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  • Nebuchadnezzar by William Blake
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 2 Early Societies in Southeast Asia and the Indo-European Migrations 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 2. Civilization Defined Urban Political/military system Social stratification Economic specialization Religion Communications “Higher Culture” 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 3. Civilization andthe Means of Production Essential element: concentration of wealth  Agriculture  Control over natural resources  Development of ancient civilization  not hunter-gatherer economics 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 4. Origins and Spread of Agriculture 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 5. Mesopotamia  “Between the Rivers”  Tigris and Euphrates  Contemporary Iran, Iraq  Cultural continuum of “fertile crescent” 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 6. The Wealth of the Rivers Nutrient-rich silt Key: irrigation  Necessity of coordinated efforts  Promoted development of local governments  City-states Sumer begins small-scale irrigation 6000 BCE By 5000 BCE, complex irrigation networks  Population reaches 100,000 by 3000 BCE Attracts Semitic migrants, influences culture 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 7. Sumerian City-States Cities appear 4000 BCE Dominate region from 3200-2350 BCE  Ur (home of Abraham, see Genesis 11:28), Nineveh (see Jonah) Ziggurat home of the god Divine mandate to Kings Regulation of Trade Defence from nomadic marauders 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 8. The Ziggurat of Ur 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 9. Political Decline of Sumer Semitic peoples from northern Mesopotamia overshadow Sumer  Sargon of Akkad (2370-2315 BCE)  Destroyed Sumerian city-states one by one, created empire based in Akkad  Empire unable to maintain chronic rebellions Hammurabi of Babylon (1792-1750 BCE)  Improved taxation, legislation  Used local governors to maintain control of city-states Babylonian Empire later destroyed by Hittites from Anatolia, c. 1595 BCE 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 10. Legal System The Code of Hammurabi (18th c. BCE)  282 items  lex talionis (item 196: “eye for an eye”)  Social status and punishment  women as property, but some rights 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 11. Later Mesopotamian Empires Weakening of central rule an invitation to foreign invaders Assyrians use new iron weaponry  Beginning 1300 BCE, by 8th-7th centuries BCE control Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, most of Egypt Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (r. 605-562) takes advantage of internal dissent to create Chaldean (New Babylonian) Empire  Famously luxurious capital 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 12. Mesopotamian Empires1800-600 BCE 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 13. Technological Development inMesopotamia Bronze (copper with tin), c. 4000 BCE  Military, agricultural applications Iron, c. 1000 BCE  Cheaper than bronze Wheel, boats, c. 3500 BCE Shipbuilding increases trade networks 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 14. Social Classes Ruling classes based often on military prowess  Originally elected, later hereditary  Perceived as offspring of gods Religious classes  Role: intervention with gods to ensure fertility, safety  Considerable landholdings, other economic activities Free commoners  Peasant cultivators  Some urban professionals Slaves  Prisoners of war, convicted criminals, debtors 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 15. Patriarchal Society Men as landowners, relationship to status Patriarchy: “rule of the father”  Right to sell wives, children Double standard of sexual morality  Women drowned for adultery  Relaxed sexual mores for men Yet some possibilities of social mobility for women  Court advisers, temple priestesses, economic activity Introduction of the veil at least c. 1500 BCE 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 16. Development of Writing Sumerian writing systems form 3500 BCE Pictographs Cuneiform: “wedge-shaped”  Preservation of documents on clay  Declines from 400 BCE with spread of Greek alphabetic script 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 17. Uses for Writing Trade Astronomy Mathematics  Agricultural applications Calculation of time  12-month year  24-hour day, 60-minute hour 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 18. Mesopotamian Literature Epic of Gilgamesh, compiled after 2000 BCE Heroic saga Search for meaning, esp. afterlife This-worldly emphasis 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 19. The Early Hebrews Patriarchs and Matriarchs from Babylon, c. 1850 BCE Parallels between early biblical texts, Code of Hammurabi Early settlement of Canaan (Israel), c. 1300 BCE  Biblical text: slavery in Egypt, divine redemption On-going conflict with indigenous populations under King David (1000-970 BCE) and Solomon (970-930 BCE) 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 20. Moses and Monotheism Hebrews shared polytheistic beliefs of other Mesopotamian civilizations Moses introduces monotheism, belief in single god  Denies existence of competing parallel deities  Personal god: reward and punishment for conformity with revealed law  The Torah (“the teaching”) 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 21. Foreign conquests of Israel Civil war  Northern tribes: Israel  Southern: Judah Assyrian conquest, 722 BCE  Exiles Israel: ten lost tribes Babylonian conquest, 586 BCE  Additional exile of many residents of Judah  Returned later than century 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 22. Israel and Phoenicia, 1500-600 BCE 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 23. The Phoenicians City-states along Mediterranean coast after 3000 BCE Extensive maritime trade  Dominated Mediterranean trade, 1200-800 BCE Development of alphabet symbols  Simpler alternative to cuneiform  Spread of literacy 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 24. Indo-European Migrations Common roots of many languages of Europe, southwest Asia, India Implies influence of a single Indo-European people  Probable original homeland: contemporary Ukraine and Russia, 4500-2500 BCE Domestication of horses, use of Sumerian weaponry allowed them to spread widely 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 25. The Indo-European Migrations 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    • 26. Implications of Indo-European Migration Hittities migrate to central Anatolia, c. 1900 BCE, later dominate Babylonia Influence on trade  Horses, chariots with spoked wheels, use of Iron  Iron  Migrations to western China, Greece, Italy also significant Influence on language and culture  Aryo, “noble, lord”  Aryan, Iranian, Irish  Caste system in India 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

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