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  • 1. Chapter 17 The Foundations of Christian Society in Western Europe 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 2. The Germanic Successor States, c. 500 CE Last Roman emperor deposed by Germanic Odoacer, 476 CE Administrative apparatus still in place, but cities lose population Germanic successor states:  Spain: Visigoths  Italy: Ostrogoths  Gaul: Burgundians, Franks  Britian: Angles, Saxons 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 3. Successor States to the Roman Empire c.500 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 4. The Franks Heavy influence on European development Strong agricultural base Shifts center of economic gravity to Europe Firm alliance with western Christian church 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 5. Clovis (ruled 481-511) Major Frankish leader Destroyed last vestiges of Roman rule in Gaul Dominated other Germanic peoples Franks establish themselves as preeminent Germanic people 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 6. Clovis’ Conversion to Christianity Paganism, Arian Christianity popular among Franks Clovis and army chooses Roman Catholicism Influence of wife Clotilda Political implications:  Alliance with western church 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 7. The Carolingians Charles “The Hammer” Martel begins Carolingian dynasty Defeats Spanish Muslims at Battle of Tours (732)  Halts Islamic advance into western Europe 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 8. The Carolingian Empire 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 9. Charlemagne (r. 768-814) Grandson of Charles Martel Centralized imperial rule Functional illiterate, but sponsored extensive scholarship Major military achievements 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 10. Charlemagne’s Administration Capital at Aachen, Germany Yet constant travel throughout empire Imperial officials: missi dominici (“envoys of the lord ruler)  Continued yearly circuit travel 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 11. Charlemagne as Emperor Hesitated to challenge Byzantines by taking title “emperor”  Yet ruled in fact Pope Leo III crowns him as emperor in 800  Planned in advance?  Challenge to Byzantium 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 12. Louis the Pious (r. 814-840) Son of Charlemagne Lost control of courts, local authorities Civil war erupts between three sons Empire divided in 843 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 13. Invasions South: Muslims East: Magyars North: Vikings  Norse expansion begins c. 800 CE  Driven by population pressure, hostility to spread of Christianity  Superior seafaring technology  Sailed to eastern Canada, northeastern US 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 14. Dissolution of the Carolingian Empire 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 15. The Vikings From village of Vik, Norway (hence “Viking”) Boats with shallow drafts, capable of river travel as well as open seas Attacked villages, cities from 9th century  Constantinople sacked three times Carolingians had no navy, dependent on local defenses 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 16. England Viking invasions force consolidation of Angles, Saxons and other Germanic peoples under King Alfred (r. 871-899) Built navy Fortified cities against attack 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 17. Germany and France King Otto of Saxony (r. 936-973) defeats Magyars, 955 Proclaimed emperor by Pope in 962 Establishment of Holy Roman Empire France endures heavy Viking settlement Loss of local autonomy 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 18. Early Medieval Society Concept of Feudalism  Lords and vassals  Increasingly inadequate model for describing complex society Ad hoc arrangements in absence of strong central authorities 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 19. Organizing in a Decentralized Society Local nobles take over administration from weak central government Nominal allegiances, esp. to Carolingian kings But increasing independence 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 20. Lords and Retainers Formation of small private armies Incentives: land grants, income from mills, cash payments Formation of hereditary class of military retainers Development of other functions  Justice, social welfare 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 21. Potential for Instability Complex interrelationship of lord-retainer relations Rebellion always a possibility Nevertheless, viable large states developed (Germany, France, England) 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 22. Origins of Serfdom Slaves, free peasants in both Roman and Germanic societies Heavy intermarriage Appeals to lords, special relationships Mid-7th century: recognition of serf class  Midway between slave and free peasant 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 23. Serfs’ Rights and Obligations Right to pass on land to heirs Obligation to provide labor, payments in kind to lord Unable to move from land Fees charged for marrying serfs of another lord 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 24. Manors Large, diverse estates Lord provides governance, police, justice services Serfs provide labor, income 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 25. The Economy of Early Medieval Europe Agricultural center moves north from Mediterranean 8th century iron-tipped plow introduced in Europe Draft animals breeded Water mill technology Agricultural output insufficient to support growth of cities Strong Mediterranean trade despite Muslim domination of sea 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 26. Norse Merchant Mariners Commerce or plunder as convenient Link with the Islamic world for trade 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 27. Population Growth of Europe, 200-1000 CE 40 35 30 25 20 Millions 15 10 5 0 200 400 600 800 900 1000 27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 28. The Formation of Christian Europe Clovis’ conversion forms strong alliance with Roman Christianity Church supplies Clovis with class of literate information workers:  Scribes  secretaries 28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 29. The Franks and the Church Protectors of the Papacy Charlemagne destroys Lombards, who threatened Pope, Rome Spreads Christianity in northern areas Support of scholarship, scribal activity 29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 30. The Spread of Christianity Charlemagne fights pagan Saxons (772-804)  Saxons later adopt Christianity Scandinavia, other pockets of paganism until c. 1000 CE 30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 31. Pope Gregory I (590-604 CE) “Gregory the Great” Asserted papal primacy Prominent theologian  Sacrament of penance Major missionary activity, especially in England 31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 32. Monasticism Egyptian origins, 2nd-3rd centuries Monastic lifestyle expands 4th century Large variety of monastic rules  Range from extremely ascetic to very lax 32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 33. St. Benedict (480-547) Established consistent rule for monasteries  Poverty  Chastity  Obedience St. Scholastica (482-543)  Sister of St. Benedict  Adapts Benedictine Rule for convents 33 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 34. Monasticism and Society Accumulation of large landholdings, serfs Social welfare projects  Esp. labor contributions Expansion of literacy Inns, orphanages, hospitals 34 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.