French revolution part 1

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  • French revolution part 1

    1. 1. The French Revolution"Bourgeois" Phase: Mr. Plouffe Social 20 Louis St. Laurent High School
    2. 2. It was the best of times,it was the worst of times,it was the age of wisdom,it was the age of foolishness,it was the epoch of belief,it was the epoch of incredulity… -- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities
    3. 3. The French Monarchy: 1775 - 1793Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
    4. 4. MarieAntoinet teand the RoyalChildren
    5. 5. Marie Antoinette’s“Peasant Cottage”
    6. 6. Marie Antoinette’s“Peasant Cottage”
    7. 7. Marie Antoinette’s“Peasant Cottage”
    8. 8. Marie Antoinette’s“Peasant Cottage”
    9. 9. The Necklace Scandal 1,600,000 livres [$100 million today]Y Cardinal Louis René Édouard de RohanY The Countess de LaMotte
    10. 10. Let Them Eat Cake!
    11. 11. Let Them Eat Cake! Y Marie Antoinette NEVER said that! Y “Madame Deficit” Y “The Austrian Whore”
    12. 12. Crane Brinton’s Anatomy of a Revolution
    13. 13. Crane Brinton’s Anatomy of a RevolutionY He borrowed his terms from pathology.
    14. 14. Crane Brinton’s Anatomy of a RevolutionY He borrowed his terms from pathology.Y Compares a revolution to a fever or a disease:
    15. 15. Crane Brinton’s Anatomy of a RevolutionY He borrowed his terms from pathology.Y Compares a revolution to a fever or a disease:  The revolutionary “fever” begins with the appearance of certain “symptoms.”
    16. 16. Crane Brinton’s Anatomy of a RevolutionY He borrowed his terms from pathology.Y Compares a revolution to a fever or a disease:  The revolutionary “fever” begins with the appearance of certain “symptoms.”  It proceeds by advances and retreats to a crisis stage, or “delirium.”
    17. 17. Crane Brinton’s Anatomy of a RevolutionY He borrowed his terms from pathology.Y Compares a revolution to a fever or a disease:  The revolutionary “fever” begins with the appearance of certain “symptoms.”  It proceeds by advances and retreats to a crisis stage, or “delirium.”  The crisis ends when the “fever” breaks.
    18. 18. Crane Brinton’s Anatomy of a RevolutionY He borrowed his terms from pathology.Y Compares a revolution to a fever or a disease:  The revolutionary “fever” begins with the appearance of certain “symptoms.”  It proceeds by advances and retreats to a crisis stage, or “delirium.”  The crisis ends when the “fever” breaks.  A period of convalescence follows, interrupted by a relapse or two before the recovery is complete.
    19. 19. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs
    20. 20. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs1. People from all social classes are discontented.
    21. 21. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs1. People from all social classes are discontented.2. People feel restless and held down by unacceptable restrictions in society, religion, the economy or the govt.
    22. 22. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs1. People from all social classes are discontented.2. People feel restless and held down by unacceptable restrictions in society, religion, the economy or the govt.3. People are hopeful about the future, but they are being forced to accept less than they had hoped for.
    23. 23. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs1. People from all social classes are discontented.2. People feel restless and held down by unacceptable restrictions in society, religion, the economy or the govt.3. People are hopeful about the future, but they are being forced to accept less than they had hoped for.4. People are beginning to think of themselves as belonging to a social class, and there is a growing bitterness between social classes.
    24. 24. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs1. People from all social classes are discontented.2. People feel restless and held down by unacceptable restrictions in society, religion, the economy or the govt.3. People are hopeful about the future, but they are being forced to accept less than they had hoped for.4. People are beginning to think of themselves as belonging to a social class, and there is a growing bitterness between social classes.5. The social classes closest to one another are the most hostile.
    25. 25. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs
    26. 26. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs6. The scholars and thinkers give up on the way their society operates.
