NON METALLIC PIPING FOR HIGH SERVICE WORKING TEMPERATURE PP (POLYPROPYLENE) PVDF (POLYVINYLDENFLUORIDE) ECTFE (ETHYLEN CHLORO TRIFLUORO ETHYLEN)
For many years, stainless steel remains a piping material selected for industrial process systemse.g. in pharmaceutical industry. High mechanical strength and low coefficient of thermalexpansion allow stainless steel components to be sterilized or sanitized in a variety of wayswhile withstanding high temperatures.Chemical passivation for stainless steel is frequently required to remove free ions from thesurface and restore the oxide film that gives stainless steel its corrosion resistance. But orbitalwelding techniques used with stainless steel piping systems can cause rough surfaces. Roughingsurfaces (induced bacterial proliferation), metallic ion contamination and post‐installationmaintenance of inner surface finishes are the reason of many industries are seeking ways toleave behind the currently‐used troublesome materials.Due to its metallic ion contamination, most steel was removed from microelectronics UPW(Ultra Purity Water) systems in the 1980s and replaced with high performance polymers PVDF,ECTFE and PP high purity.Properties and system performance of plastics may vary. When selecting the proper plasticspiping, the engineer optimizes performance by matching particular system requirements withcost efficiencies. Non‐contamination, surface‐finish smoothness (reducing the possibility formicro‐organic deposits and growth), sanitation and sterilization adaptability, as well as weldingand system capabilities, are among the chief criteria.Thermoplastics piping is frequently used for commercial and industrial applications such asfor conveying chilled and process waters, aqueous solutions of corrosive chemicals, slurries,foods, and substances that must remain uncontaminated by metallic ions.
Advantages of thermoplastics piping is virtual freedom from attack by ambient waterand moisture. Thermoplastics piping is not subject to surface attacks in any way comparableto the rusting or environtmental corrosion of metals. Thermoplastics, being nonconductors,are immune to the electrochemical based corrosion process induced by electrolytes such asacids, bases and salts. In addition, plastics pipe materials are not vulnerable to biologicalattack. In sum, thermoplastics are not subject to corrosion in most environtment in bothaboveground and underground service. This has resulted in negligible costs for maintenanceand external protection such as painting, plastic coating, galvanizing, electroplating,wrapping, and cathodic protection.Another principal advantage offered by thermoplastics is their lower specific gravity, whichresults in ease of handling, storage, and installation, as well as in lower transportation cost.The smooth pipe surfaces yield low friction factors and very low tendency to fouling. Theyalso offer very good abrasion resistance, even when conveying slurries that can rapidly abradeharder materials. The smooth surface finish combined with the upgraded welding technologygive polymer pipe some significant advantages over current steel technology. Polymer’s lessfrequent sanitization and cleaning cycles translate into fewer interruptions in plant operationsand lower overall production costs.Many joining methods are available for plastic pipe. It can be threaded, flanged, cemented,heat‐fused, and compression fitted. The many joining methods make plastic pipe adaptable tomost filed applications.
The principal limitations of thermoplastics arise from their relatively low strength andstiffness and greater sensitivity of mechanical propertise to temperature. As a result, theirprimary use is for gravity and lower pressure applications at near ambient temperatures.Some plastics qualify for hot water service, and there are some specialty materials that canbe used to close to 150 °C. Not withstanding these restrictions, thermoplastics piping satisfiesthe performance requirements for a very broad range of applications.Additives are essential components of most thermoplastics piping compositions. Theyfacilitate processing, enhance certain properties, and provide required protection duringfabrication and service. There are only few thermoplastics (e.g. certain fluorinated polymerssuch as polyvinyldene fluoride (PVDF) that do not require the incorporation of some typeof additive because they already have sufficient natural thermal stability and aging andweathering resistance.The precise nature and quantities of additives that can be used for piping compositions aredelimited by their effect on engineering properties, such as rigidity, impact strength, chemicalresistance, creep resistance, rupture strength under longterm loading, and fatigue endurance.For example, the use of an inorganic filler can compromised the natural resistance ofpolymers to very strong acids or bases. Also too much filler, or use of a filler of a coarse grade,or its inadequate dispersion can introduce physical discontinuities, or internal faults, that cancompromise long term strength, ductility, toughness, and fatigue endurance. Anotherexample is the excessive use of liquid stabilizers or lubricants, which tends to plasticize theplastic and thereby make it less creep‐resistant and more sensitive to temperature.
