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PowerPoint Presentation Materials           For Instructor’s Online Learning Center   Traditions and EncountersA Global Pe...
Chapter 1      Before History                                                                                             ...
Forming the Complex Society   Basic development:       Hunting and Foraging       Agriculture       Complex Society  ...
Prehistory   What is “history”?   Documentation       Written records       Archaeological discovery   Requisite huma...
Development of Hominids   Animals adapt themselves to environment   Hominids adapt environment to themselves       Use ...
Australopithecus   Discovery of skeleton AL-288-1, north of Addis Ababa,    Ethiopia       Nicknamed “Lucy”   40% of SW...
Later Hominids   Homo Erectus, “upright man”   Larger brain capacity (1000 cc), improved tool use,    control of fire  ...
Global spread of hominids and Homo Sapiens                                                                                ...
The Natural Environment   By 13,000 BCE Homo sapiens in every    inhabitable part of the world   Archaeological finds:  ...
Paleolithic Era (“Old Stone Age”)   Evidence:       Archaeological finds       Extrapolation from modern hunter-gathere...
Relative Social Equality   Nomadic culture precludes accumulation of land-    based wealth       More likely determinant...
Big Game Hunting   Evidence of intelligent coordination of hunting    expeditions       Development of weaponry       A...
Paleolithic Settlements   Natufian society       Modern Israel and Jordan       Wild wheat, herding   Jomon society   ...
Neandertal Peoples   Neander valley, western Germany   Also found in Africa, east Asia   Evidence of spirituality: ritu...
Cro-magnon Peoples   Physically similar to modern humans   Greater capacity for speech?   Homo sapiens sapiens   Incre...
Neolithic Era (“New Stone Age”)   Distinction in tool production       Chipped vs. polished   Men: herding animals rath...
Origins of early spread of agriculture                                                                                    ...
Agriculture and Population Growth 100  90  80  70  60  50  40                                                             ...
Surplus Food andthe Specialization of Labor   Emergence of villages and towns   Discoveries at Çatal Hüyük, Turkey, occu...
Social Distinctions   Accumulation of landed wealth initiates    development of social classes       Archaeological evid...
Religious Values   Elements of natural environment essential for    functioning   Archaeological evidence of religious w...
Beginnings of Urbanization   Jericho: concentration of wealth, building a wall   Craft specialization   Social stratifi...
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  • Skeleton of Lucy, www.bbc.co.uk/.../ chronology/contentpage1.shtml
  • Reconstruction of Lucy: www.bbc.co.uk /.../ chronology/contentpage1.shtml
  • Natufian burial w/dog www.sdnhm.org /exhibits/ dogs/ facts.html
  • sanat.bilkent.edu.tr / imot/neolithic/RMO52-27.html
  • Photo of jericho walls www.bobmay.info / may132003jericho.htm
  • Transcript of "01 bentley3"

    1. 1. PowerPoint Presentation Materials For Instructor’s Online Learning Center Traditions and EncountersA Global Perspective on the Past 3rd Edition Jerry H. Bentley Herbert F. Ziegler PowerPoint Presentations Prepared by Henry Abramson 1Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    2. 2. Chapter 1 Before History 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    3. 3. Forming the Complex Society Basic development:  Hunting and Foraging  Agriculture  Complex Society Key issue: surplus capital Major development of first complex societies 3500 BCE – 500 BCE 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    4. 4. Prehistory What is “history”? Documentation  Written records  Archaeological discovery Requisite human presence (or “natural” history) 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    5. 5. Development of Hominids Animals adapt themselves to environment Hominids adapt environment to themselves  Use of tools  Language  Complex cooperative social structures 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    6. 6. Australopithecus Discovery of skeleton AL-288-1, north of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  Nicknamed “Lucy” 40% of SWF, 4’6”, 55lb., bipedal Brain 500 cc (modern human: 1400 cc), limited speech but opposable digit Estimated date of death: 3.5 million years ago 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    7. 7. Later Hominids Homo Erectus, “upright man” Larger brain capacity (1000 cc), improved tool use, control of fire Homo Sapiens, “wise man” Homo Sapiens Sapiens, “very wise man” (most of us) Largest brain, esp. frontal regions most sophisticated tools and social organization Migrations of Homo Erectus and Homo Sapiens 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    8. 8. Global spread of hominids and Homo Sapiens 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    9. 9. The Natural Environment By 13,000 BCE Homo sapiens in every inhabitable part of the world Archaeological finds:  Sophisticated tools  Choppers, scrapers, axes, knives, bows, arrows  Cave and hutlike dwellings  Use of fire, animal skins Hunted several mammal species to extinction  Climactic change may have accelerated process 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    10. 10. Paleolithic Era (“Old Stone Age”) Evidence:  Archaeological finds  Extrapolation from modern hunter-gatherer societies Nomadic existence precludes advanced civilization  Groups of 30-50  Division of labor along gender lines 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    11. 11. Relative Social Equality Nomadic culture precludes accumulation of land- based wealth  More likely determinants of status: age, hunting skill, fertility, charisma Possible gender equality related to food production  Men: protein from hunting  Women: plant gethering 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    12. 12. Big Game Hunting Evidence of intelligent coordination of hunting expeditions  Development of weaponry  Animal-skin disguises  Stampeding tactics  Lighting of fires, etc. to drive game into kill zones Requires planning, communication 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    13. 13. Paleolithic Settlements Natufian society  Modern Israel and Jordan  Wild wheat, herding Jomon society  Japan  Wild buckwheat, fishing Chinook society  Pacific Northwest  Berries, acorns, salmon runs Groups of 1000 or more 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    14. 14. Neandertal Peoples Neander valley, western Germany Also found in Africa, east Asia Evidence of spirituality: ritual burial 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    15. 15. Cro-magnon Peoples Physically similar to modern humans Greater capacity for speech? Homo sapiens sapiens Increased variety of tools Adornments, decorative furniture, cave paintings “Venus” figurines Cave paintings 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    16. 16. Neolithic Era (“New Stone Age”) Distinction in tool production  Chipped vs. polished Men: herding animals rather than hunting Women: nurtured vegetation rather than foraging Spread of Agriculture  Slash-and-and burn techniques  Exhaustion of soil promotes migration  Transport of crops from one region to another 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    17. 17. Origins of early spread of agriculture 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    18. 18. Agriculture and Population Growth 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 Population (millions) 30 20 10 0 3000 2000 1000 500 BCE BCE BCE BCE 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    19. 19. Surplus Food andthe Specialization of Labor Emergence of villages and towns Discoveries at Çatal Hüyük, Turkey, occupied 7250-5400 BCE Tremendous range of manufactured products  Pottery, Jewelry, Textiles, Copper tools Development of crafts 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    20. 20. Social Distinctions Accumulation of landed wealth initiates development of social classes  Archaeological evidence in variety of household decorations, goods buried with deceased members of society at Çatal Hüyük 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    21. 21. Religious Values Elements of natural environment essential for functioning Archaeological evidence of religious worship: thousands of clay figurines, drawings on pots, tool decorations, other ritual objects  Fertility: Venus figurines 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    22. 22. Beginnings of Urbanization Jericho: concentration of wealth, building a wall Craft specialization Social stratification Governance Cultural workers 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
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