Ch 8 classical china keynote

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  • Ch 8 classical china keynote

    1. 1. Chapter 8 The Unification of China 1 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    2. 2. Chapter 8 The Unification of China 1 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    3. 3. Confucius Kong Fuzi (551-479 BCE)  Master Philosopher Kong Aristocratic roots Unwilling to compromise principle Decade of unemployment, wandering Returned home a failure, died soon thereafter Teachings: Analects 2 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    4. 4. Confucian Ideas Ethics and politics  Avoided religion, metaphysics Junzi: “superior individuals”  Role in government service Emphasis on Zhou Dynasty texts  later formed core texts of Chinese education 3 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    5. 5. Confucian Values Ren  Kindness, benevolence Li  Propriety Xiao  Filial piety Traits lead to development of junzi  Ideal leaders 4 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    6. 6. Mencius (372-289 BCE) Principal Confucian scholar Optimist, belief in power of ren Not influential during lifetime  Considered prime exponent of Confucian thought since 10th century 5 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    7. 7. Xunzi (298-238 BCE) Career as government administrator Belief in fundamental selfishness of humanity  Compare with Mencius Emphasis on li, rigid propriety discipline 6 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    8. 8. Daoism Critics of Confucianism  Passivism, rejection of active attempts to change the course of events Founder: Laozi, 6th c. BCE The Daodejing (Classic of Way and of Virtue) Zhuangzi (named for author, 369-236 BCE) 7 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    9. 9. The Dao “The Way” (of nature, of the cosmos)  Water: soft and yielding, but capable of eroding rock  Cavity of pots, wheels: nonexistent, but essential 8 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    10. 10. Doctrine of Wuwei Attempt to control universe results in chaos Restore order by disengagement  No advanced education  No ambition Simple living in harmony with nature Cultivate self-knowledge 9 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    11. 11. Political Implications of Daoism Confucianism as public doctrine Daoism as private pursuit Ironic combination allowed intellectuals to pursue both 10 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    12. 12. Legalism Emphasis on development of the state  Ruthless, end justifies the means Role of Law  Strict punishment for violators  Principle of collective responsibility Shang Yang (390-338 BCE), The Book of the Lord Shang Han Feizi (280-233 BCE)  Forced to commit suicide by political enemies 11 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    13. 13. Legalist Doctrine Two strengths of the state  Agriculture  Military Emphasized development of peasant, soldier classes Distrust of pure intellectual, cultural pursuits Historically, often imitated but rarely praised 12 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    14. 14. Unification of China Qin dynasty develops, 4th-3rd centuries BCE Generous land grants under Shang Yang  Private farmers decrease power of large landholders  Increasing centralization of power Improved military technology 13 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    15. 15. The First Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (r. 221-210 BCE) founds new dynasty as “First Emperor” Dynasty ends in 207, but sets dramatic precedent Basis of rule: centralized bureaucracy Massive public works begun  Precursor to Great Wall 14 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    16. 16. China under the Qin dynasty, 221 – 207 BCE 15 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    17. 17. Resistance to Qin Policies Emperor orders execution of all critics Orders burning of all ideological works Some 460 scholars buried alive Others exiled Massive cultural losses 16 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    18. 18. Qin Centralization Standardized:  Laws  Currencies  Weights and measures  Script  Previously: single language written in distinct scripts Building of roads, bridges 17 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    19. 19. Massive Tomb Projects Built by 700,000 workers Slaves, concubines, and craftsmen sacrificed and buried Excavated in 1974, 15,000 terra cotta sculptures of soldiers, horses, and weapons unearthed 18 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    20. 20. Tomb of the First Emperor 19 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    21. 21. The Han Dynasty Civil disorder brings down Qin dynasty 207 BCE Liu Bang forms new dynasty: the Han (206 BCE-220 CE)  Former Han (206 BCE-9 CE)  Interruption 9-23 CE  Later Han (25-220 CE) 20 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    22. 22. Early Han Policies Relaxed Qin tyranny without returning to Zhou anarchy Created large landholdings But maintained control over administrative regions After failed rebellion, took more central control 21 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    23. 23. Han Centralization The Martial Emperor: Han Wudi (141-87 BCE) Increased taxes to fund more public works But huge demand for government officials, decline since Qin persecution 22 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    24. 24. Confucian Educational System Han Wudi establishes an Imperial University in 124 BCE Not a lover of scholarship, but demanded educated class for bureaucracy Adopted Confucianism as official course of study 3000 students by end of Former Han, 30,000 by end of Later Han 23 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    25. 25. Han Imperial Expansion Invasions of Vietnam, Korea Constant attacks from Xiongnu  Nomads from Central Asia  Horsemen  Brutal: Maodun (210-174 BCE), had soldiers murder his wife, father Han Wudi briefly dominates Xiongnu 24 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    26. 26. East Asia and central Asia at the time of Han Wudi, ca. 87 BCE 25 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    27. 27. Patriarchal Social Order Classic of Filial Piety  Subordination to elder males Admonitions for Women  Female virtues:  Humility, obedience, subservience, loyalty 26 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    28. 28. Iron Metallurgy Expansion of iron manufacture  Iron tips on tools abandoned as tools entirely made from iron Increased food production Superior weaponry 27 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    29. 29. Other technological Developments Cultivation of silkworms  Breeding  Diet control  Other silk-producing lands relied on wild worms Development of paper  Bamboo, fabric abandoned in favor of wood and textile-based paper 28 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    30. 30. Population Growth in the Han Dynasty 220 BCE 20 million people By 9 CE 60 million people General prosperity Increased agricultural productivity Taxes small part of overall income Produce occasionally spoiling in state granaries 29 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    31. 31. Economic and Social Difficulties Expenses of military expeditions, esp. vs. Xiongnu Taxes increasing Arbitrary property confiscations rise Increasing gap between rich and poor  Slavery, tenant farming increase  Banditry, rebellion 30 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    32. 32. Reign of Wang Mang (9-23 CE) Wang Mang regent for 2-year old Emperor, 6 CE Takes power himself 9 CE Introduces massive reforms  The “socialist emperor”  Land redistribution, but poorly handled Social chaos ends in his assassination 23 CE 31 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    33. 33. Later Han Dynasty Han Dynasty emperors manage, with difficulty, to reassert control Yellow Turban uprising challenges land distribution problems Internal court intrigue Weakened Han Dynasty collapses by 220 CE 32 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

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