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16 bentley3

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  • 1. 16. India and The OceanBasin India and the Indian Ocean Basin 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 2. India after the Fall of The Gupta Dynasty Invasion of White Huns from Central Asia beginning 451 CE Gupta State collapsed mid-6th c. Chaos in northern India  Local power struggles  Invasions of Turkish nomads, absorbed into Indian society 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 3. King Harsha (r. 606-648 CE) Temporary restoration of unified rule in north India Religiously tolerant  Buddhist by faith Generous support for poor Patron of the arts  Wrote three plays Assassinated, no successor able to retain control 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 4. Introduction of Islam to Northern India Arabs conquer Sind (north-west India), 711 Heterodox population, but held by Abbasid dynasty to 1258 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 5. Merchants and Islam Arabic trade with India predates Islam Dominated trade between India and the west to 15th century Established local communities in India  E.g. Cambay 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 6. Mahmud of Ghazni Raids into India, 1001-1027 Plunders, destroys Hindu and Buddhist temples  Often builds mosques atop ruins 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 7. The Sultanate of Delhi Consolidation of Mahmud’s raiding territory Capital: Delhi Ruled northern India 1206-1526 Weak administrative structure  Reliance on cooperation of Hindu kings 19 out of 35 Sultans assassinated 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 8. Hindu Kingdoms of Southern India  Chola Kingdom, 850- 1267  Maritime power  Not highly centralized  Kingdom of Vijayanagar  Northern Deccan  Originally supported by Sultanate of Delhi  Leaders renounce Islam in 1336  Yet maintain relations with Sultantate 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 9. Agriculture in the Monsoon World Spring/summer: rains, wind from south-west Fall/winter: dry season, wind from north-east Seasonal irrigation crucial to avoid drought, famine  Especially southern India Massive construction of reservoirs, canals, tunnels 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 10. The trading world of the IndianOcean basin, 600-1600 C.E. 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 11. Population Growth in India 120 100 80 60 Millions 40 20 0 600 CE 800 CE 1000 CE 1500 CE 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 12. Trade and Economic Development inSouthern India Indian regional economies largely self-sufficient Certain products traded throughout subcontinent  Iron, copper, salt, pepper Southern India profits from political instability in north 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 13. Temples and Indian Society More than religious centers Center of coordination of irrigation, other agricultural work  Some Temples had large landholdings Education providers Banking services 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 14. Cross-Cultural Trade in the Indian OceanBasin Trade increases in post-classical period Larger ships  Dhows, junks Improved organization of agricultural efforts Establishment of Emporia  Cosmopolitan port cities serve as warehouses for trade Specialized products developed (cotton, high-carbon steel) 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 15. The Kingdom of Axum Example of trade-driven development Founded 1st c. CE  Adopted Christianity Displaces Kush as Egyptian link to the south  Axum destroys Kushan capital Meroë c. 360 CE  Major territorial expansion to late 6th c. 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 16. Obelisk at Axum 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 17. Challenges to Caste and Society Migrations Growth of Islam Urbanization Economic development  Development of Jati (subcastes)  Similar to worker’s guilds Caste system expands from north to south Promoted by Temples, educational system 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 18. Decline of Buddhism Buddhism displaced as Turkish invasions destroy holy sites, temples 1196 Muslim forces destroy library of Nalanda  Thousands of monks exiled 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 19. Development of Hinduism Growth of devotional cults  Esp. Vishnu, Shiva Promise of salvation Especially popular in southern India, spreads to north 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 20. Devotional Philosophers Shankara, Brahmin philosopher of 9th c. CE  Devotee of Shiva  Synthesized Hindu writings in Platonic form  Preferred rigorous logical analysis to emotional devotion Ramanuja, Brahmin philosopher 11th-early 12th c.  Challenges Shankara’s emphasis on intellect  Laid philosophical foundations of contemporary Hinduism 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 21. Conversion to Islam 25 million converts by 1500 (1/4 of total population) Possibilities of social advancement for lower- caste Hindus  Rarely achieved: whole castes or jatis convert, social status remains consistent 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 22. Sufis Personal, emotional, devotional approaches to Islam Important missionaries of Islam to India Some flexibility regarding local customs 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 23. The Bhakti Movement Attempt to bring Hinduism and Islam closer together 12th c. southern Hindu movement, spread to north Guru Kabir (1440-1518)  Taught that Shiva, Vishnu, Allah all manifestations of one Deity  Largely unsuccessful 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 24. Indian Influence in Southeast Asia Influence dates from 500 BCE Evidence of Indian ideas and traditions  Kingship  Religions (Hinduism, Buddhism)  Literature Caste system not as influential 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 25. Early States of Southeast Asia  Funan  Lower Mekong River, 1st-6th c. CE  Kingdom of Srivijaya  Centered in Sumatra, 670- 1025 CE  Kingdom of Angkor  Cambodia, 889-1431 CE  Magnificent religious city complexes 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 26. Later states of Southeast Asia: Angkor,Singosari, and Majapahit, 889-1520 C.E. 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 27. Islam in Southeast Asia Early populations of Muslim traders Increasing popularity with Sufi activity Many convert, retain some Hindu or Buddhist traditions 27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 28. State of Melaka Founded late 14th c. CE by rebellious prince of Sumatra Dominated maritime trade routes Mid-15th c. converts to Islam 28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.