Additionally, the properties of the base polymer used in a plastics piping composition are notonly determined by the chemical elements, or atoms, from which the polymer is made, but arealso profoundly influenced by the specific geometrical arrangement by which the polymer’satoms are combined to form a macromolecule. A most important molecular structuralparameter is the length of the molecular chain. The longer the chain, the larger and heavier themolecule. Polymers used for engineering applications consist of relatively long molecules inorder to yield satisfactory levels of longer‐term strength, ductility, and toughness.Molecule size is denoted by molecular weight, which is the sum of the atomic masses of all theelements in the molecule. Since all the molecules in a polymer are not of the same size, thedegree of polymerization is usually expressed by the polymer’s average molecular weight. Thenature of the distribution of molecular sizes also bears a significant influence on a number ofphysical and mechanical properties. Thermoplastics used for piping applications tend to be ofrelatively high molecular weight and of relatively narrow molecular weight distribution.However, the molecular weight cannot be so large as to result in a melt viscosity so high as tohinder proper fabrication of the end product.Polypropylene (PP) pipingPolypropylene (PP) is an economical material that offers a combination of outstanding physical,chemical, mechanical, thermal, electrical properties not found in other thermoplastics.Compared to low or high density PE, PP has a lower impact strength, but superior workingtemperature and tensile strength. PP is tough, heat resistant, semi rigid material that is ideal forthe transfer of hot liquids or gasses. Polypropyelen‐ based piping is also the lightest weightplastic material.
In comparison to other thermoplastics such as PE HD and PVC‐U, PP shows a thermal stability up to 100 C ( short terms up to 110 C for pressureless systems) and 95 C for permanent use.PP shows good impact strength in comparison to PVC‐U. Polypropylene is a fairly ductile material at ambient temperatures and it demonstrates good impact strength. Polypropylene is available in three different types according to DIN 8078Type 1 : PP H ( homopolymer) Type 2 : PP B ( block copolymer) Type 3 : PP R ( random polymer) Copolymer is referred to as PPR, with the R designating the term random copolymer. PPH is the standard designation for homopolymer polypropylene. By copolymerisating with ethylene special properties are achieved as in PP types 2 and 3, which result in an improved higher impact strength of the products in comparison to PP H.Polypropylene is used in chemical piping, and pure water systems. It is chemically resistant to many strong and weak acids. In addition, it is one of the few materials that is recommended for strong bases such as sodium hydroxide. It is not ideal for strong oxidizing acids, aromatics, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.
Advantages of Polypropylene Piping• Low specific weight of 0, 91 g/ cm3 ( PVC‐U 1,40 g/ cm3) • High creep resistance• Excellent chemical resistance• Good weld ability• Excellent abrasion resistance• Smooth inside surface of the pipes, therefore no deposits and no growth over possible due to less frictional resistance• Less pressure losses in comparison with e.g metals• PP is a bad conductor of heat – therefore in most cases, no thermal insulation is required for hot water piping systemPP (polypropylene) physiological non toxicity : With respect to its composition, polypropylene complies with the relevant food stuff regulations ( according OENORM B 5014 Part 1, FDA, BGA, KTW guidelines) . PP H and PP R AGRU both types have been stabilized against high temperature and the best suited materials for the production of pressure piping systems.
SPECIAL GRADE POLYPROPYLENEPolypropylene is also available in highly specialized grades developed for specific applications.PP H‐s( Polypropylene ‐ homopolymere, flame retardant) , due to the higher stiffness of PP‐s, it is well suited for ventilation and degassing pipes, as well as flue lining systems. It may not be used for outdoors applications due to the missing UV stabilization. PPH‐s is a self‐extinguishing homopolymer polypropylene with enhanced fire ratings as compared to standard PP. Fire behaviour according UL 94 ‐‐> V2according DIN 4102 ‐‐> class B1PP R‐s‐elIs a copolymer (Polypropylene random copolymere, flame retardant, electro conductive) ; According to standard UL 94 ‐‐> V0 ; polypropylene with the added property of being electro‐conductive/ specific surface resistance < 106 Ohm.Many applications call for a piping system to be grounded due to the transport of flammable materials/ easy ignitable media. During operation, a static charge can build on the surface of a standard plastic pipe. If the material is not conductive, it cannot be properly grounded and, therefore, runs the risk of potential static discharge to the media. Electro‐conductive PP canbe grounded to avoid this hazard. Finally, PPR‐s‐el is the combination of the electro‐conductive property and the enhanced fire ratings. PP‐R black :(Polypropylene random copolymere black coloured) : The essential advantage of this black coloured material type is the UV resistance for an operating periode over of 10 years, which is not available with grey PP.
