• Like
16 bentley3
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
90
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 16. India and The OceanBasin India and the Indian Ocean Basin 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 2. India after the Fall of The Gupta Dynasty Invasion of White Huns from Central Asia beginning 451 CE Gupta State collapsed mid-6th c. Chaos in northern India  Local power struggles  Invasions of Turkish nomads, absorbed into Indian society 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 3. King Harsha (r. 606-648 CE) Temporary restoration of unified rule in north India Religiously tolerant  Buddhist by faith Generous support for poor Patron of the arts  Wrote three plays Assassinated, no successor able to retain control 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 4. Introduction of Islam to Northern India Arabs conquer Sind (north-west India), 711 Heterodox population, but held by Abbasid dynasty to 1258 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 5. Merchants and Islam Arabic trade with India predates Islam Dominated trade between India and the west to 15th century Established local communities in India  E.g. Cambay 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 6. Mahmud of Ghazni Raids into India, 1001-1027 Plunders, destroys Hindu and Buddhist temples  Often builds mosques atop ruins 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 7. The Sultanate of Delhi Consolidation of Mahmud’s raiding territory Capital: Delhi Ruled northern India 1206-1526 Weak administrative structure  Reliance on cooperation of Hindu kings 19 out of 35 Sultans assassinated 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 8. Hindu Kingdoms of Southern India  Chola Kingdom, 850- 1267  Maritime power  Not highly centralized  Kingdom of Vijayanagar  Northern Deccan  Originally supported by Sultanate of Delhi  Leaders renounce Islam in 1336  Yet maintain relations with Sultantate 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 9. Agriculture in the Monsoon World Spring/summer: rains, wind from south-west Fall/winter: dry season, wind from north-east Seasonal irrigation crucial to avoid drought, famine  Especially southern India Massive construction of reservoirs, canals, tunnels 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 10. The trading world of the IndianOcean basin, 600-1600 C.E. 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 11. Population Growth in India 120 100 80 60 Millions 40 20 0 600 CE 800 CE 1000 CE 1500 CE 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 12. Trade and Economic Development inSouthern India Indian regional economies largely self-sufficient Certain products traded throughout subcontinent  Iron, copper, salt, pepper Southern India profits from political instability in north 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 13. Temples and Indian Society More than religious centers Center of coordination of irrigation, other agricultural work  Some Temples had large landholdings Education providers Banking services 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 14. Cross-Cultural Trade in the Indian OceanBasin Trade increases in post-classical period Larger ships  Dhows, junks Improved organization of agricultural efforts Establishment of Emporia  Cosmopolitan port cities serve as warehouses for trade Specialized products developed (cotton, high-carbon steel) 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 15. The Kingdom of Axum Example of trade-driven development Founded 1st c. CE  Adopted Christianity Displaces Kush as Egyptian link to the south  Axum destroys Kushan capital Meroë c. 360 CE  Major territorial expansion to late 6th c. 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 16. Obelisk at Axum 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 17. Challenges to Caste and Society Migrations Growth of Islam Urbanization Economic development  Development of Jati (subcastes)  Similar to worker’s guilds Caste system expands from north to south Promoted by Temples, educational system 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 18. Decline of Buddhism Buddhism displaced as Turkish invasions destroy holy sites, temples 1196 Muslim forces destroy library of Nalanda  Thousands of monks exiled 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 19. Development of Hinduism Growth of devotional cults  Esp. Vishnu, Shiva Promise of salvation Especially popular in southern India, spreads to north 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 20. Devotional Philosophers Shankara, Brahmin philosopher of 9th c. CE  Devotee of Shiva  Synthesized Hindu writings in Platonic form  Preferred rigorous logical analysis to emotional devotion Ramanuja, Brahmin philosopher 11th-early 12th c.  Challenges Shankara’s emphasis on intellect  Laid philosophical foundations of contemporary Hinduism 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 21. Conversion to Islam 25 million converts by 1500 (1/4 of total population) Possibilities of social advancement for lower- caste Hindus  Rarely achieved: whole castes or jatis convert, social status remains consistent 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 22. Sufis Personal, emotional, devotional approaches to Islam Important missionaries of Islam to India Some flexibility regarding local customs 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 23. The Bhakti Movement Attempt to bring Hinduism and Islam closer together 12th c. southern Hindu movement, spread to north Guru Kabir (1440-1518)  Taught that Shiva, Vishnu, Allah all manifestations of one Deity  Largely unsuccessful 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 24. Indian Influence in Southeast Asia Influence dates from 500 BCE Evidence of Indian ideas and traditions  Kingship  Religions (Hinduism, Buddhism)  Literature Caste system not as influential 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 25. Early States of Southeast Asia  Funan  Lower Mekong River, 1st-6th c. CE  Kingdom of Srivijaya  Centered in Sumatra, 670- 1025 CE  Kingdom of Angkor  Cambodia, 889-1431 CE  Magnificent religious city complexes 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 26. Later states of Southeast Asia: Angkor,Singosari, and Majapahit, 889-1520 C.E. 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 27. Islam in Southeast Asia Early populations of Muslim traders Increasing popularity with Sufi activity Many convert, retain some Hindu or Buddhist traditions 27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 28. State of Melaka Founded late 14th c. CE by rebellious prince of Sumatra Dominated maritime trade routes Mid-15th c. converts to Islam 28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.