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13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
13 bentley3
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  • 1. Chapter 13 The Commonwealth of Byzantium 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 2. The Early Byzantine Empire Capital: Byzantium On the Bosporus Commercial, strategic value of location Constantine names capital after himself (Constantinople), moves capital there 340 CE 1453 falls to Turks, renamed Istanbul 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 3. The Later Roman Empire and Byzantium Byzantine Empire inherits Roman Empire after fall of Rome in 5th c. CE Eastern territories remain major power until 13th c. CE 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 4. The Later Roman Empire Roman infrastructure in place  Roads, institutional hierarchies Challenges from strong Persian empire (Sassanid dynasty, 226-641 CE) Invasions of Germanic peoples 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 5. Caesaropapism Power centralized in figure of Emperor Christian leader cannot claim divinity, rather divine authority Political rule Involved in Religious rule as well Authority absolute 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 6. The Byzantine Court Etiquette reinforces authority of Emperor  Royal purple  Prostration  Mechanical devices designed to inspire awe 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 7. Justinian (527-565 CE) The “sleepless emperor” Wife Theodora as advisor  Background: circus performer Uses army to contain tax riots, ambitious construction program  Hagia Sophia Law Code definitive for centuries 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 8. Byzantine Conquests General Belisarius recaptures much of western Roman Empire under Justinian Unable to consolidate control of territories Withdrew to defend empire from Sassanids, Slavs 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 9. The Byzantine empire and its neighbors 527-554 C.E. 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 10. Islamic Conquests and Byzantine Revival 7th century Arab Muslim expansion Besieged Byzantium 674-678, 717-718 Defense made possible through use of “greek fire” 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 11. Imperial Organization Themes (provinces) under control of generals Military administration Control from central imperial government Soldiers from peasant class, rewarded with land grants 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 12. Tensions with Western Europe Church  Byzantine: Greek; Roman: Latin  Conflicts over hierarchical control Fealty of Germanic peoples  Roman pope crowns Charlemagne in 800, a challenge to Byzantine authority 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 13. Byzantine Economy and Society Constantinople largest city in Europe, 5th-13th c. Dependent on small landholders, free peasants Earlier large landholdings destroyed by invasions in 6th-7th centuries Theme system rewards soldiers with land grants 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 14. Decline of the Free Peasantry Large landholdings on the increase Reduces tax revenues, recruits to military Last three centuries indicate steady decline of economy 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 15. Manufacturing and Trade Trade routes bring key technologies, e.g. silk industry Advantage of location causes crafts and industry to expand after 6th century Tax revenues from silk route Banking services develop 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 16. Urban Life Aristocrats: palances; artisans: apartments; working poor: communal living spaces Hippodrome  Chariot races, “greens vs. blues”  Politically inspired rioting 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 17. Orthodox Christianity Legacy of Classical Greece  Greek replaces Latin after 6th c. CE; language of New Testament Byzantine education sponsors development of large literate class for state bureaucracy  Training in classical canon 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 18. The Byzantine Church Church and state closely aligned Council of Nicea (325) bans Arian movement  Human/divine nature of Jesus  Constantine favors Arians, but supports Nicean condemnation Byzantine Emperors appoint Patriarchs Caesaropapism creates dissent in church 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 19. Iconoclasm Emperor Leo III (r. 717-741 CE) Destruction of icons after 726 Popular protest, rioting Policy abandoned 843 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 20. Greek Philosophy and ByzantineTheology Attempt to reconcile Greek philosophy with Judeo-Christianity Constantine establishes school to apply philosophical methods to religious questions 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 21. Ascetism Hermit-like existence Celibacy Fasting Prayer St. Simeon Stylite  Lived atop pillar for years 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 22. Byzantine Monasticismand St. Basil (329-379 CE) Patriarch of Constantinople reforms monasteries  Communal living  Hierarchical structure Mt. Athos  No women, female animals allowed 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 23. Tensions between Eastern and WesternChristianity Ritual disputes  Beards on clergy  Leavened bread for Mass Theological disputes  Iconoclasm  Nature of the Trinity 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 24. Schism Arguments over hierarchy, jurisdiction Autonomy of Patriarchs, or Primacy of Rome? 1054 Patriarch of Constantinople and Pope of Rome excommunicate each other  East: Orthodox Church  West: Roman Catholic 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 25. Social Problems in theByzantine Empire Generals of themes become allied with local aristocrats  Intermarry, create class of elite Occasional rebellions vs. Imperial Rule 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 26. Challenges from the West Western European economic development Normans from Scandinavia press on Byzantine territories Crusades of 12th-13th centuries rampage through Byzantine territory  Constantinople sacked, 1204 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 27. Challenges from the East Muslim Saljuqs invade Anatolia  Threatens grain supply Defeat Byzantine army in 1071, creates civil conflict Period of steady decline until Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople in 1453  Renamed Istanbul 27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 28. The Byzantine empire and itsneighbors about 1100 C.E. 28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 29. Influence on Slavic Cultures Relations from 6th c. CE Bulgaria influenced culturally, politically Saints Cyril and Methodius  Create Cyrillic alphabet Slavic lands develop orientation to Byzantium 29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 30. Kievan Rus’ Conversion of Prince Vladimir, 989 Byzantine culture influences development of Slavic cultures Distinctively Slavic Orthodox church develops Eventual heir to Byzantium 30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

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