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  • 1. NON-DEMOCRATIC Authoritarian Totalitarian Gov’t Groups Process Goals Decision making is Decisive leader-Leaders chosen by carried out by a small Use of FIPS ship, politicalan elite whose group who may not stability, socialpolitical authority exercise power in the order, rapid mobil-rests on the use or interest of the majority ization of resourcesthreat of force Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881) Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
  • 2. Machiavelli“The Lion & the Fox”
  • 3. Thomas Carlyle“Great Man” Theory
  • 4. Nietzsche“Superman”
  • 5. DICTATORSHIPS APPEAL TO CERTAIN KINDS OF PEOPLE IN CERTAIN KINDS OF SITUATIONS Adorno: parent-child relationship/ dependent on others for strength/ see the world as black and white. Fromm:alienation of the individual in the post-industrial society Lipsett:Class base: Communism - lower classes Fascism - upper classes
  • 6. Definitions: DICTATORSHIP: absolute rule by one person or by a small elite (authoritarian government). TYPES: Aristocracy: Ruled by a privileged class. Plutocracy: Ruled by rich. Autocracy: Ruled by ONE person, a monarch without restrictions Oligarchy: Ruled by A FEW PEOPLE, a clan or clique (Junta, if ruled by military). plutocracy Theocracy: Ruled by people who claim a divine right to rule.
  • 7. Examples of each ( 20thcent): Aristocracy (minority tyranny) South Africa (under apartheid) Autocracy (absolute monarchy) Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Suharto (Indon.) Oligarchy Nicaragua (Samoza), Haiti (Duvalier) Junta (military dictatorship) Iraq, Myanmar, Nigeria, Chile (Pinochet) Theocracy Iran (Ayatollah Khomeini) Taliban (Afghanistan)
  • 8. TOTALITARIANISM: a dictatorship thatcontrols ALL aspects of a society. A product of the 20th century. Accomplished by mass media. Government control via F.I.P.S. Hitler’s Germany, Stalin’s Soviet Union, Mao’s China, Castro’s Cuba
  • 11. Force & Terror Most expedient way to control a population and maintain power. Zero toleration of dissent. Nazi’s SA storm troopers, SS, Gestapo. Italy’s Black Shirts (squadristi). Stalin’s secret police (NKVD), Cheka, Gulag, KGB (1954) All used agents and informants informally.
  • 12. Indoctrination & ForcedParticipation An education system to teach the values of the party. Target on youth: Hitler’s Germany: Jungvolk (10-14) Hitler Youth (boys) League of German Girls Soviet Union: Little Octobrists (7-10) Young Pioneers (10-14) Komsomol (15-28)
  • 13. Forced participation: Gives semblance of participation in, and approval of the political process. Parades and celebrations. Elections: Party chooses all the candidates; No real choices on ballots; or No secret ballot. Shows world that leader has widespread support.
  • 14. Propaganda Language is the vehicle of thought. Enhance image of leadership, and party. Show greatness of state and people. Examples: Nazi Germany: Joseph Goebbels (Minister of Public Enlightenment) People’s Observer (Nazi Party paper)
  • 15. Soviet Union: Pravda (“Truth”) paper of Communist Party
  • 16. Scapism (Directing populardiscontent) Alleviates responsibility of party/gov’t for any problems. Assists in limiting accountability. Possible enemies: Nazi Germany: Jews; Socialists (responsible for betraying Germany at the end of WWI) Dissent from: Student groups (White Rose), Catholic Church, Jehovah’s Witnesses
  • 17. Soviet Union: Reactionary Elements (White Russians); capitalists; The West. Dissent from: • Intellectuals: – Aleksandr Solzenitsyn, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich; – Andrei Sakharov, inventor of the soviet H-bomb. • Samizdat publication of dissident views.
  • 18. Critique of Non-democraticGovernments Lack of legitimacy Inefficient and bureaucratic Patronage; Unchecked corruption Littledictators
  • 19. Widespread apathy and cynicismPower struggles over succession Leads to violent changes in government changesElitism Favoritism of certain groups in society; leads to revolts.
  • 20. COMMUNISM(Marxism/Leninism): a.k.a.“Revolutionary Socialism” Has it ever been achieved? Ideal of Society: Based on human capacity for interdependence, solidarity, and cooperativeness. Abolishment of injustice Achievement of equality for all.
  • 21. Affirmations: Humanism, rationality, and progress Dignity of work Internationalism and pacifismRejections: Violations of human rights:despotism, militarism, imperialism, fascism, racism, torture. Custom based societies Capitalism, liberal individualism, inequality.
