The Classical Empires ofPersia     ! Four                major dynasties                 Achaemenids (558-330 BCE)       ...
The Classical Empires ofPersia     ! Four                major dynasties                 Achaemenids (558-330 BCE)       ...
2Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
Achaemenid Empire (558-330 BCE)   Ushers in a new era in world history - EMPIRE on a new    scale (Mediterranean Sea to I...
Cyrus the Great  580 – 529 B. C. E.
Cyrus the Great  580 – 529 B. C. E.
Achaemenid Administration: TheSatrapies   Had to rule a VAST empire with over 70    ethnicities   23 Administrative divi...
Ancient Persepolis
Technologies   Iron metallurgy   Qanat: System of underground canals       Avoided excessive loss to evaporation   Ext...
Persian “Royal Road”
Decline of the Achaemenid Empire   Policy of toleration under Cyrus, Darius   Xerxes (486-465 BCE) attempts to impose   ...
Persian Wars (500-479 BCE)   Rebellious Greeks in Ionia   Peninsular Greeks join in   Long, costly campaign to conquer ...
Seleucid Empire   Generals divide empire, best part goes to Seleucus    (r. 305-281 BCE)   Retained Achaemenid administr...
The Achaemenid and Selucid Empires, 558-83 BCE                                                                            ...
Parthian Empire   Seminomadic Parthians drive Seleucus out of Iran   Federated governmental structure   Especially stro...
Sasanid Empire (224-651 CE)   Claimed descent from Achaemenids   Continual conflicts with Rome, Byzantium in the    west...
The Parthian and Sasanid Empires, 247 BCE-651  CE                                                                         ...
Persian Society   Early steppe traditions       Warriors, priests, peasants (early social structure)       semi-nomadic...
Slave Class   Prisoners of war, conquered populations   Debtors   Children, spouses also sold into slavery   Principal...
Persian Economy   Several areas exceptionally fertile       old river valley civ areas   Long-distance trade benefits f...
Zoroastrianism (switch to charts)   Early Aryan influences on Persian religious    traditions (natural elements/geographi...
Zarathustra [Zoroaster],        6c BCE:Good Thoughts, Good Deed, Good           Words                  “Tree of Life”
Dualistic Battle of      Good vs. Evil  Ahura Mazda         Ahriman      “Holy         “DestructiveSpirit” (who will      ...
Zend-Avesta    (The “Book of Law”)The “Sacred Fire”  the forceto fight evil.
Extent of Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism in the empire...   Under Alexander: Massacre of Magi, burning    Zoroastrian temples   Weak Parthian supp...
Other Religious Groups in the PersianEmpire   Because of the tolerance of most leaders...       Jewish communities     ...
The Fall...I. Xerxes’ policiesII. Persian Wars (500-479 BCE)III. Alexander of Macedon (Great)IV. Seleucids, Parthians, Sas...
The Essential Question...What were the strategies used byPersian empire rulers that allowed it tobe so durable?
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  • Ch 7 persia keynote

    1. 1. The Classical Empires ofPersia ! Four major dynasties  Achaemenids (558-330 BCE)  Seleucids (323-283 BCE)  Parthians (247 BCE-224 CE)  Sasanids (224-651 CE) 1 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    2. 2. The Classical Empires ofPersia ! Four major dynasties  Achaemenids (558-330 BCE)  Seleucids (323-283 BCE)  Parthians (247 BCE-224 CE)  Sasanids (224-651 CE) 1 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    3. 3. 2Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    4. 4. Achaemenid Empire (558-330 BCE) Ushers in a new era in world history - EMPIRE on a new scale (Mediterranean Sea to India!) Migration of Medes and Persians from central Asia, before 1000 BCE into modern-day Iran  Indo-Europeans Capitalized on weakening Mesopotamian civs - Assyrian and Babylonian empires Cyrus the Great (r. 558-530 BCE) founder of dynasty  A tolerant ruler  he allowed different cultures within his empire to keep their own institutions.  The Greeks called him a “Law-Giver.”  The Jews called him “the anointed of the Lord.” 3 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    5. 5. Cyrus the Great 580 – 529 B. C. E.
    6. 6. Cyrus the Great 580 – 529 B. C. E.
