Chapter 23      Transoceanic Encounters and Global      Connections                                                       ...
Portuguese Exploration   Originally for fishing   Land hunger   Discovery of Azores, Madeiras Islands   Acquisition of...
The Lure of Trade   Maritime routes to Asia       Spices, silk, porcelain   Silk roads more dangerous since spread of  ...
Missionary Efforts   Franciscan, Dominican missionaries to India,    central Asia and China   Violent efforts with Crusa...
The Technology of Exploration   Chinese rudder introduced in 12th century   Square sails replaced by triangular lateen s...
Wind and current patterns in the worldsoceans.                                                                            ...
Portuguese Breakthroughs   Prince Henry of Portugal (1394-1460)       Promoted exploration of west African coast       ...
Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)   Believed Earth was smaller       Estimated Japan approximately 2,500 miles west of   ...
Hemispheric Links   Columbus tries three times, never reaches Asia   But by early 16th century, several powers follow   ...
European exploration in the AtlanticOcean, 1486-1498.                                                                     ...
Circumnavigation of the Globe   Vasco de Balboa finds Pacific Ocean while searching for    gold in Panama, 1513       Di...
Exploration of the Pacific   Spanish build Philippines-Mexico trade route   English, Russians look for Northwest Passage...
European exporation in the Pacific Ocean,1519-1780.                                                                       ...
Establishment of Trading-Post Empires   Portuguese first to set up trading posts       50 by mid-16th century   Not to ...
English and Dutch Trading Posts   Rival, parallel trading networks   English concentrate on Indian trade   Dutch in Cap...
European trading posts in Africa and Asia,about 1700                                                                      ...
The Trading Companies   Advantage of Dutch and English over Portuguese   English East India Trading Company, established...
European Conquests in Southeast Asia   Spanish conquer Philippines, name them after    King Philip II   Manila becomes m...
Russian Expansion in Asia   Russians take over Mongol khanates, 16th c.   Astrakhan becomes major trading city   Caucas...
Russian Occupation of Siberia   Criminals, prisoners of war exiled to Siberia   Disgruntled peasants migrate east   Tra...
Russian Convict Village in Siberia                                                                                        ...
The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)   Commercial rivalries between empires at sea   Global conflict erupts: multiple theatr...
The Columbian Exchange   Named for Christopher Columbus   Global diffusion:       Plants and crops       Animals     ...
Epidemic Diseases and PopulationDecline   Smallpox       Also measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, influenze   No prior...
Food Crops and Animals   Columbian exchange also increases overall food    supply   Introduction to European animals to ...
World Population Growth, 1500-1800 CE 900 800 700 600 500 400                                                             ...
Human Population Movements   Enslaved Africans       To South America, North America, Caribbean   European pioneers    ...
Origins of Global Trade   Transoceanic trade in Atlantic Ocean basin       Manufactured goods from Europe       Raw goo...
Environmental Effects of Global Trade   Fur-bearing animals hunted to extinction or near-    extinction       Also whale...
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23 bentley3

  1. 1. Chapter 23 Transoceanic Encounters and Global Connections 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  2. 2. Portuguese Exploration Originally for fishing Land hunger Discovery of Azores, Madeiras Islands Acquisition of land to plant sugarcane 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  3. 3. The Lure of Trade Maritime routes to Asia  Spices, silk, porcelain Silk roads more dangerous since spread of Bubonic Plague Prices, profits increase Indian pepper, Chinese ginger increasingly essential to diet of European wealthy classes African gold, ivory, slaves 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  4. 4. Missionary Efforts Franciscan, Dominican missionaries to India, central Asia and China Violent efforts with Crusades, Reconquista 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  5. 5. The Technology of Exploration Chinese rudder introduced in 12th century Square sails replaced by triangular lateen sales  Work better with cross winds Navigational instruments Knowledge of winds, currents The Volta do Mar  “return through the sea” 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  6. 6. Wind and current patterns in the worldsoceans. 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  7. 7. Portuguese Breakthroughs Prince Henry of Portugal (1394-1460)  Promoted exploration of west African coast  Established fortified trading posts 1488 Barolomeo Dias rounds Cape of Good Hope, enters Indian Ocean basin  Storms, restless crew force return Vasco de Gama reaches India by this route, 1497  By 1500, a trading post at Calicut 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  8. 8. Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) Believed Earth was smaller  Estimated Japan approximately 2,500 miles west of Canaries (actually 10,000 miles) Portuguese kings do not fund proposed westward trip Fernando and Isabel of Spain underwrite voyage Discovers Bahamas, Cuba 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  9. 9. Hemispheric Links Columbus tries three times, never reaches Asia But by early 16th century, several powers follow  English, Spanish, French, Dutch Realization of value of newly discovered Americas 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  10. 