Chapter 12      Cross-cultural Exchanges on the Silk      Roads   Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permissi...
Long-Distance Travel in the AncientWorld   Lack of police enforcement outsied of    established settlements   Changed in...
Trade Networks Develop   Dramatic increase in trade due to Greek    colonization   Maintenance of roads, bridges   Disc...
Trade in the Hellenistic World   Bactria/India       Spices, pepper, cosmetics, gems, pearls   Persia, Egypt       Gra...
The Silk Roads   Named for principal commodity from China   Dependent on imperial stability   Overland trade routes fro...
The Silk Roads, 200 BCE-300 CE     Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or...
Organization of Long-Distance Trade   Divided into small segments   Tariffs and tolls finance local supervision   Tax i...
Cultural Trade: Buddhism and Hinduism   Merchants carry religious ideas along silk    routes   India through central Asi...
The Spread of Hinduism, Buddhism andChristianity, 200 BCE – 400 CE      Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Pe...
Buddhism in China   Originally, Buddhism restricted to foreign    merchant populations   Gradual spread to larger popula...
Buddhism and Hinduism in SE Asia   Sea lanes in Indian Ocean   1st c. CE clear Indian influence in SE Asia       Rulers...
Christianity in Mediterranean Basin   Gregory the Wonderworker, central Anatolia 3rd c.    CE   Christianity spreads thr...
Christianity in SW Asia   Influence of ascetic practices from India   Desert-dwelling hermits, monastic societies   Aft...
Spread of Manichaeism   Mani Zoroastrian prophet (216-272 CE)   Influenced by Christianity and Buddhism   Dualist     ...
Manichaean Society   Devout: “the Elect”       Ascetic lifestyle       Celibacy, vegetarianism       Life of prayer an...
Decline of Manichaeism   Spread through silk routes to major cities in    Roman Empire   Zoroastrian opposition provokes...
The Spread of Epidemic Disease   Role of trade routes in spread of pathogens   Limited data, but trends in demographics ...
Epidemics in the Han and RomanEmpires  Chinese Population, 0-                                               Roman Populati...
Internal Decay of the Han State   Court intrigue   Formation of actions   Problem of land distribution       Large lan...
Collapse of the Han Dynasty                                                               Generals assume authority,     ...
Sinicization of Nomadic Peoples   “China-fication”   Adoption of sedentary lifestyle       Agriculture   Adoption of C...
Popularity of Buddhism and Daoism   Disintegration of political order casts doubt on    Confucian doctrines   Buddhism, ...
Fall of the Roman Empire: InternalFactors   The Barracks Emperors   235-284 26 claimants to the throne, all but one kill...
Diocletan (r. 284-305 CE)   Divided empire into two administrative districts   Co-Emperors, dual Lieutenants       “Tet...
Fall of the Roman Empire: ExternalFactors   Visigoths, influenced by Roman law, Christianity       Formerly buffer state...
Germanic invasions and the fall of the westernRoman empire, 450-476 C.E.        Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies...
Cultural Change in the Roman Empire   Growth of Christianity       Constantine’s Vision, 312 CE       Promulgates Edict...
St. Augustine (354-430 CE)   Hippo, North Africa   Experimented with Greek thought,    Manichaeism   387 converts to Ch...
The Institutional Church   Conflicts over doctrine and practice in early    Church       Divinity of Jesus       Role o...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

12 bentley3

352 views
239 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
352
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

