Knowledge Management Webinar
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Knowledge Management lecture

Knowledge Management lecture

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Knowledge Management Webinar Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Self Guided Lecture #3 Knowledge Management Cristin Howell-Vischer, MIM MANAGEMENT II – MAN 2600
  • 2. Knowledge Management
  • 3. Knowledge Management: The Challenge
  • 4. History of Knowledge Management
    • The trend towards Knowledge Management (KM) was fueled by the development of IT systems which made it simple to store, display and archive classified, indexed information
    • In the 1980’s KM began to be viewed as a competitive asset
    • KM has many connections to:
      • Change management
      • Benchmarking
      • Risk Management
      • Best Practices
  • 5. Why is KM Important?
    • Organizations now face the following challenges:
    • The increasing value of the intellectual capital which is embedded in end products and services
    • The increasing convergence of technologies that enable organizations to globalize at the press of the button
    • The rapid growth of Internet
    • "Economies are increasingly based on knowledge….What is new is that a growing chunk of production in the modern economy is in the form of intangibles, based on the exploitation of ideas rather than material things …"
    • Economist Newspaper. September, 23, 2000
  • 6. The Value of KM
    • It is important to manage knowledge assets because –
      • Organizations compete increasingly on the base of knowledge (the only sustainable competitive advantage, according to some)
      • Most of our work is information based (and often immersed in a computing environment)
      • Our products, services, and environment are more complex than ever before
      • Workforces are increasingly unstable leading to escalating demands for knowledge replacement/acquisition
  • 7. KM – A Cross-Disciplinary Approach
    • Knowledge management draws from a wide range of disciplines and technologies:
    • Cognitive science: How do we learn?
    • Expert systems & “Artificial Intelligence”: Using computers to understand human intelligence
    • Technical writing
    • Document management
    • Decision support systems
    • Relational and object databases
    • Simulation
    • Organizational science
  • 8. What is Knowledge Management?
    • Treating the knowledge component of business activities as an explicit concern of business reflected in strategy, policy and practice at all levels of the organization
    • Making a direct connection between an organization’s intellectual assets and positive business results
  • 9. Aren’t we Already Managing Knowledge?
    • Well, no…..
    • In fact, most of the time we’re making a really ugly mess of managing information
    • The terms information and knowledge are often used interchangeably
  • 10. Data vs. Knowledge
    • Data is unorganized words, numbers and images
    • Data alone has no meaning or context. Example:
      • The name Bob Jones in a database is merely data
    • Bob Jones is a regular customer of our products. This is information
    • Information is - organized or categorized data. It has meaning or value
    • Knowledge is the use of information
    • An organization using information that Bob Jones is a regular customer of our products and take initiative to establish a special relationship with Bob Jones is using the information and thus creating customer knowledge
    • If the information we gained is not used, then the knowledge remains passive. It cannot be considered as an active intangible asset
    • Similarly if employees have skills but he/she does not use them, then such skills remain passive and of no benefit to the organization
  • 11. 2 Key Thrusts Sharing existing knowledge “ I know what you know” Developing knowledge for Innovation “ Creating and Converting”
  • 12. Two “Tracks” of KM – According to Sveiby Data Information Knowledge Intelligence Two: Management of Information Codifiable Explicit Easily transferable
    • One: Management of People
    • Human
    • Judgmental
    • Contextual
    • Tacit
    • The transfer requires learning
  • 13. Knowledge Assets
    • There are two types of knowledge assets
      • Explicit or formal assets
        • copyrights, patents, templates, publications, reports, archives, etc.
      • Tacit or informal assets
        • Which are rooted in human experience and include personal belief, perspective, and values
  • 14. Knowledge Agenda ... in Practice
    • Knowledge Teams - multi-disciplinary, cross-functional
    • Knowledge ( Data) bases - experts, best practice
    • Knowledge Centres - hubs of knowledge
    • Learning Organization - personal/team/org development
    • Communities of Practice - peers in execution of work
    • Technology Infrastructure - Intranets, doc mgt
  • 15. Seven Levers
    • Customer Knowledge - the most vital knowledge
    • Knowledge in Products - ‘smarts’ add value
    • Knowledge in People - but people ‘walk’
    • Knowledge in Processes - know-how when needed
    • Organizational Memory - do we know what we know?
    • Knowledge in Relationships - richness and depth
    • Knowledge Assets - intellectual capital
  • 16. Balanced Approach To Successful KM Source: SBS Consulting Knowledge- Management- System* (Strategy) Informal Organisation (Values and Culture) Formal Organisation (Roles and Structure) Processes IT- Technology & Infrastructure Competence (People)
  • 17. Knowledge Discovery
    • Knowledge discovery may be defined as the development of new tacit or explicit knowledge from data and information or from the synthesis of prior knowledge
  • 18. Knowledge Management Processes
    • Discovery
    • Combination
    • Socialization
    • Capture
    • Externalization
    • Internalization
    • Sharing
    • Socialization
    • Exchange
    • Application
    • Direction
    • Routines
  • 19. Discovery
    • Combination:
    • When multiple bodies of explicit knowledge (information + data) are synthesized to create new, more complex sets of explicit knowledge
    • This happens:
    • through communication
    • via integration and systemization of multiple streams of explicit knowledge
    • when existing explicit knowledge, information, and data are reconfigured, recategorized, and recontextualized
    • Example: Data mining techniques may be used to uncover new relationships among explicit data, to produce predictive or categorization models that create new knowledge
    • Discovery
    • Combination
    • Socialization
    • Capture
    • Externalization
    • Internalization
    • Sharing
    • Socialization
    • Exchange
    • Application
    • Direction
    • Routines
  • 20. Discovery
    • Mechanisms that facilitate combination
    • collaborative problem solving
    • joint decision making
    • collaborative creation of documents
    • Discovery
    • Combination
    • Socialization
    • Capture
    • Externalization
    • Internalization
    • Sharing
    • Socialization
    • Exchange
    • Application
    • Direction
    • Routines
  • 21. Discovery
    • Socialization:
    • Synthesis of tacit knowledge across individuals
    • This happens:
    • through joint activities instead of written or verbal instructions
    • Examples:
    • By transferring ideas and images, apprenticeships or internships help newcomers to see how other think.
    • Conversations at the water cooler helped knowledge sharing among groups at IBM
    • Discovery
    • Combination
    • Socialization
    • Capture
    • Externalization
    • Internalization
    • Sharing
    • Socialization
    • Exchange
    • Application
    • Direction
    • Routines
  • 22. Discovery
    • Mechanisms that facilitate socialization
    • apprenticeships
    • employee rotation across areas
    • conferences
    • brainstorming retreats
    • cooperative projects across departments
    • initiation process for new employees
    • Discovery
    • Combination
    • Socialization
    • Capture
    • Externalization
    • Internalization
    • Sharing
    • Socialization
    • Exchange
    • Application
    • Direction
    • Routines
  • 23. Knowledge Capture
    • Knowledge capture is defined as the process of retrieving either explicit or tacit knowledge that resides within people, artifacts or organizational entities
    • Examples:
    • Knowledge may reside within an individual’s mind, without that individual having the ability to recognize it and share it with others (tacit knowledge)
    • Knowledge might reside in an explicit form in a manual, but few people might be aware of it (explicit knowledge)
    • Knowledge capture might reside outside the organizational boundaries including consultants, competitors, customers, suppliers and prior employers of the organization’s new employees
  • 24. Capture
    • Externalization:
    • Involves converting tacit knowledge into explicit forms such as
    • words
    • concepts
    • visuals
    • figurative language (metaphors, analogies, narratives, etc.)
    • Examples:
    • Use of metaphor: understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another
    • A consultant team writing a document that describes the lessons the team has learned by observing a client organization, executives and approaches
    • Discovery
    • Combination
    • Socialization
    • Capture
    • Externalization
    • Internalization
    • Sharing
    • Socialization
    • Exchange
    • Application
    • Direction
    • Routines
  • 25. Capture
    • Mechanisms that facilitate externalization
    • An Example from the consulting company Viant:
    • Before every project, consultants are required to complete a “quicksheet” describing:
    • the knowledge they need
    • what aspects of knowledge can be leveraged from prior projects
    • what they need to create
    • the lessons they hope to learn that they can share with others later
    • Discovery
    • Combination
    • Socialization
    • Capture
    • Externalization
    • Internalization
    • Sharing
    • Socialization
    • Exchange
    • Application
    • Direction
    • Routines
  • 26. Capture
    • Internalization:
    • The conversion of explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge
    • Internalization represents the traditional notion of “learning”
    • Explicit knowledge may be embodied in action and practice
    • Or, individuals can acquire tacit knowledge in virtual situations
      • Vicariously through reading manuals or other’s stories
      • Experientially through simulations or experiments
    • Example:
    • A new software consultant reads a book on innovative software development and learns from it.
    • Discovery
    • Combination
    • Socialization
    • Capture
    • Externalization
    • Internalization
    • Sharing
    • Socialization
    • Exchange
    • Application
    • Direction
    • Routines
  • 27. Capture
    • Mechanisms that facilitate internalization
    • learning by doing
    • on-the-job training
    • learning by observation
    • face-to-face meetings
    • Example:
    • A firm’s Product Division sends their new-product development people to the firm’s telephone call center to chat with the telephone operators, thereby `re-experiencing’ their experiences
    • Discovery
    • Combination
    • Socialization
    • Capture
    • Externalization
    • Internalization
    • Sharing
    • Socialization
    • Exchange
    • Application
    • Direction
    • Routines
  • 28. Knowledge Sharing
    • Knowledge sharing systems support the process through which explicit or implicit knowledge is communicated to other individuals
  • 29. