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30 bentley3

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  • 1. Chapter 30 The Making of Industrial Society 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 2. Overview: The Industrial Revolution Energy: coal and steam replace wind, water, human and animal labor Organization: factories over cottage industries Rural agriculture declines, urban manufacturing increases Transportation: trains, automobiles replace animals, watercraft 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 3. Overview: Creation of New Classes The Industrial Middle Class Urban Proletariat Shift in political power Inspiration for new political systems, esp. Marxism 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 4. Overview: Unexpected Costs of theIndustrial Revolution Genesis of an environmental catastrophe  Intellectual origins of human domination over natural resources  Unforeseen toxins, occupational hazards Social ills  Landless proletariat  Migrating work forces 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 5. Genesis of the Industrial Revolution Great Britain, 1780s Followed agricultural revolution  Food surplus  Disposable income  Population increase  Market  Labor supply 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 6. British Advantages Strong banking tradition Natural resources  Coal, iron ore Ease of transportation  Size of country  River and canal system Exports to imperial colonies  Esp. machine textiles 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 7. Cotton-producing Technology Flying shuttle doubled weaving output  without doubling supply of yarn Spinning jenny (1768)  Increased supply of yarn, faster than flying shuttle could process Power loom (1787) met supply of yarn 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 8. The Growth of Factories Massive machinery Supply of labor Transport of raw materials, finished product to markets Concentration in newly built factory towns on rivers 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 9. New Sources of Power Cotton Imports to UK  Steam Engine  James Watt (1736-1819) 400  Coal fired 350  Applied to rotary engine, 300 multiple applications 250 Lbs. 200  1760: 2.5 million pounds(mill.) 150 of raw cotton imported 100  1787: 22 million 50 0  1840: 360 million 1760 1840 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 10. Implications: Slave Labor Cheap cotton from American south Benefit of transatlantic slave trade Irony: early British abolitionism, yet profit motive retained 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 11. Iron Industry Henry Cort devises method of refining iron ore (1780s)  First major advance since middle ages 1852 produces more high-quality iron than rest of world combined Synergy with increasing technological development 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 12. Rail Transport 1804 first steam-powered locomotive Capacity: Ten tons + 70 passengers @ 5 mph The Rocket from Liverpool to Manchester (1830), 16 mph Ripple effect on industrialization Engineering and architecture 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 13. The Factory System Early modern Europe adopts “putting-out” system Individuals work at home, employers avoid wage restrictions of medieval guilds Rising prices cause factories to replace both guilds and putting-out system  Machines too large, expensive for home use  Large buildings could house specialized laborers  Urbanization guarantees supply of cheap unskilled labor 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 14. Poor working conditions Dramatic shift from rural work rhythms Six days a week, fourteen hours a day Immediate supervision, punishments “Luddite” Protest against machines 1811-1816  Name from legend about boy named Ludlam who broke a knitting frame  Leader called “King Lud” Masked Luddites destroy machinery, enjoyed popular support 14 Luddites hung in 1813, movement dies out 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 15. Spread of Industrialization Development of technical schools for engineers, architects, etc. Government support for large public works projects (canals, rail system) Spreads throughout Germany under Bismarck 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 16. Industrial Europe ca. 1850 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 17. Mass Production Eli Whitney (U.S., 1765-1825) invents cotton gin (1793), also technique of using machine tools to make interchangeable parts for firearms  “the American system” Applied to wide variety of machines Henry Ford, 1913, develops assembly line approach  Complete automobile chassis every 93 minutes  Previously: 728 minutes 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 18. Industrialization in the United States 1800 US agrarian  Population 5 million  No city larger than 100,000  6/7 Americans farmers 1860 US industrializing  Population 30 million  Nine cities 100K +  ½ Americans farmers 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 19. Factory Discipline (Berlin, 1844) Workday: 6 am to 7 pm  2 hours total for meals Lateness: 2 minutes fined ½ hour pay, more than 2 minutes partial shift Conversation prohibited Use of toilets mandatory 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 20. The Proletariat Lack of clear distinction from cottage industry Ecologically disastrous conditions Coal mines  Cave-ins  Explosions  pollutants 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 21. Distribution of Wealth in the U.S. 80 70 60 Percentage 50 of Total US 40 Richest 10 Weath 30 Other 90 20 10 0 1800 1860 