Knowledge Management Webinar


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  • Knowledge Management Webinar

    1. 1. Self Guided Lecture #3 Knowledge Management Cristin Howell-Vischer, MIM MANAGEMENT II – MAN 2600
    2. 2. Knowledge Management
    3. 3. Knowledge Management: The Challenge
    4. 4. History of Knowledge Management <ul><li>The trend towards Knowledge Management (KM) was fueled by the development of IT systems which made it simple to store, display and archive classified, indexed information </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1980’s KM began to be viewed as a competitive asset </li></ul><ul><li>KM has many connections to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best Practices </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Why is KM Important? <ul><li>Organizations now face the following challenges: </li></ul><ul><li>The increasing value of the intellectual capital which is embedded in end products and services </li></ul><ul><li>The increasing convergence of technologies that enable organizations to globalize at the press of the button </li></ul><ul><li>The rapid growth of Internet </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Economies are increasingly based on knowledge….What is new is that a growing chunk of production in the modern economy is in the form of intangibles, based on the exploitation of ideas rather than material things …&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Economist Newspaper. September, 23, 2000 </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Value of KM <ul><li>It is important to manage knowledge assets because – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations compete increasingly on the base of knowledge (the only sustainable competitive advantage, according to some) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of our work is information based (and often immersed in a computing environment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our products, services, and environment are more complex than ever before </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workforces are increasingly unstable leading to escalating demands for knowledge replacement/acquisition </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. KM – A Cross-Disciplinary Approach <ul><li>Knowledge management draws from a wide range of disciplines and technologies: </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive science: How do we learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Expert systems & “Artificial Intelligence”: Using computers to understand human intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Technical writing </li></ul><ul><li>Document management </li></ul><ul><li>Decision support systems </li></ul><ul><li>Relational and object databases </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational science </li></ul>
    8. 8. What is Knowledge Management? <ul><li>Treating the knowledge component of business activities as an explicit concern of business reflected in strategy, policy and practice at all levels of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Making a direct connection between an organization’s intellectual assets and positive business results </li></ul>
    9. 9. Aren’t we Already Managing Knowledge? <ul><li>Well, no….. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, most of the time we’re making a really ugly mess of managing information </li></ul><ul><li>The terms information and knowledge are often used interchangeably </li></ul>
    10. 10. Data vs. Knowledge <ul><li>Data is unorganized words, numbers and images </li></ul><ul><li>Data alone has no meaning or context. Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The name Bob Jones in a database is merely data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bob Jones is a regular customer of our products. This is information </li></ul><ul><li>Information is - organized or categorized data. It has meaning or value </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is the use of information </li></ul><ul><li>An organization using information that Bob Jones is a regular customer of our products and take initiative to establish a special relationship with Bob Jones is using the information and thus creating customer knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>If the information we gained is not used, then the knowledge remains passive. It cannot be considered as an active intangible asset </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly if employees have skills but he/she does not use them, then such skills remain passive and of no benefit to the organization </li></ul>
    11. 11. 2 Key Thrusts Sharing existing knowledge “ I know what you know” Developing knowledge for Innovation “ Creating and Converting”
    12. 12. Two “Tracks” of KM – According to Sveiby Data Information Knowledge Intelligence Two: Management of Information Codifiable Explicit Easily transferable <ul><li>One: Management of People </li></ul><ul><li>Human </li></ul><ul><li>Judgmental </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual </li></ul><ul><li>Tacit </li></ul><ul><li>The transfer requires learning </li></ul>
    13. 13. Knowledge Assets <ul><li>There are two types of knowledge assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit or formal assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>copyrights, patents, templates, publications, reports, archives, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tacit or informal assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which are rooted in human experience and include personal belief, perspective, and values </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Knowledge Agenda ... in Practice <ul><li>Knowledge Teams - multi-disciplinary, cross-functional </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge ( Data) bases - experts, best practice </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Centres - hubs of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Organization - personal/team/org development </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of Practice - peers in execution of work </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Infrastructure - Intranets, doc mgt </li></ul>
