Chapter 9      State, Society, and the Quest for      Salvation in India                                                  ...
The Mauryan and Gupta empires321 B.C.E.-550 C.E.                                                                          ...
India Before the Mauryan Dynasty   520 BCE Persian Emperor Darius conquers north-    west India   Introduces Persian rul...
Kingdom of Magadha   Most significant remaining kingdom after    Alexander’s departure   Central Ganges plain   Economi...
Chandragupta Maurya   Took advantage of power vacuum left by    Alexander   Overthrew Magadha rulers   Expanded kingdom...
Chandragupta’s Government   Advisor Kautalya   Recorded in Arthashastra, manual of political    statecraft   Foreign po...
Ashoka Maurya                                                               Grandson of                                  ...
Decline of the Mauryan Empire   Economic crisis follows death of Ashoka   High costs of bureaucracy, military not suppor...
Regional Kingdom: Bactria   Northwestern India   Ruled by Greek-speaking descendants of    Alexander’s campaigns   Inte...
Regional Kingdom: Kush   Northern India/Central Asia   C. 1-300 CE   Maintained silk road network                      ...
The Gupta Dynasty   Based in Magadha   Founded by Chandra Gupta (no relation to    Chandragupta Maurya), c. 320 CE   Sl...
Gupta Decline   Frequent invasions of White Huns, 5th c. CE   Gupta Dynasty disintegrates along regional fault    lines...
Economy: Towns and Manufacturing   Manufactured goods in big demand   Developed in dense network of small workshops   T...
Long-Distance Trade   Persian connection since Cyrus, Darius   Massive road-building projects under Persian rule   Alex...
Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin   Seasonal sea trade expands       Spring/winter winds blow from south-west, fall/winter...
Society: Gender Relations   Patriarchy entrenched   Child marriage common (8 year old girls married    to men in 20s)  ...
Social Order                                                                Caste system from Aryan                      ...
Castes and Guilds   Increasing economic diversification challenges    simplistic caste system   Jatis formed: guilds tha...
Wealth and the Social Order   Upward social mobility possible for Vaishyas,    Shudras   Wealth challenges varna for sta...
Religions of Salvation in ClassicalIndia   Social change generated resentment of caste    privilige       e.g. Brahmins ...
Jainism   Vardhamana Mahavira, 540-468 BCE   Abandoned privileged family to lead ascetic life   Promotes 7th c. movemen...
Ahimsa   Principle of extreme non-violence   Jainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow    movements to avoid killing ...
Appeal of Jainism   Rejected caste, jati distinctions   Obvious appeal to underprivileged groups   But asceticism too e...
Early Buddhism   Siddhartha Gautama, c. 563-483 BCE   Encountered age, sickness, death, then monastic    life   Abandon...
Gautama’s Search for Enlightenment   Intense meditation, extreme asceticism   49 days of meditation under bo tree to fin...
The Buddha and his Followers   Begins teaching new doctrine c. 528 BCE   Followers owned only robes, food bowls   Life ...
Buddha and his Disciples                                                                                              27  ...
Buddhist Doctrine: The Dharma   The Four Noble Truths       all life is suffering       there is an end to suffering   ...
Appeal of Buddhism   Less dependence on Brahmins for ritual activities   No recognition of caste, jati status   Philoso...
A Buddhist Monastery                                                                                             30     Co...
Ashoka’s Support of Buddhism   Personal conversion to Buddhism   Disillusioned after violent war with Kalinga   Banned ...
Changes in Buddhist thought   3rd c. BCE – 1st c. CE       Buddha considered divine       Institution of Boddhisatvas (...
Spread of Mahayana Buddhism   Mahayana (“greater vehicle”), newer    development       India, China, Japan, Korea, centr...
Nalanda   Buddhist Monastery   Quasi-university: Buddhism, Hindu texts,    philosophy, astronomy, medicine   Peak at en...
Emergence of Popular Hinduism   Composition of epics from older oral traditions       Mahabharata       Ramayana   Emp...
The Bhagavad Gita   “Song of the Lord”   Centuries of revisions, final form c. 400 CE   Dialogue between Arjuna and Kri...
Hindu Ethics   Emphasis on meeting class obligations (dharma)   Pursuit of economic well-being and honesty    (artha)  ...
Popularity of Hinduism   Gradually replaced Buddhism in India   Gupta dynastic leaders extend considerable    support   ...