  • 22. Revolutionary organizations andtactics: Political activity in the workplace; trade unions, strikes. Military or economic challenge to authority.State structures and officialpolicies: Identification of state with interest of working classes through medium of political party. Removal of old institutions and laws redolent of privilege. State direction of economy in the interest of equal distribution of wealth and opportunity.
  • 23. Historical Blind Spots ofCOMMUNISM International movement or National movement. Not always applicable to non-European and pre-modern societies. Highly militaristic. Bureaucratic. Totalitarian: elite run state.
  • 24. Communism In Russia The USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
  • 25. Karl Marx (1818 - 1883) Communist Manifesto Das Kapital Marx’s sidekick: Friedrich Engels (1820 - 1895) Objective: an economic/political system that would meet ppl. basic needs… guaranteed.
  • 26. Lenin (1874-1924) Altered Marxism: Could skip certain stages, i.e. capitalism (in Russia’s case) Vanguard needed to protect revolution, i.e. an elite, rather than proletariat.
  • 27. USSR’s political system General Secretary of Communist Party #1. Government is dominated by communist party (CPSU); therefore…
  • 28. Soviet Leaders
  • 29. Lenin 1917-24
  • 30. Joseph Stalin 1922-53
  • 31. Nikita Khrushchev 1953-64
  • 32. Leonid Brezhnev 1964-82
  • 33. Yuri Andropov 1982-84
  • 34. Konstantin Chernenko1984-85
  • 35. Mikhail Gorbachev 1985-1991 Glasnost (openness) Political focus Perestroika (restructuring) Economic focus
  • 36. FASCISM Ideal of society: All people can experience life heroically as part of a strong dynamic community.
  • 37. Affirmations: Possibility of a new order. Power invested in a natural elite with a born leader.Rejections: Decadent forces: liberalism - it saps a nation of its energy. Egoistic individualism.
  • 38. Cosmopolitanism, cultural and racial mixing. Humanitarian concerns with equality and harmony. Democracy.Revolutionary organizations andtactics: Paramilitary and youth organizations. Assertion of a strong leader. Overt violence against perceived opponents and enemies.
  • 39. Esthetic of power symbolizing regeneration.
  • 40. Arno BreckerNazi sculptor1942
  • 41. Roland HugonPropaganda posterVichy France, 1942
  • 42. Joop! Giorgio Armani magazine ads
  • 43. Franco, SpanishDictator, circa 1935
  • 44. State structures and officialpolicies: Identification of party with state. Aggressive militarism. Abolition of class conflict by assertion of unity of interest in the glorification of the state.Historical Blind Spots of FASCISM: Impossibility of integrating all aspects of society into fascist vision.
  • 45. Maintenance of momentum once all enemieshave been defeated.Replacement of charismatic leader.
  • 46. Why German DemocracyFailed (The Weimar Gov’t) Proportional representation 0.5% gets a seat;therefore 2.6% in 1928 gave legitimacy to Nazis Weak governments 20 coalition gov’ts from 1919-33; avg. 8 months; made of 3 or 4 parties Political polarization due to failure of mainstream parties 1932 Nazi (R) Communists (L) win majority of seats
  • 47. Disunity of the left Communists refused to form a coalition against Nazis w/ Social Democrat Communists were anti-German democraticHostility to parliamentary democracy seen by some Germans as a foreign political system imposed on them by victorious Allies (Treaty of Versailles)Great Depression six million out of work in Jan., 1932
  • 48. Liberal Demo. Vs. Com. & Fasc. Representative assembly One party Totalitarian state. and responsible executive. Rule by elite party or Two or more party system dictatorship. Free elections at regular No elections, if so no choice intervals Judicial decisions conform Independent judiciary to party ideology. Freedom of opinion and Censorship and limited speech freedom of opinion and Freedom of association speech. Limited freedom of association; surveillance by secret police.
  • 49. Communism Vs. Fascism Rule in interest of the Rule by proletariat STATE Represent interest of Represents interest of working class middle class and Aims at: economic elite. Intensifying class Aims at: structure Eliminating class Working class conflict, BUT revolution maintaining class Classless society structure International movement National movement. Concerned with The interest of the state betterment of individual comes before those of the individual.
  • 50. Nationalization of Private ownership of theeconomy means of productionPublic ownership of the State control of workersmeans of production and economy.State planning Cult of leader, Fuhrer andCan have a cult leader. Il Duce.