12 bentley3

  1. 1. Chapter 12 Cross-cultural Exchanges on the Silk Roads Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  2. 2. Long-Distance Travel in the AncientWorld Lack of police enforcement outsied of established settlements Changed in classical period  Improvement of infrastructure  Development of empires Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  3. 3. Trade Networks Develop Dramatic increase in trade due to Greek colonization Maintenance of roads, bridges Discovery of Monsoon wind patterns Increased tariff revenues used to maintain open routes Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  4. 4. Trade in the Hellenistic World Bactria/India  Spices, pepper, cosmetics, gems, pearls Persia, Egypt  Grain Mediterranean  Wine, oil, jewelry, art Development of professional merchant class Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  5. 5. The Silk Roads Named for principal commodity from China Dependent on imperial stability Overland trade routes from China to Roman Empire Sea Lanes and Maritime trade as well Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  6. 6. The Silk Roads, 200 BCE-300 CE Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  7. 7. Organization of Long-Distance Trade Divided into small segments Tariffs and tolls finance local supervision Tax income incentives to maintain safety, maintenance of passage Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  8. 8. Cultural Trade: Buddhism and Hinduism Merchants carry religious ideas along silk routes India through central Asia to east Asia Cosmopolitan centers promote development of monasteries to shelter traveling merchants Buddhism becomes dominant faith of silk roads, 200 BCE-700 CE Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  9. 9. The Spread of Hinduism, Buddhism andChristianity, 200 BCE – 400 CE Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  10. 10. Buddhism in China Originally, Buddhism restricted to foreign merchant populations Gradual spread to larger population beginning 5th c. CE Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  11. 11. Buddhism and Hinduism in SE Asia Sea lanes in Indian Ocean 1st c. CE clear Indian influence in SE Asia  Rulers called “rajas”  Sanskrit used for written communication  Buddhism, Hinduism increasingly popular faiths Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  12. 12. Christianity in Mediterranean Basin Gregory the Wonderworker, central Anatolia 3rd c. CE Christianity spreads through Middle East, North Africa, Europe Sizeable communities as far east as India Judaism, Zoroastrianism also practiced Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  13. 13. Christianity in SW Asia Influence of ascetic practices from India Desert-dwelling hermits, monastic societies After 5th c. CE, followed Nestorios  Emphasized human nature of Jesus Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  14. 14. Spread of Manichaeism Mani Zoroastrian prophet (216-272 CE) Influenced by Christianity and Buddhism Dualist  good vs. evil  light vs. dark  spirit vs. matter Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  15. 15. Manichaean Society Devout: “the Elect”  Ascetic lifestyle  Celibacy, vegetarianism  Life of prayer and fasting Laity: “the Hearers”  Material supporters of “the Elect” Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  16. 16. Decline of Manichaeism Spread through silk routes to major cities in Roman Empire Zoroastrian opposition provokes Sassanid persecution  Mani arrested, dies in captivity Romans, fearing Persian influence, also persecute Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  17. 17. The Spread of Epidemic Disease Role of trade routes in spread of pathogens Limited data, but trends in demographics reasonably clear Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague Effect: Economic slowdown, move to regional self- sufficiency Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  18. 18. Epidemics in the Han and RomanEmpires Chinese Population, 0- Roman Population, 0- 600 CE 400 CE 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 20 30 10 20 0 10 c. 0 c. c. c. 0 CE 200 400 600 c. 0 CE c. 200 c. 400 CE CE CE CE Millions Millions Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  19. 19. Internal Decay of the Han State Court intrigue Formation of actions Problem of land distribution  Large landholders develop private armies Epidemics Peasant rebellions  184 CE Yellow Turban Rebellion Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  20. 20. Collapse of the Han Dynasty  Generals assume authority, reduce Emperor to puppet figure  Alliance with landowners  200 CE Han Dynasty abolished, replaced by 3 kingdoms  Immigration of northern nomads increases Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  21. 21. Sinicization of Nomadic Peoples “China-fication” Adoption of sedentary lifestyle  Agriculture Adoption of Chinese names, dress, intermarriage Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  22. 22. Popularity of Buddhism and Daoism Disintegration of political order casts doubt on Confucian doctrines Buddhism, Daoism gain popularity Religions of salvation Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  23. 23. Fall of the Roman Empire: InternalFactors The Barracks Emperors 235-284 26 claimants to the throne, all but one killed in power struggles Epidemics Disintegration of imperial economy in favor of local and regional self-sufficient economies Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  24. 24. Diocletan (r. 284-305 CE) Divided empire into two administrative districts Co-Emperors, dual Lieutenants  “Tetrarchs” Currency, budget reform Relative stability disappears after Diocletans’s death, civil war follows Constantine emerges victorious Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  25. 25. Fall of the Roman Empire: ExternalFactors Visigoths, influenced by Roman law, Christianity  Formerly buffer states for Roman Empire Attacked by Huns under Attila in 5th c. CE Massive migration of Germanic peoples into Roman Empire Sacked Rome in 410 CE, established Germanic emperor in 476 Ce Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  26. 26. Germanic invasions and the fall of the westernRoman empire, 450-476 C.E. Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  27. 27. Cultural Change in the Roman Empire Growth of Christianity  Constantine’s Vision, 312 CE  Promulgates Edict of Milan, allows Christian practice  Converts to Christianity 380 CE Emperor Theodosius proclaims Christianity official religion of Roman Empire Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  28. 28. St. Augustine (354-430 CE) Hippo, North Africa Experimented with Greek thought, Manichaeism 387 converts to Christianity Major theologian Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  29. 29. The Institutional Church Conflicts over doctrine and practice in early Church  Divinity of Jesus  Role of women Church hierarchy established  Patriarchs, Bishop of Rome primus inter pares Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

×