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14 bentley3

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  • 1. Chapter 14 The Expansive Realm of Islam 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 2. Muhammad and His Message Born 570 to merchant family in Mecca Orphaned as a child Marries wealthy widow c. 595, works as merchant Familiarity with paganism, Christianity and Judaism as practiced in Arabian peninsula 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 3. Muhammad’s Spiritual Transformation Visions c. 610 CE Archangel Gabriel Monotheism Attracts followers to Mecca 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 4. The Quran Record of revelations received during visions Committed to writing c. 650 CE (Muhammad dies 632) Tradition of Muhammad’s life: hadith 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 5. Conflict at Mecca Muhammad’s monotheistic teachings offensive to polytheistic pagans Economic threat to existing religious industry Denunciation of greed affront to local aristocracy 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 6. The Hijra Muhammad flees to Yathrib (Medina) 622 CE  Year 0 in Muslim calendar Organizes followers into communal society (the umma) Legal, spiritual code Commerce, raids on Meccan caravans for sake of umma 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 7. The “Seal of the Prophets” Islam as culmination and correction of Judaism, Christianity Inheritor of both Jewish and Christian texts 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 8. Muhammad’s Return to Mecca Attack on Mecca, 630 Conversion of Mecca to Islam Destruction of pagan sites, replaced with mosques  Ka’aba preserved in honor of importance of Mecca  Approved as pilgrimage site 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 9. The Ka’aba 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 10. The Five Pillars of Islam No god but Allah and Muhammad is His prophet Daily prayer Fasting during Ramadan Charity Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 11. Muslims at Prayer 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 12. Jihad “struggle”  Against vice  Against ignorance of Islam “holy war” 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 13. Islamic Law: The Sharia Codification of Islamic law Based on Quran, hadith, logical schools of analysis Extends beyond ritual law to all areas of human activity 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 14. The Caliph No clear to successor to Muhammad identified Abu Bakr chosen to lead as Caliph Led war against villagers who abandoned Islam after death of Muhammad 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 15. The Expansion of Islam Highly successful attacks on Byzantine, Sassanid territories Difficulties governing rapidly expanding territory 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 16. The expansion of Islam, 632-733 C.E. 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 17. The Shia Disagreements over selection of caliphs Ali passed over for Abu Bakr Served as caliph 656-661 CE, then assassinated along with most of his followers Remaining followers organize separate party called “Shia”  Traditionalists: Sunni 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 18. Shi’ite Pilgrims at Karbala 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 19. The Umayyad Dynasty (661-750 CE) From Meccan merchant class Capital: Damascus, Syria Associated with Arab military aristocracy 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 20. Policy toward Conquered Peoples Favoritism of Arab military rulers causes discontent Limited social mobility for non-Arab Muslims Head tax (jizya) on non-Muslims Umayyad luxurious living causes further decline in moral authority 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 21. The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258 CE) Abu al-Abbas Sunni Arab, allied with Shia, non- Arab Muslims Seizes control of Persia and Mesopotamia Defeats Umayyad army in 750  Invited Umayyads to banquet, then massacred them 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 22. Nature of the Abbasid Dynasty Diverse nature of administration (i.e. not exclusively Arab) Militarily competent, but not bent on imperial expansion Dar al-Islam Growth through military activity of autonomous Islamic forces 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 23. Abbasid Administration Persian influence Court at Baghdad Influence of Islamic scholars (ulama, qadi) 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 24. Caliph Harun al-Rashid (786-809 CE) High point of Abbasid dynasty Baghdad center of commerce Great cultural activity 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 25. Abbasid Decline Civil war between sons of Harun al-Rashid Provincial governers assert regional independence Dissenting sects, heretical movements Abbasid caliphs become puppets of Persian nobility Later, Saljuq Turks influence, Sultan real power behind the throne 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 26. Economy of the Early Islamic World Spread of food and industrial crops  Trade routes from India to Spain Western diet adapts to wide variety New crops adapted to different growing seasons  Agricultural sciences develop  Cotton, paper industries develop Major cities emerge 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 27. Formation of a Hemispheric TradingZone Historical precedent of Arabic trade Dar al-Islam encompasses silk routes  ice exported from Syria to Egypt in summer, 10th century Camel caravans Maritime trade 27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 28. Banking and Trade Scale of trade causes banks to develop  Sakk (“check”) Uniformity of Islamic law throughout dar al- Islam promotes trade Joint ventures common 28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 29. Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain) Muslim Berber conquerors from North Africa take Spain, early 8th c. Allied to Umayyads, refused to recognize Abbasid dynasty  Formed own caliphate  Tensions, but interrelationship 29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 30. Changing Status of Women Quran improves status of women  Outlawed female infanticide  Brides, not husbands, claim dowries Yet male dominance preserved  Patrilineal descent  Polygamy permitted, Polyandry forbidden  Veil adopted from ancient Mesopotamian practice 30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 31. Formation of an Islamic Cultural Tradition Islamic values  Uniformity of Islamic law in dar al-Islam  Establishment of madrasas  Importance of the Hajj Sufi missionaries  Asceticism, mysticism  Some tension with orthodox Islamic theologians  Wide popularity 31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 32. Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) Major Sufi thinker from Persia Impossibility of intellectual apprehension of Allah, devotion, mystical ecstasy instead 32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 33. Cultural influences on Islam Persia  Adminstration and governance  literature India  Mathematics, science, medicine  “Hindi” numbers Greece  Philosophy, esp. Aristotle  Ibn Rushd/Averroes (1126-1198) 33 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

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