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15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
15 bentley3
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  • 1. Chapter 15 The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 2. The Sui Dynasty (589-618 CE) Regional kingdoms succeed collapse of Han dynasty Yang Jian consolidates control of all of China, initiates Sui Dynasty Massive building projects  Military labor  Conscripted labor 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 3. The Grand Canal Intended to promote trade between north and south China  Most Chinese rivers flow west-east Linked network of earlier canals  2000k (1240 miles)  Roads on either bank Succeeded only by railroad traffic in 20th century 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 4. The Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) Wide discontent over conscripted labor in Sui dynasty Military failures in Korea prompt rebellion Emperor assassinated in 618  Tang Dynasty initiated 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 5. Tang Taizong Second emperor of Tang dynasty (r. 627-649 CE) Murdered two brothers, thrust father aside to take throne Strong ruler  Built capital at Chang’an  Law and order  Taxes, prices low  More effective implementation of earlier Sui policies 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 6. Major achievements of Tang Dynasty Transportation and communications  Extensive postal, courier services Equal-field System  20% of land hereditary ownership  80% redistributed according to formula  Family size, land fertility  Worked well until 8th century  Corruption, loss of land to Buddhist monasteries 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 7. Bureaucracy of Merit Imperial civil service examinations  Confucian educational curriculum Some bribery, nepotism But most advance through merit  Built loyalty to the dynasty  System remains strong until early 20th century 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 8. Tang Military Expansion and ForeignRelations Manchuria, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet One of the largest expansions of China in its history Established tributary relationships  Gifts China as “Middle Kingdom”  The kowtow ritual 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 9. The Sui and Tang dynasties, 589-907 C.E. 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 10. Tang Decline Governmental neglect: Emperor obsessed with music, favorite concubine 775 rebellion under An Lushan, former military commander Captures Chang’an, but rebellion crushed by 763 Nomadic Uighur mercenaries invited to suppress rebellion, sacked Chang’an and Luoyang Tang decline continues, rebellions in 9th century, last emperor abdicates 907 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 11. Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE) Emphasis on administration, industry, education, the arts Military not emphasized Direction of first emperor, Song Taizu (r. 960-976 CE)  Former military leader  Made emperor by troops  Instituted policy of imperial favor for civil servants, expanded meritocracy 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 12. The Song dynasty, 960-1279 C.E. 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 13. Song Weaknesses Size of bureaucracy heavy drain on economy  Two peasant rebellions in 12th c.  Internal inertia prevents reform of bureaucracy Civil service leadership of military  Lacked military training  Unable to contain nomadic attacks  Jurchen conquer, force Song dynasty to Hangzhou, southern China (Southern Song) 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 14. Agricultural Economies of the Tangand Song Dynasties Developed Vietnamese fast-ripening rice, 2 crops per year Technology: iron plows, use of draft animals Soil fertilization, improved irrigation  Water wheels, canals Terrace farming 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 15. Population Growth120  Result of increased agricultural production100  Effective food distribution80 system60  Transportation networks Millions built under Tang and Song40 dynasties20 0 600 1000 CE 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 16. Urbanization Chang’an world’s most populous city: 2 million residents  Southern Song capital Hangzhou: over 1 million  Several cities over 100,000 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 17. Patriarchal Social Structures Increased emphasis on ancestor worship  Elaborate grave rituals  Extended family gatherings in honor of deceased ancestors Footbinding gains popularity  Increased control by male family members 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 18. Footbinding 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 19. Technology and Industry Porcelain (“Chinaware”) Increase of iron production due to use of coke, not coal, in furnaces  Agricultural tools, weaponry Gunpowder invented Earlier printing techniques refined  Moveable type by mid-11th century  Yet complex Chinese ideographs make wood block technique easier Naval technology 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 20. Emergence of a Market Economy “Flying cash:” letters of credit developed to deal with copper coin shortages  Promissory notes, checks also used Development of independently produced paper money  Not as stable, riots when not honored Government claims monopoly on money production in 11th century 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 21. China and the Hemispheric Economy Increasingly cosmopolitan nature of Chinese cities Chinese silk opens up trade routes, but increases local demands for imported luxury goods 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 22. Cultural Change in Tang and SongChina Declining confidence in Confucianism after collapse of Han dynasty Increasing popularity of Buddhism Christianity, Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism, Islam also appear Clientele primarily foreign merchant class 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 23. Dunhuang Mahayana Buddhism especially popular in western China (Gansu province), 600-1000 CE Buddhist temples, libraries Economic success as converts donate land holdings Increase popularity through donations of agricultural produce to the poor 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 24. Conflicts with Chinese Culture Buddhism:  Confucianism:  Text-based (Buddhist  Text-based (Confucian teachings) teachings)  Daoism not text-based Emphasis on Metaphysics  Emphasis on ethics, Ascetic ideal politics  Celibacy  Family-centered  isolation  Procreation  Filial piety 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 25. Chan (Zen) Buddhism Buddhists adapt ideology to Chinese climate  Dharma translated as dao  Nirvana translated as wuwei Accommodated family lifestyle  “one son in monastery for ten generations of salvation” Limited empahsis on textual study, meditation instead 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 26. Persecution of Buddhists Daoist/Confucian persecution supported in late Tang dynasty 840s begins systematic closure of Buddhist temples, expulsions  Zoroastrians, Christians, Manicheans as well Economic motive: seizure of large monastic landholdings 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 27. Neo-Confucianism Song dynasty refrains from persecuting Buddhists, but favors Confucians Neo-Confucians influenced by Buddhist thought Zhu Xi (1130-1200 CE) important synthesizer Popular to 20th century 27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 28. China and Korea Silla Dynasty: Tang armies withdraw, Korea recognizes Tang as emperor Technically a vassal statue, but highly independent Chinese influence on Korean culture pervasive 28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 29. China and Vietnam Vietnamese adaptation to Chinese culture, technology But ongoing resentment at political domination Assert independence when Tang dynasty falls in 10th century 29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 30. China and Early Japan Chinese armies never invade Japan Yet Chinese culture pervasive Imitation of Tang administration  Establishment of new capital at Nara, hence “Nara Japan” (710-794 CE) Adoption of Confucian, Buddhist teachings Yet retention of Shinto religion 30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 31. Heian Japan (794-1185 CE) Japanese emperor moves court to Heian (Kyoto) Yet emperor figurehead, real power in hands of Fujiwara clan  Pattern in Japanese history: weak emperor, power behind the throne  Helps explain longevity of the institution 31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 32. Japanese Literature Influence of Chinese kanji characters  Classic curriculum dominated by Chinese Development of hiragana, katakana syllabic alphabet Court life: The Tale of Genji  Written by woman with weak command of Chinese, becomes classic of early Japanese literature 32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 33. Institution of the Shogun Civil war between Taira and Minamoto clans in 12th century Minamoto leader named shogun, 1185 CE Ruled from Kamakura, allowed imperial throne to continue in Kyoto 33 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 34. Medieval Japan Kamakura (1185-1333 CE) and Muromachi (1336-1573 CE) periods Decentralized power in hands of warlords Military authority in hands of samurai Professional warriors 34 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

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