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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 10 Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase 1 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 2. Chapter 10 Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase 1 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 3. Classical Greece, 800-350 BCE 2 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 4. Early Development of Greek Society 3,000 - 2,000 BCE - Indo-Europeans migrate to Anatolia and peninsular Greece and settle... Minoan Society (2,000-1,100 BCE)  Island of Crete  Vibrant culture, traded extensively in Med., writing  Series of natural disasters after 1700 BCE  Foreign invasions sealed their fate 3 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 5. Mycenaean Society Indo-European invaders descend through Balkans into mainland Greece, c. 2200 BCE (see map) Influenced by Minoan culture Military expansion throughout region (1500-1100 BCE) Trojan war, c. 1200 BCE (with Troy in Anatolia)  Homer’s The Iliad, The Odyssey Political turmoil, chaos from 1100 to 800 BCE Mycenaean civilization disappears 5 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 6. The Polis City-states restore political order in Greece Urban center, dominating surrounding rural areas  offered protection to surrounding areas in time of war Highly independent character  Monarchies  “Tyrannies” (generals or ambitious politicians) not necessarily oppressive  Early Democracies take root 7 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 7. Sparta Highly militarized society Subjugated peoples: helots  Serfs, tied to land  Outnumbered Spartans 10:1 by 6th c. BCE Military society developed to control threat of rebellion 8 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 8. Spartan Society Austerity the norm Boys removed from families at age seven  Received military training in barracks  Active military service follows Marriage, but no home life until age 30 Some relaxation of discipline by 4th c. CE 9 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 9. Athens Development of early democracy  Free, adult males only  Women, slaves excluded Yet contrast Athenian style of government with Spartan militarism 10 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 10. Athenian Society Maritime trade brings increasing prosperity beginning 7th c. BCE Aristocrats dominate smaller landholders Increasing socio-economic tensions  Class conflict 11 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 11. Solon and Athenian Democracy Aristocrat Solon mediates crisis  Aristocrats to keep large landholdings  But forgive debts, ban debt slavery Removed family restrictions against participating in public life Instituted paid civil service 12 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 12. Pericles Ruled 461-429 BCE High point of Athenian democracy Aristocratic but popular Massive public works Encouraged cultural development 13 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 13. Trade and Integration of theMediterranean Basin Greece: little grain, but rich in olives and grapes Colonies further trade Commerce rather than agriculture as basis of much of economy 27 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 14. Panhellenic Festivals Useful for integrating far-flung colonies Olympic Games begin 776 BCE Sense of collective identity 28 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 15. Patriarchal Society Women as goddesses, wives, prostitutes Limited exposure in public sphere Sparta partial exception Sappho Role of infanticide in Greek society and culture 29 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 16. Slavery Scythians (Ukraine) Nubians (Africa) Chattel Sometimes used in business Opportunity to buy freedom 30 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 17. The Greek Language Borrowed Phoenician alphabet Added vowels Complex language Allowed for communication of abstract ideas  Philosophy 31 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 18. Greek Theology Polytheism Zeus principal god Religious cults  Eleusinian mysteries  The Bacchae  Rituals eventually domesticated 35 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 19. Tragic Drama Evolution from public presentations of cultic rituals Major playwrights (5th c. BCE)  Aeschylus  Sophocles  Euripides Comedy: Aristophanes 36 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 20. Greek Colonization Population expansion drives colonization  Coastal Mediterranean, Black sea  Sicily (Naples: “nea polis,” new city)  Southern France (Massalia: Marseilles)  Anatolia  Southern Ukraine 14 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 21. Classical Greece and the Mediterranean basin 800-500 BCE 15 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 22. Persian Wars (500-479 BCE) Revolt against Persian Empire 500 BCE in Ionia Athens supports with ships Greek rebellion crushed by Darius 493 BCE; however, Persia routed in 490 at Marathon Successor Xerxes burns Athens, but driven out as well 150 years of intermittent fighting 17 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 23. The Delian League Poleis create Delian League (mutual defense pact)Led by Athens to protect from Persia and other threats  Massive payments to Athens fuels Periclean expansion  Resented by other poleis (especially Sparta) Civil war in Greece, 431-404 BCE (Peloponnesian War) Poleis allied with either Athens or Sparta Athens forced to surrender But conflict continued between Sparta and other poleis 18 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 24. Kingdom of Macedon Frontier region to north of Peloponnesus (Greece) King Philip II (r. 359-336 BCE) builds massive military 350 BCE encroaches on Greek poleis to the south, controls region by 338 BCE Alexander “the Great,” son of Philip II rapidly expands throughout Mediterranean basin Invasion of Persia successful Turned back in India when exhausted troops mutinied 20 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 25. Alexanders Empire, ca. 323 B.C.E. 22 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 26. The Hellenistic Empires  Period after Alex’s death to the rise of the Roman empire - Greek culture spreads way beyond Greece.  After Alexander’s death, competition for empire  Divided by generals  Antigonus: Greece and Macedon  Ptolemy: Egypt  Seleucus: Persian Achaemenid Empire  Economic integration, Intellectual cross- fertilization from Med to India! 23 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 27. The Antigonid Empire Smallest of Hellenistic Empires Resisted Antigonid rule Athens and Corinth prospered  Heavy colonizing activity - especially to Seleucid empire (former Persian empire) 24 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 28. The Ptolemaic Empire Wealthiest of the Hellenistic empires Established state monopolies  Textiles  Salt  Beer Capital: Alexandria  Important port city (could handle 1200 ships at once)  Major museum, library 25 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 29. The Seleucid Empire Massive colonization of Greeks Export of Greek culture, values as far east as India  Bactria  Ashoka legislates in Greek and Aramaic 26 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 30. Socrates (470-399 BCE) The Socratic Method Student: Plato Spoke in public - attempted to get people to think and question... condemned on charges of immorality Forced to drink hemlock 32 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 31. Plato (430-347 BCE) Systematized Socratic thought The Republic  Parable of the Cave  Theory of Forms/Ideas 33 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 32. Aristotle (389-322 BCE) Student of Plato Broke with Theory of Forms/Ideas Emphasis on empirical findings, reason Massive impact on western thought 34 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 33. Hellenistic Philosophies Epicureans  Pleasure, distinct from Hedonists Skeptics  Doubted possibility of certainty in anything Stoics  Duty, virtue  Emphasis on inner peace 37 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.