-I The second "voice“ led by Pak Hon yong which had a southern Korean accent The third "voice" led by Kim Tu Bong had a heavy Chinese accent leader of the Yenan faction The last "voice" was Kim Il Sungs own Kapsin "guerrilla" faction
  • He embark on a campaign to systematically wipe out all the other so voices leaving the party and the state united under the only voice of Kim Il Sung.1948-1950 was marked by an intense drive towards political consolidation on the part of the two regimes and its rulers. wasKim Il Sung on the road to socialism was able to nationalize nine-tenths of the nations industrial production with Soviet assistance and advice, embarked on a two-year economic plan 1950 placed on heavy industry the economic life of the country was firmly in the hands of the government. strove for political consolidation of his own rule when he became chairman of the Korean Workers Party
  • He embark on a campaign to systematically wipe out all the other so voices leaving the party and the state united under the only voice of Kim Il Sung.1948-1950 was marked by an intense drive towards political consolidation on the part of the two regimes and its rulers. Kim Il Sung & the Consolidation of the North wasKim Il Sung on the road to socialism was able to nationalize nine-tenths of the nations industrial production with Soviet assistance and advice, embarked on a two-year economic plan 1950 placed on heavy industry the economic life of the country was firmly in the hands of the government. strove for political consolidation of his own rule when he became chairman of the Korean Workers Party
  • was able to Kim Il Sung remove potential challengers from "center stage" Pak was delegated as vice-chairman of the party erstwhile leader of the South Korean Communists yet contained and enclosed enough so that prestige Kims own image Kim was able to pull the reins in on Pak if it in the south ever proved necessary relegating remove most Soviet-Koreans from positions of power Ho Kai-I Kim Tu Bong co vice- chairman with Pak Hon Yong. Was theleader of the Chinese leader of the "Soviet" faction within the Korean Workers party "Yenan" faction become chairman of the Supreme Peoples Assembly Was of unificationThe Central issue of North Korean regime The DPRK considered itself as the sole legitimate government in Korea because wanted to extend their rule southward to Pusan the southern regime did not have the support of the populace
  • was able to Kim Il Sung remove potential challengers from "center stage" Pak was delegated as vice-chairman of the party erstwhile leader of the South Korean Communists yet contained and enclosed enough so that prestige Kims own image Kim was able to pull the reins in on Pak if it in the south ever proved necessary relegating remove most Soviet-Koreans from positions of power Ho Kai-I Kim Tu Bong co vice- chairman with Pak Hon Yong. Was theleader of the Chinese leader of the "Soviet" faction within the Korean Workers party "Yenan" faction become chairman of the Supreme Peoples Assembly Kim Il Sung was the lone master of North Korea. Was of unificationThe Central issue of North Korean regime The DPRK considered itself as the sole legitimate government in Korea because wanted to extend their rule southward to Pusan the southern regime did not have the support of the populace
  • declared that "the most important and immediate June 1949 Kim Il Sung unification was task of the party and the people". Later than made the fateful decision that he would have to call on the military to unify the nation Korean Peoples Army,(KPA) the presence of Soviet military advisors Strength ened by the large amounts of military equipmentRhees hunger for the enlargement of executive authority When he expand the mandate of thesoon ran into conflict with the legislative body. National Security Law (NSL), designed to used theSyngman Rhee crack down on alleged communist inspired sedition to suppress any political opposition to his authority against members of the National Assembly who called for the dismissal of Rhees cabinet the purging of former Japanese collaborators in the Rhee bureaucracy Rhees main base of political support
  • declared that "the most important and immediate June 1949 Kim Il Sung unification was task of the party and the people". Later than made the fateful decision that he would have to call on the military to unify the nation Korean Peoples Army,(KPA) the presence of Soviet military advisors Strength ened by the large amounts of military equipment Syngman Rhee & the Consolidation of the SouthRhees hunger for the enlargement of executive authority When he expand the mandate of thesoon ran into conflict with the legislative body. National Security Law (NSL), designed to used theSyngman Rhee crack down on alleged communist inspired sedition to suppress any political opposition to his authority against members of the National Assembly who called for the dismissal of Rhees cabinet the purging of former Japanese collaborators in the Rhee bureaucracy Rhees main base of political support
  • strengthening support of farmers pushed through a Rhee land reform bill weakening the influence of to wereThose who objected Korean landlords. jailed by invoking the NSL 1948 a rebellion of communist guerrillas and Cheju-do uprising peasants that severe crackdown in Cheju-do the authority of the new challenged response was a where regime In other areas guerrillas broke out Rhee succeeded in squashing these internal threats to his power called for a Syngman Rhee "march north" overthrow the communist regime in Pyongyang to replace it with that of his own. 1949 and 1950 stepped up his rhetoric to a feverish pitch Despite the intensity of his The Republic of Korea was incapable of The South Korea Army launching a was much inferior major military campaign to unify the to the peninsula. Peoples Army Korean
  • strengthening support of farmers pushed through a Rhee land reform bill weakening the influence of to wereThose who objected Korean landlords. jailed by invoking the NSL Communist inspired insurrections threatened Rhees bid for political consolidation 1948 a rebellion of communist guerrillas and Cheju-do uprising peasants that severe crackdown in Cheju-do the authority of the new challenged response was a where regime In other areas guerrillas broke out Rhee succeeded in squashing these internal threats to his power called for a Syngman Rhee "march north" overthrow the communist regime in Pyongyang to replace it with that of his own. 1949 and 1950 stepped up his rhetoric to a feverish pitch Despite the intensity of his The Republic of Korea was incapable of The South Korea Army launching a was much inferior major military campaign to unify the to the peninsula. Peoples Army Korean
  • Until MacArthur’s ampphibious attackThe Belligerent rhetoric of both sides tension created a of along the high level anxiety 38th parallel. The border separating the two Korea was often the scene of violent clashes and routine cross-border raids.
  • Until MacArthur’s ampphibious attack Towards ConfrontationThe Belligerent rhetoric of both sides tension created a of along the high level anxiety 38th parallel. The border separating the two Korea was often the scene of violent clashes and routine cross-border raids.
  • Syngman RheeRhee was born in Kaesong in 1875, the son of a poverty-stricken Yangban(Korean Gentry) family.As a young adult, Rhee studied English. In 1896, Rhee played a minor role in forming theIndependence Club. By 1897, Rhee was imprisoned for various political activities. In 1905, a yearafter his release from prison, Rhee went to the United States to study. After receiving his Ph.D fromPrinceton University in International Law, Rhee went back to Korea for just a short while before returning to the U.S. where he remained until 1945 as a Korean nationalist in exile laboring and lobbying for Korean independence. While in exile, Rhee became the President of the Korean Provisional Government for a short stint. He maneuvered to position himself as the principal spokesman for the Korean Right. By 1947, Syngman Rhee, had received the unofficial"blessing" of the U.S. to lead the Koreans after the withdrawal of the Americanpresence in Korea. Syngman Rhee was chosen by the National Assembly to become the firstPresident of the Republic of Korea in 1948. As President, Rhee cracked down on politicalopponents and coerced the press to print news more favorable to the government.Rhees rhetoric about a "march north" to unify the Peninsula under his rule did not lessen a bit.During the war, Rhee helped to stir controversy by encouraging General Douglas MacArthur andthe U.N. forces under his command to liberate the north. He led Korea until the age of 85 when a student uprising toppled his government in April of 1960. From there Rhee left for theUnited States where he remained in exile until his death in 1965.
  • Kim Il SungKim Il Sung (Kim Song Ju) was born in Pyongi in 1912. Kim and his family emigrated to Manchuriain the 1920s where he attended a Chinese school. At the age of fifteen, Kim was arrested andimprisoned for a year for having been a founding member of a Communist Youth League. After hisrelease from jail in 1930, Kim founded the Korean Revolutionary Army. In 1931, Kim join a ChineseCommunist guerrilla group, fighting the Japanese military in Manchuria. Kim swiftly rose up the ranks of the Chinese Communist Army. Between the years1932- 1941, Kim led a band of Korean guerrillas against Japanese positions and personnel in Manchuria. In 1941, Japanese counterinsurgency forces forced Kim to leave Manchuriafor the Soviet Union. There he remained until he "hitched" a ride with the Soviet Army into Korea in 1945. Kim strove to unify Korea under the banner of communism. After the creation of the DemocraticPeoples Republic of Korea in 1948, Kim became not only the head of the Korean Workers Party,but premier of the new communist state as well. In late 1949, Kim made the fateful decision tolaunch a major military campaign to unify Korea under force of arms. After the war, Kim continuedthe trend towards one-man rule. He succeeded in constructing a cult of personality with himself asthe main icon for adoration .In the post-Korean War years, Kim developed the idea of juche, anideology of self-reliance blended with Marxism, thus creating a distinct "native" Korean communism. At the age of 82, Kim Il Sung died.
