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  • Nebuchadnezzar by William Blake

02 bentley3 02 bentley3 Presentation Transcript

  • 1Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Chapter 2Early Societies in SoutheastAsia and the Indo-EuropeanMigrations
  • 2Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Civilization Defined Urban Political/military system Social stratification Economic specialization Religion Communications “Higher Culture”
  • 3Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Civilization andthe Means of Production Essential element: concentration of wealth Agriculture Control over natural resources Development of ancient civilization not hunter-gatherer economics
  • 4Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Origins and Spread of Agriculture
  • 5Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Mesopotamia “Between the Rivers” Tigris and Euphrates Contemporary Iran, Iraq Cultural continuum of“fertile crescent”
  • 6Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.The Wealth of the Rivers Nutrient-rich silt Key: irrigation Necessity of coordinated efforts Promoted development of local governments City-states Sumer begins small-scale irrigation 6000 BCE By 5000 BCE, complex irrigation networks Population reaches 100,000 by 3000 BCE Attracts Semitic migrants, influences culture
  • 7Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Sumerian City-States Cities appear 4000 BCE Dominate region from 3200-2350 BCE Ur (home of Abraham, see Genesis 11:28), Nineveh(see Jonah) Ziggurat home of the god Divine mandate to Kings Regulation of Trade Defence from nomadic marauders
  • 8Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.The Ziggurat of Ur
  • 9Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Political Decline of Sumer Semitic peoples from northern Mesopotamia overshadowSumer Sargon of Akkad (2370-2315 BCE) Destroyed Sumerian city-states one by one, created empire based inAkkad Empire unable to maintain chronic rebellions Hammurabi of Babylon (1792-1750 BCE) Improved taxation, legislation Used local governors to maintain control of city-states Babylonian Empire later destroyed by Hittites fromAnatolia, c. 1595 BCE
  • 10Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Legal System The Code of Hammurabi (18thc. BCE) 282 items lex talionis (item 196: “eye for an eye”) Social status and punishment women as property, but some rights
  • 11Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Later Mesopotamian Empires Weakening of central rule an invitation to foreigninvaders Assyrians use new iron weaponry Beginning 1300 BCE, by 8th-7thcenturies BCE controlMesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, most of Egypt Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (r. 605-562) takes advantageof internal dissent to create Chaldean (New Babylonian)Empire Famously luxurious capital
  • 12Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Mesopotamian Empires1800-600 BCE
  • 13Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Technological Development inMesopotamia Bronze (copper with tin), c. 4000 BCE Military, agricultural applications Iron, c. 1000 BCE Cheaper than bronze Wheel, boats, c. 3500 BCE Shipbuilding increases trade networks
  • 14Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Social Classes Ruling classes based often on military prowess Originally elected, later hereditary Perceived as offspring of gods Religious classes Role: intervention with gods to ensure fertility, safety Considerable landholdings, other economic activities Free commoners Peasant cultivators Some urban professionals Slaves Prisoners of war, convicted criminals, debtors
  • 15Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Patriarchal Society Men as landowners, relationship to status Patriarchy: “rule of the father” Right to sell wives, children Double standard of sexual morality Women drowned for adultery Relaxed sexual mores for men Yet some possibilities of social mobility for women Court advisers, temple priestesses, economic activity Introduction of the veil at least c. 1500 BCE
  • 16Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Development of Writing Sumerian writing systems form 3500 BCE Pictographs Cuneiform: “wedge-shaped” Preservation of documents on clay Declines from 400 BCE with spread of Greekalphabetic script
  • 17Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Uses for Writing Trade Astronomy Mathematics Agricultural applications Calculation of time 12-month year 24-hour day, 60-minute hour
  • 18Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Mesopotamian Literature Epic of Gilgamesh, compiled after 2000 BCE Heroic saga Search for meaning, esp. afterlife This-worldly emphasis
  • 19Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.The Early Hebrews Patriarchs and Matriarchs from Babylon, c. 1850BCE Parallels between early biblical texts, Code ofHammurabi Early settlement of Canaan (Israel), c. 1300 BCE Biblical text: slavery in Egypt, divine redemption On-going conflict with indigenous populationsunder King David (1000-970 BCE) and Solomon(970-930 BCE)
  • 20Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Moses and Monotheism Hebrews shared polytheistic beliefs of otherMesopotamian civilizations Moses introduces monotheism, belief in singlegod Denies existence of competing parallel deities Personal god: reward and punishment for conformitywith revealed law The Torah (“the teaching”)
  • 21Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Foreign conquests of Israel Civil war Northern tribes: Israel Southern: Judah Assyrian conquest, 722 BCE Exiles Israel: ten lost tribes Babylonian conquest, 586 BCE Additional exile of many residents of Judah Returned later than century
  • 22Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Israel and Phoenicia, 1500-600 BCE
  • 23Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.The Phoenicians City-states along Mediterranean coast after 3000BCE Extensive maritime trade Dominated Mediterranean trade, 1200-800 BCE Development of alphabet symbols Simpler alternative to cuneiform Spread of literacy
  • 24Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Indo-European Migrations Common roots of many languages of Europe,southwest Asia, India Implies influence of a single Indo-Europeanpeople Probable original homeland: contemporary Ukraineand Russia, 4500-2500 BCE Domestication of horses, use of Sumerianweaponry allowed them to spread widely
  • 25Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.The Indo-European Migrations
  • 26Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Implications of Indo-European Migration Hittities migrate to central Anatolia, c. 1900 BCE, laterdominate Babylonia Influence on trade Horses, chariots with spoked wheels, use of Iron Iron Migrations to western China, Greece, Italy also significant Influence on language and culture Aryo, “noble, lord” Aryan, Iranian, Irish Caste system in India