    27. 27. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs6. The scholars and thinkers give up on the way their society operates.7. The government does not respond to the needs of its society.
    28. 28. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs6. The scholars and thinkers give up on the way their society operates.7. The government does not respond to the needs of its society.8. The leaders of the government and the ruling class begin to doubt themselves. Some join with the opposition groups.
    29. 29. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs6. The scholars and thinkers give up on the way their society operates.7. The government does not respond to the needs of its society.8. The leaders of the government and the ruling class begin to doubt themselves. Some join with the opposition groups.9. The government is unable to get enough support from any group to save itself.
    30. 30. Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs6. The scholars and thinkers give up on the way their society operates.7. The government does not respond to the needs of its society.8. The leaders of the government and the ruling class begin to doubt themselves. Some join with the opposition groups.9. The government is unable to get enough support from any group to save itself.10. The government cannot organize its finances correctly and is either going bankrupt or trying to tax heavily and unjustly.
    31. 31. Socio-Economic Data, 1789
    32. 32. 806040 1787 1788 North 20 0 % of Income Spent on Bread
    33. 33. The French Urban Poor806040 1787 1788 North 20 0 % of Income Spent on Bread
    34. 34. Financial Problems in France, 1789
    35. 35. Financial Problems in France, 1789a Urban Commoner’s Budget: – Food 80% – Rent 25% – Tithe 10% – Taxes 35% – Clothing 20% – TOTAL 170%
    36. 36. Financial Problems in France, 1789a Urban Commoner’s Budget: – Food 80% a King’s Budget: – Rent 25% – Interest 50% – Tithe 10% – Army 25% – Taxes 35% – Versailles 25% – Clothing 20% – Coronation 10% – TOTAL 170% – Loans 25% – Admin. 25% – TOTAL 160%
    37. 37. French Budget, 1774
    38. 38. Where is the tax money?
    39. 39. Lettres de Cachet
    40. 40. Lettres de CachetY The French king could warrant imprisonment or death in a signed letter under his seal.
    41. 41. Lettres de CachetY The French king could warrant imprisonment or death in a signed letter under his seal.Y A carte-blanche warrant.
    42. 42. Lettres de CachetY The French king could warrant imprisonment or death in a signed letter under his seal.Y A carte-blanche warrant.Y Cardinal Fleury issued 80,000 during the reign of Louis XV!
    43. 43. Lettres de CachetY The French king could warrant imprisonment or death in a signed letter under his seal.Y A carte-blanche warrant.Y Cardinal Fleury issued 80,000 during the reign of Louis XV!Y Eliminated in 1790.
    44. 44. Ancien Regime Map, 1789
    45. 45. The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates
    46. 46. The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates Clergy 1 1st Estate
    47. 47. The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates Clergy 1 1st Estate Aristocracy 1 2nd Estate
    48. 48. The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates Clergy 1 1st Estate Aristocracy 1 2nd Estate 1 Commoners 3rd Estate
    49. 49. The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates Clergy 1 1st Estate Aristocracy 1 2nd Estate 1 Commoners 3rd EstateLouis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.
    50. 50. The Number of Representativesin the Estates General: Vote by Head!
    51. 51. The Number of Representativesin the Estates General: Vote by Head! Clergy 1st Estate 300
    52. 52. The Number of Representativesin the Estates General: Vote by Head! Clergy 1st Estate 300 Aristocracy 300 2nd Estate
    53. 53. The Number of Representativesin the Estates General: Vote by Head! Clergy 1st Estate 300 Aristocracy 300 2nd Estate 648 Commoners 3rd Estate
    54. 54. Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes Abbé Sieyès 1748-1836
    55. 55. Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes1st What is the Third Estate? Everything!2nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing!3rd What does it demand? To become something therein! Abbé Sieyès 1748-1836
    56. 56. Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
    57. 57. “The Third Estate Awakens”Y The commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.”
