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04 bentley3 04 bentley3 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 4 Early Societies in South Asia 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • Harappan society and its neighbors,ca. 2000 B.C.E. 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • Foundations of Harappan Society The Indus River  Silt-enriched water from mountain ranges Major society built by Dravidian peoples, 3000-2500 BCE  Cultivation of cotton before 5000 BCE, early cultivation of poultry  Decline after 1900 BCE Major cities: Harrapa (Punjab region and Mohenjo-Daro (mouth of Indus River)  70 smaller sites excavated (total 1,500) 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • Mohenjo-Daro Ruins Population c. 40,000 Regional center  Layout, architecture suggests public purpose  Broad streets, citadel, pool, sewage Standardized weights evident throughout region Specialized labor Trade 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • Harapan Society and Culture Evidence of social stratification  Dwelling size, decoration Harappan Civilization: matriarchal?  Influence on later Indian culture Goddesses of fertility Possible east/west distinctions 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • Mysterious End of Harappan Civilization Reasons for disappearance unclear  Excessive deforestation, loss of topsoil  Earthquakes?  Flooding?  Evidence of unburied dead Disappearance by 1500 BCE 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • The Aryan “Invasion” Aryans, lighter-skinned invaders from the north Dravidians, darker-skinned sedentary inhabitants of Harappa Color Bias Socio-Economic Implications Difficulty of theory: no evidence of large-scale military conquest 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • The Early Aryans Pastoral economy: sheep, goats, horses, cattle  Vegetarianism not widespread until many centuries later Religious and Literary works: The Vedas  Sanskrit: sacred tongue  Prakrit: everyday language, evolved into Hindi, Urdu, Bengali  Four Vedas, most important Rig Veda  1,028 hymms to gods 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • The Vedic Age Conflicts between Aryans and indigenous dasas (“enemies,” “subjects”)  Aryans fighting Dravidians  Also Aryans fighting each other Chiefdoms: Rajas Early concentration in Punjab, migrations further south  Development of iron metallurgy  Increasing reliance on agriculture Tribal connections evolve into political structures 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • Varna: The Caste System Origins in Aryan domination of Dravidians  Brahmin, Priest  Kshatriya, Warrior  Vaishya, Merchant  Sudra, Commoner  Harijan: “Untouchables; Pariahs” Jati subsystem of castes  Related to urbanization, increasing social and economic complexity 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • Brahmins from Bengal 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • Patriarchy in Ancient Indian Society “rule of the father” Enforced in the The Lawbook of Manu Overwhelmed Harappan matriarchy? Caste, Jati, inheritance through male line 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • Sati (“Suttee”) 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • Aryan Religion Major deity of Rig Veda: Indra, war god Elaborate ritual sacrifices to gods  Role of Brahmins important C. 800 BCE some movement away from sacrificial cults  Mystical thought, influenced by Dravidians 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  • Teachings of the Upanishads Texts that represent blending of Aryan and Dravidian traditions Composed 800-400 BCE, some later collections until 13th century CE Brahman: the Universal Soul Samsara: reincarnation Karma: accounting for incarnations Moksha: mystical ecstacy Relationship to system of Varna 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.