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 22. The Industrial Middle Class New class, evolved from guild merchants in cities “bourgeoisie” Capitalists Begin to eclipse power and status of agrarian landed classes 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 23. Big Business Large factories require start-up capital Corporations formed to share risk, maximize profits Britain and France lay foundations for modern corporation, 1850-1860s  Private business owned by hundreds, thousands or even millions of stockholders  Investors get dividends if profitable, lose only investments in case of bankruptcy 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 24. Monopolies, Trusts, and Cartels Large corporations form blocs to drive out competition, keep prices high  John D. Rockefeller controls almost all oil drilling, processing, refining, marketing in U.S.  German IG Farben controls 90% of chemical production Governments often slow to control monopolies 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 25. The Fruits of Industrialization Technological innovation  Improved agricultural tools Cheap manufactured goods  Especially textiles Travel and transportation 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 26. Population Growth (millions) 400 350 300 250 200 Europe Americas 150 100 50 0 1700 1800 1900 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 27. The Demographic Transition Industrialization results in marked decline of both fertility and mortality Costs of living increase in industrial societies Urbanization proceeds dramatically  1800: only 20% of Britons live in towns with population over 10,000  1900: 75% of Britons live in urban environments 27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 28. Contraception Ancient and medieval methods:  Egypt: crocodile dung depository  Asia: oral contraceptives (mercury, arsenic)  Elsewhere: beeswax, oil paper diaphragms Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) predicts overpopulation crisis, advocates “moral restraint” Condoms invented in England  Made from animal intestines in 17th century, latex in 19th century 28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 29. Development of Slums London: 1 million in 1800, 2.4 million in 1850 Wealthy classes move out to suburbs Industrial slum areas develop in city centers Open gutters as sewage systems  Danger of Cholera First sewage systems, piped water only in 1848 29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 30. Transcontinental Migrations 19th-early 20th centuries, rapid population growth drives Europeans to Americas  50 million cross Atlantic  Britons to avoid urban slums, Irish to avoid potato famines of 1840s, Jews to abandon Tsarist persecution  United States favored destination 30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 31. New Social Classes Economic factors result in decline of slavery Capitalist wealth brings new status to non- aristocratic families New urban classes of professionals Blue-collar factory workers Urban environment also creates new types of diversions  Sporting events 31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 32. Women in the Workforce Agricultural, cottage industry work involved women: natural transition But development of men as prime breadwinners, women in private sphere, working cheap labor Double burden: women expected to maintain home as well as work in industry Related to child labor: lack of day care facilities 32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 33. Child Labor Easily exploited  Low wages: 1/6 to 1/3 of adult male wages  High discipline Advantages of size  Coal tunnels  Gathering loose cotton under machinery Cotton industry, 1838: children 29% of workforce Factory Act of 1833: 9 years minimum working age 33 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 34. The Socialist Challenge Socialism first used in context of Utopian Socialists Charles Fourier (1772-1837) and Robert Owen (1771-1858) Opposed competition of market system Attempted to create small model communities Inspirational for larger social units 34 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 35. Karl Marx (1818-1883) and FriedrichEngels (1820-1895) Two major classes:  Capitalists, who control means of production  Proletariat, wageworkers who sell labor Exploitative nature of capitalist system Religion: “opiate of the masses” Argued for an overthrow of capitalists in favor of a “dictatorship of the proletariat” 35 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 36. Social Reform and Trade Unions Socialism had major impact on 19th century reformers  Reduced property requirements for male suffrage  Addressed issues of medical insurance, unemploymnet compensation, retirement benefits Trade unions form for collective bargaining  Strikes to address workers’ concerns 36 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 37. Industrialization in Russia and Japan Slower starts on industrial process Russia constructs huge railway network across Siberia under finance minister Count Sergei Witte Japanese government takes initiative by hiring thousands of foreign experts  Reforms iron inudstry  Opens universities, specializing in science and technology 37 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 38. Global ramifications Global division of labor  Rural societies that produce raw materials  Urban societies that produce manufactured goods Uneven economic development Developing export dependencies of Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, south and south- east Asia  Low wages, small domestic markets 38 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.