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  1. 1. Chapter 9 State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  2. 2. The Mauryan and Gupta empires321 B.C.E.-550 C.E. 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  3. 3. India Before the Mauryan Dynasty 520 BCE Persian Emperor Darius conquers north- west India Introduces Persian ruling pattern 327 Alexander of Macedon destroys Persian Empire in India Troops mutiny, departs after 2 years  Political power vacuum 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  4. 4. Kingdom of Magadha Most significant remaining kingdom after Alexander’s departure Central Ganges plain Economic strength  Agriculture  Trade in Ganges valley, Bay of Bengal Dominated surrounding regions in north-eastern India 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  5. 5. Chandragupta Maurya Took advantage of power vacuum left by Alexander Overthrew Magadha rulers Expanded kingdom to create 1st unified Indian empire  Mauryan Dynasty 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  6. 6. Chandragupta’s Government Advisor Kautalya Recorded in Arthashastra, manual of political statecraft Foreign policies, economics Domestic policies  Network of spies Legend: Chandragupta retires to become a monk, starves himself to death 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  7. 7. Ashoka Maurya  Grandson of Chandragupta  Represents high point of Mauryan Empire, r. 268- 232 BCE  Expanded empire to include all of Indian subcontinent except for south  Positive rulership integrated Indian society 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  8. 8. Decline of the Mauryan Empire Economic crisis follows death of Ashoka High costs of bureaucracy, military not supported by tax revenue Frequent devaluations of currency to pay salaries Regions begin to abandon Mauryan Empire  Disappears by 185 BCE 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  9. 9. Regional Kingdom: Bactria Northwestern India Ruled by Greek-speaking descendants of Alexander’s campaigns Intense cultural activity accompanies active trade 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  10. 10. Regional Kingdom: Kush Northern India/Central Asia C. 1-300 CE Maintained silk road network 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  11. 11. The Gupta Dynasty Based in Magadha Founded by Chandra Gupta (no relation to Chandragupta Maurya), c. 320 CE Slightly smaller than Mauryan Empire Highly decentralized leadership 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  12. 12. Gupta Decline Frequent invasions of White Huns, 5th c. CE Gupta Dynasty disintegrates along regional fault lines Smaller local kingdoms dominate until Mughal Empire founded in 16th c. 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  13. 13. Economy: Towns and Manufacturing Manufactured goods in big demand Developed in dense network of small workshops Trade intense, capitalizes on trade routes across India 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  14. 14. Long-Distance Trade Persian connection since Cyrus, Darius Massive road-building projects under Persian rule Alexander extends trade west to Macedon Trade routes through Kush mountains, the silk roads 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  15. 15. Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin Seasonal sea trade expands  Spring/winter winds blow from south-west, fall/winter winds blow from north-west Trade from Asia to Persian Gulf and Red Sea, Mediterranean 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  16. 16. Society: Gender Relations Patriarchy entrenched Child marriage common (8 year old girls married to men in 20s) Women encouraged to remain in private sphere 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  17. 17. Social Order  Caste system from Aryan times  Brahmins (priests)  Kshatriyas (warriors, aristocrats)  Vaishyas (Peasants, merchants)  Shudras (serfs) 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  18. 18. Castes and Guilds Increasing economic diversification challenges simplistic caste system Jatis formed: guilds that acted as sub-castes Enforced social order  “outcastes” forced into low-status employment 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  19. 19. Wealth and the Social Order Upward social mobility possible for Vaishyas, Shudras Wealth challenges varna for status 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  20. 20. Religions of Salvation in ClassicalIndia Social change generated resentment of caste privilige  e.g. Brahmins free from taxation 6th-5th c. BCE new religions and philosophies challenge status quo Charvakas: atheists Jainists, Buddhists 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  21. 21. Jainism Vardhamana Mahavira, 540-468 BCE Abandoned privileged family to lead ascetic life Promotes 7th c. movement based on Upanishads Emphasis on selfless living, concern for all beings 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  22. 22. Ahimsa Principle of extreme non-violence Jainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow movements to avoid killing insects Ahimsa continues to inspire modern movements (Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr.) 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  23. 23. Appeal of Jainism Rejected caste, jati distinctions Obvious appeal to underprivileged groups But asceticism too extreme to become a mass movement 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  24. 24. Early Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, c. 563-483 BCE Encountered age, sickness, death, then monastic life Abandoned comfortable life to become a monk 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  25. 25. Gautama’s Search for Enlightenment Intense meditation, extreme asceticism 49 days of meditation under bo tree to finally achieve enlightenment Attained title Buddha: “the enlightened one” 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  26. 26. The Buddha and his Followers Begins teaching new doctrine c. 528 BCE Followers owned only robes, food bowls Life of wandering, begging, meditation Establishment of monastic communities 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  27. 27. Buddha and his Disciples 27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  28. 28. Buddhist Doctrine: The Dharma The Four Noble Truths  all life is suffering  there is an end to suffering  removing desire removes suffering  this may be done through the eight-fold path  (right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration) 28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  29. 29. Appeal of Buddhism Less dependence on Brahmins for ritual activities No recognition of caste, jati status Philosophy of moderate consumption Public service through lay teaching Use of vernacular, not Sanskrit 29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  30. 30. A Buddhist Monastery 30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  31. 31. Ashoka’s Support of Buddhism Personal conversion to Buddhism Disillusioned after violent war with Kalinga Banned animal sacrifices, mandated vegetarianism in court Material support for Buddhist institutions, missionary activities 31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  32. 32. Changes in Buddhist thought 3rd c. BCE – 1st c. CE  Buddha considered divine  Institution of Boddhisatvas (“saints”)  Charitable donations to monasteries regarded as pious activity 32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  33. 33. Spread of Mahayana Buddhism Mahayana (“greater vehicle”), newer development  India, China, Japan, Korea, central Asia Hinayana (“lesser vehicle,” also Theravada), earlier version  Ceylon, Burma, Thailand 33 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  34. 34. Nalanda Buddhist Monastery Quasi-university: Buddhism, Hindu texts, philosophy, astronomy, medicine Peak at end of Gupta dynasty Helped spread Indian thought  E.g. mathematical number zero 34 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  35. 35. Emergence of Popular Hinduism Composition of epics from older oral traditions  Mahabharata  Ramayana Emphasis on god Vishnu and his incarnations 35 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  36. 36. The Bhagavad Gita “Song of the Lord” Centuries of revisions, final form c. 400 CE Dialogue between Arjuna and Krishna during civil war 36 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  37. 37. Hindu Ethics Emphasis on meeting class obligations (dharma) Pursuit of economic well-being and honesty (artha) Enjoyment of social, physical and sexual pleasure (kama) Salvation of the soul (moksha) 37 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  38. 38. Popularity of Hinduism Gradually replaced Buddhism in India Gupta dynastic leaders extend considerable support 38 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

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