    58. 58. “The Third Estate Awakens”Y The commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.”Y They proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.
    59. 59. “The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789
    60. 60. Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution
    61. 61. Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789Y A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly.
    62. 62. Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789Y A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. Y 18 died.
    63. 63. Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789Y A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. Y 18 died. Y 73 wounded.
    64. 64. Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789Y A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. Y 18 died. Y 73 wounded. Y 7 guards killed.
    65. 65. Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789Y A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. Y 18 died. Y 73 wounded. Y 7 guards killed. Y It held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen].
    66. 66. Crane Brinton: The Coursethat Revolutions Seem to Take
    67. 67. Crane Brinton: The Coursethat Revolutions Seem to Take 1. Impossible demands made of government which, if granted, would mean its end.
    68. 68. Crane Brinton: The Coursethat Revolutions Seem to Take 1. Impossible demands made of government which, if granted, would mean its end. 2. Unsuccessful government attempts to suppress revolutionaries.
    69. 69. Crane Brinton: The Coursethat Revolutions Seem to Take 1. Impossible demands made of government which, if granted, would mean its end. 2. Unsuccessful government attempts to suppress revolutionaries. 3. Revolutionaries gain power and seem united.
    70. 70. Crane Brinton: The Coursethat Revolutions Seem to Take 1. Impossible demands made of government which, if granted, would mean its end. 2. Unsuccessful government attempts to suppress revolutionaries. 3. Revolutionaries gain power and seem united. 4. Once in power, revolutionaries begin to quarrel among themselves, and unity begins to dissolve.
    71. 71. Crane Brinton: The Coursethat Revolutions Seem to Take 1. Impossible demands made of government which, if granted, would mean its end. 2. Unsuccessful government attempts to suppress revolutionaries. 3. Revolutionaries gain power and seem united. 4. Once in power, revolutionaries begin to quarrel among themselves, and unity begins to dissolve. 5. The moderates gain the leadership but fail to satisfy those who insist on further changes.
    72. 72. Crane Brinton: The Coursethat Revolutions Seem to Take
    73. 73. Crane Brinton: The Coursethat Revolutions Seem to Take6. Power is gained by progressively more radical groups until finally a lunatic fringe gains almost complete control.
    74. 74. Crane Brinton: The Coursethat Revolutions Seem to Take6. Power is gained by progressively more radical groups until finally a lunatic fringe gains almost complete control.7. A strong man emerges and assumes great power.
    75. 75. Crane Brinton: The Coursethat Revolutions Seem to Take6. Power is gained by progressively more radical groups until finally a lunatic fringe gains almost complete control.7. A strong man emerges and assumes great power.8. The extremists try to create a “heaven-on- earth” by introducing their whole program and by punishing all of their opponents.
    76. 76. Crane Brinton: The Coursethat Revolutions Seem to Take6. Power is gained by progressively more radical groups until finally a lunatic fringe gains almost complete control.7. A strong man emerges and assumes great power.8. The extremists try to create a “heaven-on- earth” by introducing their whole program and by punishing all of their opponents.9. A period of terror [extreme violence] occurs.
    77. 77. Crane Brinton: The Coursethat Revolutions Seem to Take6. Power is gained by progressively more radical groups until finally a lunatic fringe gains almost complete control.7. A strong man emerges and assumes great power.8. The extremists try to create a “heaven-on- earth” by introducing their whole program and by punishing all of their opponents.9. A period of terror [extreme violence] occurs.10. Moderate groups regain power. THE
    78. 78. Y Rumors that the feudal aristocracy [the aristos] were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land.
    79. 79. The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt (July 20, 1789)Y Rumors that the feudal aristocracy [the aristos] were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land.
    80. 80. The Pathof the“Great Fear”
    81. 81. Night Session of August 4, 1789
    82. 82. Night Session of August 4, 1789 Y Before the night was over:
    83. 83. Night Session of August 4, 1789 Y Before the night was over:  The feudal regime in France had been abolished.