    7. 7. Achaemenid Administration: TheSatrapies Had to rule a VAST empire with over 70 ethnicities 23 Administrative divisions Satraps Persian, but staff principally local System of spies, surprise audits  Minimized possibilities of local rebellion Standardized currency for taxation purposes  Also standardized tribute system (taxation) Massive road building, courier services Built Persepolis 5 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    8. 8. Ancient Persepolis
    9. 9. Technologies Iron metallurgy Qanat: System of underground canals  Avoided excessive loss to evaporation Extensive road-building  Persian Royal Road  2,575 km or 1,600 miles, some of it paved!  Also new highways or improved existing roads into Egypt, India, etc... (13,000 km!)  Courier service (111 postal stations at 40-50 km apart) 7 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    10. 10. Persian “Royal Road”
    11. 11. Decline of the Achaemenid Empire Policy of toleration under Cyrus, Darius Xerxes (486-465 BCE) attempts to impose Persian stamp on satrapies; intolerance Increasing public discontent Had hardest time with ethnic GREEKS in Anatolia (esp. Ionia - along coast) and their cousins across the sea 9 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    12. 12. Persian Wars (500-479 BCE) Rebellious Greeks in Ionia Peninsular Greeks join in Long, costly campaign to conquer the Greeks Persians defeated at Marathon (490 BCE), retreated For next 150 years, kept fighting Alexander the Great conquers the Achaemenid Empire (334-331 BCE)  continues the administrative legacy of the Achaemenids  dies in 323 BCE and empire is divided... 10 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    13. 13. Seleucid Empire Generals divide empire, best part goes to Seleucus (r. 305-281 BCE) Retained Achaemenid administrative and other structures Faced opposition from native Persians and others... Attacked by rebellion in India, invasion of Parthians 11 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    14. 14. The Achaemenid and Selucid Empires, 558-83 BCE 12 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    15. 15. Parthian Empire Seminomadic Parthians drive Seleucus out of Iran Federated governmental structure Especially strong cavalry (bigger horses!) Weakened by ongoing wars with Romans Fell to internal rebellion 13 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    16. 16. Sasanid Empire (224-651 CE) Claimed descent from Achaemenids Continual conflicts with Rome, Byzantium in the west, Kush in the east Overwhelmed by Arab conquest in 651 Persian administration and culture absorbed into local Islamic culture 14 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    17. 17. The Parthian and Sasanid Empires, 247 BCE-651 CE 15 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    18. 18. Persian Society Early steppe traditions  Warriors, priests, peasants (early social structure)  semi-nomadic  Family/clan kinship very important Creation of bureaucrat class with empire  Tax collectors  Record keepers  translators (facilitated communication among the many peoples within empire) 16 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    19. 19. Slave Class Prisoners of war, conquered populations Debtors Children, spouses also sold into slavery Principally domestic servitude  Some agricultural labor, public works (qanats) 17 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    20. 20. Persian Economy Several areas exceptionally fertile  old river valley civ areas Long-distance trade benefits from Persian road- building and standardized coins Goods from India especially valued Most Persians were free classes (artisans, merchants, textile production, peasants working as laborers 18 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    21. 21. Zoroastrianism (switch to charts) Early Aryan influences on Persian religious traditions (natural elements/geographic features) Will influence the beliefs and values of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam  Zarathustra (late 7th-early 6th c. BCE)  a prophet for the “wise lord”  Priests of Zarathustra known as Magi  doctrine of good v. evil  humans would undergo judgement based on works in this life  heaven and hell idea  Humans could and should enjoy life (in moderation) 19 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    22. 22. Zarathustra [Zoroaster], 6c BCE:Good Thoughts, Good Deed, Good Words “Tree of Life”
    23. 23. Dualistic Battle of Good vs. Evil Ahura Mazda Ahriman “Holy “DestructiveSpirit” (who will Spirit”ultimately defeat evil)
    24. 24. Zend-Avesta (The “Book of Law”)The “Sacred Fire”  the forceto fight evil.
    25. 25. Extent of Zoroastrianism
    26. 26. Zoroastrianism in the empire... Under Alexander: Massacre of Magi, burning Zoroastrian temples Weak Parthian support Major revival under Sasanids, persecution of non- Zoroastrians Discrimination under Islam 24 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    27. 27. Other Religious Groups in the PersianEmpire Because of the tolerance of most leaders...  Jewish communities  Christianity and Buddhism also find converts 25 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    28. 28. The Fall...I. Xerxes’ policiesII. Persian Wars (500-479 BCE)III. Alexander of Macedon (Great)IV. Seleucids, Parthians, SasanidsV. Incorported into the Islamic empire (651 CE) 26
    29. 29. The Essential Question...What were the strategies used byPersian empire rulers that allowed it tobe so durable?

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