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11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
11 bentley3
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  • 1. Chapter 11 Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 2. Establishment of Rome Legend of Romulus and Remus Rome Founded 753 BCE Indo-European migrants c. 2000 BCE Bronze c. 1800 BCE, Iron c. 900 BCE 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 3. The Etruscans Originally from Anatolia Colonized Roman regions Society declines late 6th c. BCE  Greek maritime attacks  Celtic invasions from north 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 4. The Kingdom of Rome Monarchy through 7th-6th c. BCE  Streets, temples, public buildings Major center of trade routes 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 5. Establishment of the Republic 509 BCE Romans overthrow last Etruscan king Roman forum built Republican constitution Executive: 2 consuls senate 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 6. Social Conflict Patricians (aristocrats) Plebeians (commoners) Major class conflict 5th c. BCE Plebeians allowed to elect tribunes for representation Rights expanded through 3rd c. BCE Yet 6-month appointments of dictators 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 7. Expansion of the Republic Dominated Etruscans Took over iron industry 5th-4th c. BCE Expansion via military threat and incentives  Tax exemptions  Trade privileges  Citizenship 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 8. The Punic Wars Conflict with Carthage, 264-164 BCE Three major wars over Sicilian grain supply Later conflict with declining Hellenistic Empires Rome dominates Mediterranean by middle of 2nd C. BCE 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 9. Imperial Expansion and DomesticProblems Land distribution  Perennial problem  Development of large latifundia  Unfair competition for smaller landholders 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 10. The Roman Empire to 146 BCE 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 11. The Gracchi Brothers Tiberius and Gaius Attempted to limit land holdings of aristocrats Assassinated Development of private armies made up of landless peasants  Gaius Marius (with reformers)  Lucius Cornelius Sulla (with aristocrats) 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 12. Civil War 87 BCE Gaius Marius takes Rome Lucius Cornelius Sulla drives Marius out 83 BCE Reign of terror follows 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 13. Julius Caesar Nephew of Marius Escapes Sulla’s terror  Relatively young, well-timed trip abroad Rises to popularity  Public spectacles, victories in Gaul Attacks Rome 49 BCE Names self Dictator for life in 46 BCE 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 14. Caesar’s Policies Centralized military, governance under personal control Redistribution of land to war veterans, other allies Major building projects reduce urban unemploymnent Extended citizenship to provinces Aristocrats threatened, assassinate Caesar in 44 BCE 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 15. Augustus Civil conflict follows death of Caesar Nephew Octavian fights Mark Antony & Cleopatra Takes title Augustus 27 BCE 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 16. Augustus’ Administration Monarchy disguised as a republic Increasing centralization of political, military power Stablilized empire Death in 14 CE 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 17. Expansion and Integration of Empire Roman occupation of increasingly remote areas  Gaul, Germany, Britain, Spain Coordination of crop production, transport of natural resources Developed infrastructure, cities emerge 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 18. The Roman Empire, c. 117 CE 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 19. Pax Romana: “Roman Peace” 27-250 CE Facilitated trade, communication Roadwork  Curbs, drainage, milestones  Postal service 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 20. Roman Law Twelve Tables, c. 450 BCE Adapted to diverse populations under Roman Rule  Innocent until proven guilty  Right to challenge accusers in court 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 21. Commercial Agriculture and Trade Latifundia: production for export Regional specialization increases Integration of Empire-wide economy Mediterranean Sea: Mare Nostrum, “our sea” 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 22. The City of Rome Cash flow  Taxes, tribute, spoils, commerce Massive construction projects  Statuary, monumental architecture, aqueducts Technology: concrete 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 23. Roman Attractions Imported goods Underground sewage Circus Maximus  250,000 spectators Colosseum Gladitorial Games 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 24. Family and Society Pater Familias: “father of the family”  Right to arrange marriages, sell children into slavery Women not allowed to inherit property  Rarely enforced 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 25. Wealth and Social Change Newly rich challenge aristocracy Yet poor class increasing in size Distraction: “Bread and Circuses” 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 26. Slavery 2nd c. CE: estimated at 1/3 of Empire population  Customary manumission at age 30 Agricultural work, quarries, mines Chain labor Revolt under Spartacus, 73 BCE 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 27. Roman Deities Polytheistic Major gods Tutelary deities Absorption of gods from other cultures 27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 28. Cicero and Stoicism Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-46 BCE) Major orator, writer Influenced by Greek thought Proponent of Stoicism 28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 29. Mithraism From Zoroastrian myth: god of Sun, light Roman version emphasizes strength, courage, discipline Women not admitted into cult Appealed to military Cult of Isis also popular 29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 30. Judaism in Early Rome Jewish monotheism at odds with most ancient cultures Refusal to recognize state gods Repeated Jewish rebellions Romans finally crush Jewish self-governance in Jewish Wars (66-70 CE) 30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 31. Synagogue at Capernaum 31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 32. The Essenes Messianic Jewish Cult Baptism Ascetic lifestyle Dead Sea Scrolls 32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 33. Jesus of Nazareth Jewish teacher Moral code, reputation for miracle-working Romans fear instigation of rebellion, crucify Jesus 33 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 34. Jesus’ Early Followers Belief in Jesus’ resurrection, divine nature Title Christ: “Anointed One” Teachings recorded in New Testament 34 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 35. Paul of Tarsus Extends teachings far beyond Jewish circles Intensive travel, missionary activity 35 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 36. Early Christian Communities Local leaders: Bishops Regional variation in doctrine and ritual  Nature of resurrection  Role of women Gradual acceptance of core texts 36 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • 37. Growth of Early Christianity Roman persecution Yet dramatic expansion of Christianity  Especially with dispossessed, disenfranchised classes  Urban poor  women 37 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

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