PP‐R, natural(Polypropylene –random‐copolymer, natural). PP‐R natural contains no colour additives,it is applied mainly for high purity water piping system. However this material is not UVresistant.PP‐B, greyPPB is a polypropylene block copolymer grey coloured , the product is characterized byits excellent impact properties, as well as a high heat stability and extremely highextraction stability.PP‐R natural AGRU for purity piping
Polyvinyldenfluoride (PVDF) pipingToday, pure and ultra pure water has become an essential ingredient in a wide rangeapplications, such as :1) Water for cleaning the surfaces of semiconductor wafers and liquid crystal panels, which must have no minute foreign particles (use in semiconductor and electronics industries).2) Water for steam generators for the power generating turbines needed for the stable operation of power stations (use in electrical power industries).3) Refined water and injection water for medical care and pharmaceutical industries where safety is vital in any situation (pharmaceutical and hospital industry)4) Blank water for microanalysis in analytical chemistry, directly linked with the analysis level (laboratory, biotechnology, and chemical industry).5) Water for food and beverage processing industryMany industries are seeking ways to leave behind the currently‐used troublesome materials.Stainless steel imposed constant and increasing problems: rouging, pitting, corrosion, metallic‐poisoning, aggravated compliance issues, costly and environmentally adverse cleaningprotocols, and inadvertent fracture, plus costly biofilm issues. Stainless steel corrode over timeas the minor ingredients are lost and as electrochemical potentials arise which promote theoxidation in even the “mildest” of chemical conditions, i.e. hot steam, and the resulting rust(”rouging”) contaminates and compromises the quality of the products being produced in suchequipment.
PVDF piping system offering lower initial cost, less weight, complete resistance to corrosion,good thermal insulation, elimination of the passivation process, extremely smooth interiorsurface have increased their application, particularly in system such as purified waterdistribution loops and other critical processes.PVDF is extremely pure polymer and contains in comparison with a lot of other plastics nostabilizers UV, thermo stabilizers, softener, lubricants or flame retardants additives. Itsparticular suitable for ultra pure water constructions and for the transport of clear chemicalliquids in the semiconductor industry. Due to its chemical inertness, reaction against mostmedia is nearly impossible. PVDF offers with its properties an ideal compromise in connectionwith a very easy processing and an advantageous to price performance ratio.Advantages of Polyvinyldenfluoride PVDF Piping• outstanding mechanical properties, even at high temperaturesPVDF has a high tensile strength and stiffness (Tensile strength at yield 50 Mpa compare to PP30 Mpa), means it can take lots of abuse. That makes it an ideal choice in vibration‐or impactprone applications. PVDFs advantages are particularly prevalent at higher temperatures. Thisis due to the high fluorine content which causes strong interactions between the PVDF chains.This, in turn, displaces the softening and the loss of properties to higher temperatures. Thisalso has an effect on the long‐term creep strength. PVDF shows its outstanding properties in atemperature range from ‐20 °C to +140 ºC. This allows using the material in a wide range ofapplications.
Especially at high temperatures, PVDF provides maximum security. Its high crystalline meltingpoint at around 173 °C speaks for itself. (*Please consult the pressure‐temperature diagramsfor your operational temperature).The thermal expansion coefficient of PVDF of 0.12 to 0.18 mm/m K lies clearly above that ofmetals. Because of this, its thermal expansion must be taken into account during the planningof the piping system. As for all polymers.• excellent chemical resistancePVDF is resistant to most inorganic solvents and additionally to aliphatic and aromatichydrocarbons, organic acids, alcohol and halogenated solvents. PVDF is also not attacked bydry and moist halogens with the exception of fluorine. PVDF is not resistant against strongbasic amines, alkalis, and alkaline metals. Strong polar solvents, such as ketones and esters andorganic acids can cause PVDF to swell somewhat. (*For detailed information, please refer tothe detailed list of chemical resistance) .• no electrochemical corrosionMetallic and anionic contamination in UPW (Ultra Purity Water) systems can shut downenzymatic processes in bioprocessing, corrode equipment in the electrical power generationindustry and result in either short or long‐term failure of electronic components insemiconductor chip and photovoltaic cells.
• long service life, even under intensely corrosive conditionsPVDF offers excellent chemical resistance to weak acids, strong acids, oxidizing acids, mixedacids, organic solvents and many aggresives gases. Such resistance makes it an ideal choice forsevere applications such as : chemical; pulp and paper production, accu battery, fertilizer (superphospat), pesticide, biodiesel, bioethanol, pharmaceuticals, etc.• outstanding resistance against UV and γ‐radiationOutstanding resistance against UV light as well as gamma radiation permits, among otherapplications, the use of PVDF piping outdoors. No loss of properties occurs.• very pure material by implementing without additivesDue to the excellent stability of the PVDF molecule, it is one of the very few materials that canbe processed, welded and used under severe conditions without the use of additives (nopigments, thermostabilisers, processing aids or fillers). This makes it the material of choice forapplications that demand a very high purity of the medium and have stringent requirementsstipulating that the materials which come in contact with the medium do not leachcontaminants.• no support of microbial growthSmooth walls – the extra smooth walls PVDF produces help assure turbulent‐free flow of liquidsand prevent the collection and breeding of fungi, bacteria and other biological impurities.• physiologically harmlessPVDF is physiologically non‐toxic as long as it is used below the maximum temperature of 150 °C.During welding, good ventilation is required or alternately the released gases must be extracted.PVDF can be used in accordance with the relevant regulations of the Food and DrugAdministration (FDA) for items that come into contact with food.