10. European exploration in the AtlanticOcean, 1486-1498. 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  11. 11. Circumnavigation of the Globe Vasco de Balboa finds Pacific Ocean while searching for gold in Panama, 1513  Distance to Asia unknown Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) not supported by Portuguese, uses Spanish support to circumnavigate globe in 1519-1522  Sails through Strait of Magellan at southern tip of South America  Crew assailed by scurvy, only 35 of 250 sailors survive journey  Magellan killed in local political dispute in Philippine Islands 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  12. 12. Exploration of the Pacific Spanish build Philippines-Mexico trade route English, Russians look for Northwest Passage to Asia  Most of route clogged by ice in Arctic circle  Norwegian Roald Amundsen completes route only in 20th century Sir Frances Drake (England) explores west coast of North America Vitus Bering (Russia) sails through Bering Strait James Cook (England) explores southern Pacific 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  13. 13. European exporation in the Pacific Ocean,1519-1780. 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  14. 14. Establishment of Trading-Post Empires Portuguese first to set up trading posts  50 by mid-16th century Not to establish trade monopolies, rather to charge duties Alfonso d’Alboquerque major naval commander  Architect of trade duties policy; violators would have hands amptuated Yet Arab traders continue to operate Portuguese control declines by end of 16th c. 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  15. 15. English and Dutch Trading Posts Rival, parallel trading networks English concentrate on Indian trade Dutch in Cape Town, Colombo, southern Pacific 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  16. 16. European trading posts in Africa and Asia,about 1700 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  17. 17. The Trading Companies Advantage of Dutch and English over Portuguese English East India Trading Company, established 1600 Dutch United East India Company (VOC), established 1602 Privately owned ships, government support Empowered with right to engage in trade, build posts, even make war Exceptionally profitable 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  18. 18. European Conquests in Southeast Asia Spanish conquer Philippines, name them after King Philip II Manila becomes major port city  Influx of Chinese traders, highly resented by Spanish, Fillipinos  Frequent massacres throughout 17th, up to 19th century  Significant missionary activity Dutch concentrate on spice trade in Indonesia  Establish Batavia, trading post in Java  Less missionary activity 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  19. 19. Russian Expansion in Asia Russians take over Mongol khanates, 16th c. Astrakhan becomes major trading city Caucasus absorbed in 18th century Siberian expansions in 16th-17th centuries Trade with indigenous Siberian peoples  Little success with missionary efforts  Some local rebellions 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  20. 20. Russian Occupation of Siberia Criminals, prisoners of war exiled to Siberia Disgruntled peasants migrate east Trading posts develop Russian population expands dramatically  1763: 420,000 Russians in Siberia, outnumber indigenous peoples 2:1 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  21. 21. Russian Convict Village in Siberia 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  22. 22. The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) Commercial rivalries between empires at sea Global conflict erupts: multiple theatres in Europe, India, Caribbean, North America  North America: merges with French and Indian War, 1754-1763 British emerge victorious, establish primacy in India, Canada 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  23. 23. The Columbian Exchange Named for Christopher Columbus Global diffusion:  Plants and crops  Animals  Human populations  Disease pathogens Links between previously independent biological zones Permanently alters human geography, natural environmnet 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  24. 24. Epidemic Diseases and PopulationDecline Smallpox  Also measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, influenze No prior exposure to these diseases in western hemisphere or Oceania  No inherited, acquired immunities 1519 smallpox in Aztec Empire  Population declines 90% within 100 years (17 million to 1.3 million) 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  25. 25. Food Crops and Animals Columbian exchange also increases overall food supply Introduction to European animals to Americas  Horses, cattle, pigs, chickens, etc. Introduction of American foods to Europe, Asia, Africa  Maize, potatoes, beans, etc. 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  26. 26. World Population Growth, 1500-1800 CE 900 800 700 600 500 400 Millions 300 200 100 0 1500 1600 1700 1800 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  27. 27. Human Population Movements Enslaved Africans  To South America, North America, Caribbean European pioneers 27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  28. 28. Origins of Global Trade Transoceanic trade in Atlantic Ocean basin  Manufactured goods from Europe  Raw goods from Americas The Manila Galleons  1565-1815 Spanish galleons dominate Pacific Ocean trade  Chinese luxury goods for American raw materials, esp. silver 28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  29. 29. Environmental Effects of Global Trade Fur-bearing animals hunted to extinction or near- extinction  Also whales, codfish, other animals with industrial uses Relentless human exploitation of the natural environment 29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
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