    15. 15. Seven Levers <ul><li>Customer Knowledge - the most vital knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge in Products - ‘smarts’ add value </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge in People - but people ‘walk’ </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge in Processes - know-how when needed </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Memory - do we know what we know? </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge in Relationships - richness and depth </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Assets - intellectual capital </li></ul>
    16. 16. Balanced Approach To Successful KM Source: SBS Consulting Knowledge- Management- System* (Strategy) Informal Organisation (Values and Culture) Formal Organisation (Roles and Structure) Processes IT- Technology & Infrastructure Competence (People)
    17. 17. Knowledge Discovery <ul><li>Knowledge discovery may be defined as the development of new tacit or explicit knowledge from data and information or from the synthesis of prior knowledge </li></ul>
    18. 18. Knowledge Management Processes <ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Capture </li></ul><ul><li>Externalization </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul>
    19. 19. Discovery <ul><li>Combination: </li></ul><ul><li>When multiple bodies of explicit knowledge (information + data) are synthesized to create new, more complex sets of explicit knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>This happens: </li></ul><ul><li>through communication </li></ul><ul><li>via integration and systemization of multiple streams of explicit knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>when existing explicit knowledge, information, and data are reconfigured, recategorized, and recontextualized </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Data mining techniques may be used to uncover new relationships among explicit data, to produce predictive or categorization models that create new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Capture </li></ul><ul><li>Externalization </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul>
    20. 20. Discovery <ul><li>Mechanisms that facilitate combination </li></ul><ul><li>collaborative problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>joint decision making </li></ul><ul><li>collaborative creation of documents </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Capture </li></ul><ul><li>Externalization </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul>
    21. 21. Discovery <ul><li>Socialization: </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of tacit knowledge across individuals </li></ul><ul><li>This happens: </li></ul><ul><li>through joint activities instead of written or verbal instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>By transferring ideas and images, apprenticeships or internships help newcomers to see how other think. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversations at the water cooler helped knowledge sharing among groups at IBM </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Capture </li></ul><ul><li>Externalization </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul>
    22. 22. Discovery <ul><li>Mechanisms that facilitate socialization </li></ul><ul><li>apprenticeships </li></ul><ul><li>employee rotation across areas </li></ul><ul><li>conferences </li></ul><ul><li>brainstorming retreats </li></ul><ul><li>cooperative projects across departments </li></ul><ul><li>initiation process for new employees </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Capture </li></ul><ul><li>Externalization </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul>
    23. 23. Knowledge Capture <ul><li>Knowledge capture is defined as the process of retrieving either explicit or tacit knowledge that resides within people, artifacts or organizational entities </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge may reside within an individual’s mind, without that individual having the ability to recognize it and share it with others (tacit knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge might reside in an explicit form in a manual, but few people might be aware of it (explicit knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge capture might reside outside the organizational boundaries including consultants, competitors, customers, suppliers and prior employers of the organization’s new employees </li></ul>
    24. 24. Capture <ul><li>Externalization: </li></ul><ul><li>Involves converting tacit knowledge into explicit forms such as </li></ul><ul><li>words </li></ul><ul><li>concepts </li></ul><ul><li>visuals </li></ul><ul><li>figurative language (metaphors, analogies, narratives, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Use of metaphor: understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another </li></ul><ul><li>A consultant team writing a document that describes the lessons the team has learned by observing a client organization, executives and approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Capture </li></ul><ul><li>Externalization </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul>
    25. 25. Capture <ul><li>Mechanisms that facilitate externalization </li></ul><ul><li>An Example from the consulting company Viant: </li></ul><ul><li>Before every project, consultants are required to complete a “quicksheet” describing: </li></ul><ul><li>the knowledge they need </li></ul><ul><li>what aspects of knowledge can be leveraged from prior projects </li></ul><ul><li>what they need to create </li></ul><ul><li>the lessons they hope to learn that they can share with others later </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Capture </li></ul><ul><li>Externalization </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul>