• secure joining by high‐quality welding technologyJoining methods for PVDF pipe include both, welding methods (socket fusion, butt fusion,beadless fusion, and infra red joining) and mechanical methods (threading, flanged).• very low heat conductivityAs for all polymers, PVDF is a good thermal insulator because its heat conductivity of 0.19W/mK is very low. (For comparison, the value for steel is 250 W/m K). Therefore in most cases, nothermal insulation is required for hot flow media piping system.• excellent flame retardant propertiesPVDF is flame retardant and self extinguishing after removal of the ignition source, the amountof smoke produced is minimal at 450 °C and only slight at 600 °C. The oxygen index is 78%(ASTM D 2863). This index indicates the minimum oxygen level necessary for combustion.PVDF is practically non inflammable in normal environments (comparison of the oxygen indexof other thermoplastics : PE HD 18 %; PMMA 18 %; PPs 28 %; PVC‐U 40 % in the case ofvalues below 20,8 %, ignition and continuous combustion is possible after removing theignition source.
PVDF Application rangePVDF homopolymer is the strongest of the pipe lining thermoplastics, strong enough that itcan be used as stand alone pipe.Pharmaceutical industryPVDF are very pure materials for handling water and chemicals that have special purityrequirement, PVDF can be repeatedly autoclaved and cleaned with steam without changingphysical propertiesFood and beverage and dairies industryrequiring low extractable and FDA approved compoundsUltra pure and pure water systemsUsed for : semiconductor manufacturing; electrical power plant construction and fordifferent industries (e.g. petrochemical industry) ; pharmaceuticalsChemical processing industryGeneral chemical processing for corrosive chemical and higher temperature application e.g.pulp and paper industry : in handling halogens and acidsMetal preparation and MiningIn the metals industry, a variety of acids are used to clean, treat/prepare or separate the finalproduct. Strong acids like hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric and chromic are allcommon to this industry. The concentrations of these chemicals can vary throughout theprocess, temperatures tend to be elevated, and mixture of acids are common.BatteryPVDF are exceptionally pure and free of any additives or ionic impurities that can interferewith electrochemical reactions.
Life Science industryBiotechnologyLaboratories and research facilitiesHospitalsDialysis laboratoriesWater and waste water treatment plants for handling high concentrations of sodium hydro chlorite and membrane filtering system, used in mechanical components, fabricated vessels, tanks, pumps, valves, heat exchanger, tower packing, piping system. Microelectronic industry and semiconductor factories requiring very low extractable valuesDisplay factories (LCD,TFT,LED)Solar cell production PVPrinted circuit board production (PCB)
Ethylen Chloro Tri FluoroEthylen (ECTFE) pipingPiping system for the transport of highly aggressive chemicals and ultra high purity media, ECTFE provides excellent chemical resistance and high mechanical strength even at high temperatures. These characteristics enable the use of ECTFE as a cost effective solution for many applications with ultra pure media.Advantages of the ECTFE system : ECTFE shows a remarkable hardiness and excellent chemical resistance to most organic and in organic chemicals ( pH value 0 to 14, max 140° C) as well as solvents ( max. 120° C).Sulphuric acid H2SO4 98% Hydrochloric acid HCL 37% Hydrofluoric acid HF 90% Sodium hydroxide NaOH 50% Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 60% Nitric acid HNO3 65% SolventsChorine and chlorine compounds
ECTFE Application rangeECTFE is primarily used in the chemical, semiconductor, photovoltaic, pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries for the following application areas : Supply system for chemicalsProcess equipment and distribution piping systemsHot ultra‐pure water systemsDouble containment piping systemsH2SO4 injection piping for sewage treatment plantsVentilation piping for aggressive media and high purity mediaLining as corrosion protection for steel, FRP and concrete tanksOutstanding featuresStable and highly resistant to crack growthUltra pure and flame resistant( FM4910 tested raw material; UL94‐VO) Physiological non toxic applicationResistant to high pressureResistant to UV and gamma radiationResistant to diffusion and permeation
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