  • 1945 19501947 19511948 1953
  • 1945 1950 Timeline1947 19511948 1953
  • 1945 15 Aug Korea divided into US and Soviet occupation zones along 38th parallel 194726 July President Trumans National Security Act createsUS Department of Defense 194815 Aug After supervised elections, US military government turns over power to Republic of Korea
  • 1950 June July August Septembe25 - North KoreanPeoples Army invadesSouth Korea - UN calls 5 - Near Osan, Task Force Smith troops 4 - Pusan perimeter r established in 15 - Inchon landing of UN forces 29 - UN troopsfor an end of fight for the southeastern completeaggression first time and Korea recapture of27 - UN asks member suffer heavy 13 - First UN Seoulcountries to aid casualties counterattackRepublic of Korea - US 18 - US collapsesannounces Cavalry lands at 15 - Four-dayintervention. North Pohangdong - battle of "theKorea attacks Seoul US aircraft Bowling Alley" -airfield. destroy key oil UN forces hold28 - US bombers refinery in back Northattack troops in Han Wonsan Korean offensiveRiver area - North 22 - Battle forKorean army captures Taejon endsSeoul with heavy US30 - President Truman losses andorders ground forces retreatinto Korea andauthorizes Air Force to
  • October November December 7 - UN forces cross 38th 1 - Chinese 11 - End of Chinese parallel - UN sanctions attack in strike against marine and defeat of North Korea and force near army divisions at Chosin attempted reunification Unsan Reservoir - marines 14 - Chinese Communist 24 - General retreat troops cross Yalu River Douglas into Korea MacArthurs 19 - UN captures final "Home Pyongyang, the North by Korean capital Christmas" offensive 1951beginsJanuary February March April4 - Seoul captured 11- Chinese 1 - UN line 11 - by Chinese counteroffensive reaches between MacArthur begins north of the 37th and recalled -25 - UN forces Hoengsong 38th Parallels General resume Matthew offensive 18 - UN forces Ridgway given f retake Seoul command
  • June July September November 13 - UN forces 10 - Truce talks 23 - UN 27 - Truce talks dig in on the begin at Kaesong forces take resume at 38th Parallel - Communists Heartbreak Panmunjom break off talks Ridge after f six weeks later 18-day f battle d 1953March April June28 - North 18 - Three-day 14 - Communist offensive pushes RepublicKorean and battle of Pork of Korea troops southChinese leaders Chop Hill ends in 18 - South Koreans release 27,000 Northagree to POW victory for UN Korean POWs, who refuse repatriationexchange forces 25 - "Little Truce Talks" secure Republic of 26 - Full peace Koreas acceptance of armistice. Chineses talks resume at launch massive attacks against South Korean Panmunjom f divisions.
  • July September 10 - Communists return to 4 - Processing of POWs for repatriation negotiations begins at Freedom Village, Panmunjom 27 - Cease fire signed - fighting ends 12 hours later Bibliography•Alexander, Bevin, Korea, The First War We Lost. New York, New York. Hippocrene Books, 1986.Fehrenbach, T. R., This Kind of War, A Study in Unpreparedness, New York, New York.•Presidio Press, 1990. Paschall, Rod, Witness to War, Korea, New York, New York.•Bruce Cumings "The Origins of the Korean War" Volumes I & 2.•"Political Change in South Korea" edited by Ilpyong J. Kim and Young Whan Kihl.•"The Failure of Democracy in South Korea" by the former Foreign Minister of the Republic ofKorea, Han Sung Joo.•George E. Ogles "SOUTH KOREA-Dissent Within The Economic Miracle" Korean War maps
  • July September 10 - Communists return to 4 - Processing of POWs for repatriation negotiations begins at Freedom Village, Panmunjom 27 - Cease fire signed - fighting ends 12 hours later Bibliography•Alexander, Bevin, Korea, The First War We Lost. New York, New York. Hippocrene Books, 1986.Fehrenbach, T. R., This Kind of War, A Study in Unpreparedness, New York, New York.•Presidio Press, 1990. Paschall, Rod, Witness to War, Korea, New York, New York.•Bruce Cumings "The Origins of the Korean War" Volumes I & 2.•"Political Change in South Korea" edited by Ilpyong J. Kim and Young Whan Kihl.•"The Failure of Democracy in South Korea" by the former Foreign Minister of the Republic ofKorea, Han Sung Joo.•George E. Ogles "SOUTH KOREA-Dissent Within The Economic Miracle" Korean War maps