    26. 26. Capture <ul><li>Internalization: </li></ul><ul><li>The conversion of explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization represents the traditional notion of “learning” </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit knowledge may be embodied in action and practice </li></ul><ul><li>Or, individuals can acquire tacit knowledge in virtual situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vicariously through reading manuals or other’s stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experientially through simulations or experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>A new software consultant reads a book on innovative software development and learns from it. </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Capture </li></ul><ul><li>Externalization </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul>
    27. 27. Capture <ul><li>Mechanisms that facilitate internalization </li></ul><ul><li>learning by doing </li></ul><ul><li>on-the-job training </li></ul><ul><li>learning by observation </li></ul><ul><li>face-to-face meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>A firm’s Product Division sends their new-product development people to the firm’s telephone call center to chat with the telephone operators, thereby `re-experiencing’ their experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Capture </li></ul><ul><li>Externalization </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul>
    28. 28. Knowledge Sharing <ul><li>Knowledge sharing systems support the process through which explicit or implicit knowledge is communicated to other individuals </li></ul>
    29. 29. Sharing <ul><li>Socialization: </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes sharing of tacit knowledge and exchange or sharing of explicit knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies which help facilitate Socialization include: </li></ul><ul><li>Instant messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Social chat groups </li></ul><ul><li>VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) </li></ul><ul><li>Video-conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic support for communities of practice (COPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Capture </li></ul><ul><li>Externalization </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul>
    30. 30. Sharing <ul><li>Mechanisms and Technologies that facilitate socialization: </li></ul><ul><li>May play an equally important role for knowledge sharing as in knowledge discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Topically focused discussion groups (or technology-enabled chat groups) facilitate knowledge sharing by enabling individuals to explain their knowledge to the rest of the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Capture </li></ul><ul><li>Externalization </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul>
    31. 31. Sharing <ul><li>Exchange: </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms facilitating exchange: </li></ul><ul><li>memos & letters </li></ul><ul><li>manuals </li></ul><ul><li>progress reports </li></ul><ul><li>presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies facilitating exchange: </li></ul><ul><li>Groupware & other team collaboration mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>web-based access to data and databases </li></ul><ul><li>repositories of information including best practice databases, lessons learned systems and expertise locator systems </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Capture </li></ul><ul><li>Externalization </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul>
    32. 32. Knowledge Application <ul><li>Knowledge Applications systems support the process through which some individuals utilize knowledge possessed by other individuals without actually acquiring, or learning that knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms and technologies support knowledge application systems by facilitating routines and direction </li></ul>
    33. 33. Example: Merck Yellow Pages <ul><li>Yellow pages aim at personal skills of Merck staff </li></ul><ul><li>Basic information (no details) comes from HR data bases </li></ul><ul><li>Staff may enhance personal information on education and professional experience </li></ul>
    34. 34. Merck’Blue Pages <ul><li>Collects and structures information and experience with third party companies </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by incentive system </li></ul>
    35. 35. Application <ul><li>Mechanisms that facilitate direction include: </li></ul><ul><li>traditional hierarchical relationships in organizations </li></ul><ul><li>help desks </li></ul><ul><li>support centers </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies that support direction include: </li></ul><ul><li>Experts’ knowledge embedded in expert systems and decision support systems </li></ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting systems based on the use of technologies like case based reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Capture </li></ul><ul><li>Externalization </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul>
    36. 36. Application <ul><li>Mechanisms that facilitate routines include: </li></ul><ul><li>organizational policies </li></ul><ul><li>work practices </li></ul><ul><li>standards </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies that support routines include: </li></ul><ul><li>expert systems </li></ul><ul><li>enterprise resource planning systems </li></ul><ul><li>traditional management information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Capture </li></ul><ul><li>Externalization </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul>