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  • Skeleton of Lucy, www.bbc.co.uk/.../ chronology/contentpage1.shtml
  • Reconstruction of Lucy: www.bbc.co.uk /.../ chronology/contentpage1.shtml
  • Natufian burial w/dog www.sdnhm.org /exhibits/ dogs/ facts.html
  • sanat.bilkent.edu.tr / imot/neolithic/RMO52-27.html
  • Photo of jericho walls www.bobmay.info / may132003jericho.htm
  • Transcript

    • 1. 1Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.PowerPoint Presentation MaterialsFor Instructor’s Online Learning CenterTraditions and EncountersA Global Perspective on the Past3rdEditionJerry H. BentleyHerbert F. ZieglerPowerPoint Presentations Prepared by Henry Abramson
    • 2. 2Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Chapter 1Before History
    • 3. 3Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Forming the Complex Society Basic development: Hunting and Foraging Agriculture Complex Society Key issue: surplus capital Major development of first complex societies3500 BCE – 500 BCE
    • 4. 4Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Prehistory What is “history”? Documentation Written records Archaeological discovery Requisite human presence (or “natural” history)
    • 5. 5Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Development of Hominids Animals adapt themselves to environment Hominids adapt environment to themselves Use of tools Language Complex cooperative social structures
    • 6. 6Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Australopithecus Discovery of skeleton AL-288-1, north of Addis Ababa,Ethiopia Nicknamed “Lucy” 40% of SWF, 4’6”, 55lb., bipedal Brain 500 cc (modernhuman: 1400 cc), limited speech but opposable digit Estimated date of death: 3.5 million years ago
    • 7. 7Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Later Hominids Homo Erectus, “upright man” Larger brain capacity (1000 cc), improved tool use,control of fire Homo Sapiens, “wise man” Homo Sapiens Sapiens, “verywise man” (most of us) Largest brain, esp. frontal regions most sophisticated tools and social organization Migrations of Homo Erectus and Homo Sapiens
    • 8. 8Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Global spread of hominids and Homo Sapiens
    • 9. 9Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.The Natural Environment By 13,000 BCE Homo sapiens in everyinhabitable part of the world Archaeological finds: Sophisticated tools Choppers, scrapers, axes, knives, bows, arrows Cave and hutlike dwellings Use of fire, animal skins Hunted several mammal species to extinction Climactic change may have accelerated process
    • 10. 10Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Paleolithic Era (“Old Stone Age”) Evidence: Archaeological finds Extrapolation from modern hunter-gatherer societies Nomadic existence precludes advancedcivilization Groups of 30-50 Division of labor along gender lines
    • 11. 11Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Relative Social Equality Nomadic culture precludes accumulation of land-based wealth More likely determinants of status: age, hunting skill,fertility, charisma Possible gender equality related to foodproduction Men: protein from hunting Women: plant gethering
    • 12. 12Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Big Game Hunting Evidence of intelligent coordination of huntingexpeditions Development of weaponry Animal-skin disguises Stampeding tactics Lighting of fires, etc. to drive game into kill zones Requires planning, communication
    • 13. 13Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Paleolithic Settlements Natufian society Modern Israel and Jordan Wild wheat, herding Jomon society Japan Wild buckwheat, fishing Chinook society Pacific Northwest Berries, acorns, salmon runs Groups of 1000 or more
    • 14. 14Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Neandertal Peoples Neander valley, western Germany Also found in Africa, east Asia Evidence of spirituality: ritual burial
    • 15. 15Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Cro-magnon Peoples Physically similar to modern humans Greater capacity for speech? Homo sapiens sapiens Increased variety of tools Adornments, decorative furniture, cave paintings “Venus” figurines Cave paintings
    • 16. 16Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Neolithic Era (“New Stone Age”) Distinction in tool production Chipped vs. polished Men: herding animals rather than hunting Women: nurtured vegetation rather than foraging Spread of Agriculture Slash-and-and burn techniques Exhaustion of soil promotes migration Transport of crops from one region to another
    • 17. 17Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Origins of early spread of agriculture
    • 18. 18Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Agriculture and Population Growth01020304050607080901003000BCE2000BCE1000BCE500 BCEPopulation (millions)
    • 19. 19Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Surplus Food andthe Specialization of Labor Emergence of villages and towns Discoveries at Çatal Hüyük, Turkey, occupied7250-5400 BCE Tremendous range of manufactured products Pottery, Jewelry, Textiles, Copper tools Development of crafts
    • 20. 20Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Social Distinctions Accumulation of landed wealth initiatesdevelopment of social classes Archaeological evidence in variety of householddecorations, goods buried with deceased members ofsociety at Çatal Hüyük
    • 21. 21Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Religious Values Elements of natural environment essential forfunctioning Archaeological evidence of religious worship:thousands of clay figurines, drawings on pots, tooldecorations, other ritual objects Fertility: Venus figurines
    • 22. 22Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.Beginnings of Urbanization Jericho: concentration of wealth, building a wall Craft specialization Social stratification Governance Cultural workers

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