    84. 84. Night Session of August 4, 1789 Y Before the night was over:  The feudal regime in France had been abolished.  All Frenchmen were, at least in principle, subject to the same laws and the same taxes and eligible for the same offices. Equality & Meritocracy!
    85. 85. National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791
    86. 86. National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité!
    87. 87. National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791 Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité! August Decrees August 4-11, 1789(A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!)
    88. 88. BUT . . . . .
    89. 89. BUT . . . . .Y Feudal dues were not renounced outright [this had been too strong a threat to the principle of private property!]
    90. 90. BUT . . . . .Y Feudal dues were not renounced outright [this had been too strong a threat to the principle of private property!]Y Peasants would compensate their landlords through a series of direct payments for obligations from which they had supposedly been freed.
    91. 91. BUT . . . . .Y Feudal dues were not renounced outright [this had been too strong a threat to the principle of private property!]Y Peasants would compensate their landlords through a series of direct payments for obligations from which they had supposedly been freed.  Therefore, the National Assembly made revolutionary gestures, but remained essentially moderate.
    92. 92. BUT . . . . .Y Feudal dues were not renounced outright [this had been too strong a threat to the principle of private property!]Y Peasants would compensate their landlords through a series of direct payments for obligations from which they had supposedly been freed.  Therefore, the National Assembly made revolutionary gestures, but remained essentially moderate. Their Goal
    93. 93. BUT . . . . .Y Feudal dues were not renounced outright [this had been too strong a threat to the principle of private property!]Y Peasants would compensate their landlords through a series of direct payments for obligations from which they had supposedly been freed.  Therefore, the National Assembly made revolutionary gestures, but remained essentially moderate. Their Goal Safeguard the right of private property!!
    94. 94. The Tricolor (1789) The WHITE of theBourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris.
    95. 95. The Tricolor (1789) The WHITE of theBourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. Citizen!
    96. 96. The Tricolor is the Fashion!
    97. 97. The “Liberty Cap”: Bonne Rouge
    98. 98. Revolutionary Symbols
    99. 99. Revolutionary SymbolsCockade
    100. 100. Revolutionary SymbolsCockadeRevolutionary Clock
    101. 101. Revolutionary SymbolsCockade La RepublicRevolutionary Clock
    102. 102. Revolutionary SymbolsCockade Liberté La RepublicRevolutionary Clock
    103. 103. Revolutionary SymbolsCockade Liberté La RepublicRevolutionary Clock
    104. 104. Revolutionary Playing Cards
    105. 105. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26, 1789
    106. 106. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26, 1789 V Liberty!
    107. 107. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26, 1789 V Liberty! V Property!
    108. 108. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26, 1789 V Liberty! V Property! V Resistance to oppression!
    109. 109. A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread. We want the baker, the baker’s wife and the baker’s boy!
    110. 110. March of the Women, October 5-6, 1789A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread. We want the baker, the baker’s wife and the baker’s boy!
    111. 111. The king was thought to be surrounded by eviladvisors at Versailles so he was forced to move to Paris and reside at the Tuileries Palace.
    112. 112. The “October Days” (1789) The king was thought to be surrounded by eviladvisors at Versailles so he was forced to move to Paris and reside at the Tuileries Palace.
    113. 113. Planting the Tree of Liberty 1790
    114. 114. Sir Edmund Burke (1790): Reflections on the Revolution in FranceThe conservative response to the French Revolution
    115. 115. How to Finance the New Govt.? 1. Confiscate Church Lands (1790)One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.
    116. 116. 2. Print Assignats
    117. 117. 2. Print Assignats
    118. 118. 2. Print AssignatsV Issued by the National Constituent Assembly.
    119. 119. 2. Print AssignatsV Issued by the National Constituent Assembly.V Interest-bearing notes which had the church lands as security.
    120. 120. Depreciation of the Assignat
    121. 121. Depreciation of the AssignatV Whoever acquired them were entitled to certain privileges in the purchase of church land.
    122. 122. Depreciation of the AssignatV Whoever acquired them were entitled to certain privileges in the purchase of church land.V The state would retire the notes as the land was sold.
    123. 123. Depreciation of the AssignatV Whoever acquired them were entitled to certain privileges in the purchase of church land.V The state would retire the notes as the land was sold.V They began circulating as paper currency.
    124. 124. Depreciation of the AssignatV Whoever acquired them were entitled to certain privileges in the purchase of church land.V The state would retire the notes as the land was sold.V They began circulating as paper currency.  Government printed more  INFLATION [they lost 99% of their value ultimately].
    125. 125. Depreciation of the AssignatV Whoever acquired them were entitled to certain privileges in the purchase of church land.V The state would retire the notes as the land was sold.V They began circulating as paper currency.  Government printed more  INFLATION [they lost 99% of their value ultimately].  Therefore, future governments paid off their
    126. 126. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy July 12, 1790
    127. 127. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy July 12, 1790 Jurying vs. Non-Jurying [refractory] Clergy
    128. 128. New Relations Between Church & State
    129. 129. New Relations Between Church & StateV Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches.
    130. 130. New Relations Between Church & StateV Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches.V The church was reorganized:
    131. 131. New Relations Between Church & StateV Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches.V The church was reorganized:  Parish priests  elected by the district assemblies.
    132. 132. New Relations Between Church & StateV Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches.V The church was reorganized:  Parish priests  elected by the district assemblies.  Bishops  named by the department assemblies.
    133. 133. New Relations Between Church & StateV Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches.V The church was reorganized:  Parish priests  elected by the district assemblies.  Bishops  named by the department assemblies.  The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy. Pope Pius VI [1775-1799]
    134. 134. New Relations Between Church & StateV Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches.V The church was reorganized:  Parish priests  elected by the district assemblies.  Bishops  named by the department assemblies.  The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy.V It transformed France’s Pope Pius VI Roman Catholic Church [1775-1799]
    135. 135. Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791
    136. 136. Constitution of 1791
    137. 137. The French Constitution of 1791:A Bourgeois Government
    138. 138. The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois GovernmentV The king got the “suspensive” veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years].
    139. 139. The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois GovernmentV The king got the “suspensive” veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years].  He could not pass laws.
    140. 140. The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois GovernmentV The king got the “suspensive” veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years].  He could not pass laws.  His ministers were responsible for their own actions.
    141. 141. The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois GovernmentV The king got the “suspensive” veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years].  He could not pass laws.  His ministers were responsible for their own actions.V A permanent, elected, single chamber National Assembly.
    142. 142. The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois GovernmentV The king got the “suspensive” veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years].  He could not pass laws.  His ministers were responsible for their own actions.V A permanent, elected, single chamber National Assembly.  Had the power to grant taxation.
    143. 143. The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois GovernmentV The king got the “suspensive” veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years].  He could not pass laws.  His ministers were responsible for their own actions.V A permanent, elected, single chamber National Assembly.  Had the power to grant taxation.V An independent judiciary.
    144. 144. The French Constitution of 1791:A Bourgeois Government
    145. 145. The French Constitution of 1791:A Bourgeois GovernmentV “Active” Citizen [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs. “Passive” Citizen.
    146. 146. The French Constitution of 1791:A Bourgeois GovernmentV “Active” Citizen [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs. “Passive” Citizen.  1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise.
    147. 147. The French Constitution of 1791:A Bourgeois GovernmentV “Active” Citizen [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs. “Passive” Citizen.  1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise.  Domestic servants were also excluded.
    148. 148. The French Constitution of 1791:A Bourgeois GovernmentV “Active” Citizen [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs. “Passive” Citizen.  1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise.  Domestic servants were also excluded.V A newly elected LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
    149. 149. The French Constitution of 1791:A Bourgeois GovernmentV “Active” Citizen [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs. “Passive” Citizen.  1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise.  Domestic servants were also excluded.V A newly elected LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. GOAL  Make sure that the country was not turned over to the mob!
    150. 150. 83 Revolutionary Departments February 26, 1790
    151. 151. The Royal Family Attempts to Flee
    152. 152. The Royal Family AttemptsY June, 1791 to Flee
    153. 153. The Royal Family AttemptsY June, 1791 to FleeY Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover].
    154. 154. The Royal Family AttemptsY June, 1791 to FleeY Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover].Y Headed toward the Luxembourg border.
    155. 155. The Royal Family AttemptsY June, 1791 to FleeY Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover].Y Headed toward the Luxembourg border.Y The King was recognized at Varennes, near the border
    156. 156. Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793)
    157. 157. Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793)V Women played a vital role in the Revolution.
    158. 158. Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793)V Women played a vital role in the Revolution.V But, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women.
    159. 159. Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793)V Women played a vital role in the Revolution.V But, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women. Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen (1791)
    160. 160. The First Coalition & The Brunswick Manifesto (August 3, 1792)Duke of Brunswick if the Royal Family is harmed, Paris will be leveled!!
    161. 161. The First Coalition & The Brunswick Manifesto (August 3, 1792)Duke of Brunswick if the Royal Family is harmed, Paris will be leveled!! FRANCE
    162. 162. The First Coalition & The Brunswick Manifesto (August 3, 1792)Duke of Brunswick if the Royal Family is harmed, Paris will be leveled!! 1792- FRANCE 1797
    163. 163. The First Coalition & The Brunswick Manifesto (August 3, 1792)Duke of Brunswick if the Royal Family is harmed, Paris will be leveled!! 1792- FRANCE 1797 AUSTRIA PRUSSIA BRITAIN SPAIN PIEDMONT
    164. 164. The First Coalition & The Brunswick Manifesto (August 3, 1792)Duke of Brunswick if the Royal Family is harmed, Paris will be leveled!! 1792- FRANCE 1797 AUSTRIA PRUSSIA BRITAIN SPAIN PIEDMONT This military crisis undermined the new Legislative Assembly.
    165. 165. French Soldiers & the Tricolor: Vive Le Patrie!
    166. 166. French Soldiers & the Tricolor: Vive Le Patrie! V The French armies were ill-prepared for the conflict.
    167. 167. French Soldiers & the Tricolor: Vive Le Patrie! V The French armies were ill-prepared for the conflict. V ½ of the officer corps had emigrated.
    168. 168. French Soldiers & the Tricolor: Vive Le Patrie! V The French armies were ill-prepared for the conflict. V ½ of the officer corps had emigrated. V Many men disserted.
    169. 169. French Soldiers & the Tricolor: Vive Le Patrie! V The French armies were ill-prepared for the conflict. V ½ of the officer corps had emigrated. V Many men disserted. V New recruits were enthusiastic, but ill-trained.
    170. 170. French Soldiers & the Tricolor: Vive Le Patrie! V The French armies were ill-prepared for the conflict. V ½ of the officer corps had emigrated. V Many men disserted. V New recruits were enthusiastic, but ill-trained. V French troops often broke ranks and fled
    171. 171. French Expansion: 1791-1799
    172. 172. Bibliographic Resources« “Hist210—Europe in the Age of Revolutions.”http://www.ucl.ac.uk/history/courses/europe1/chron/rch5.htm« “Liberty, Fraternity, Equality: Exploring theFrench Revolution.” http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/« Matthews, Andrew. Revolution andReaction: Europe, 1789-1849. CambridgeUniversity Press, 2001.« “The Napoleonic Guide.”http://www.napoleonguide.com/index.htm

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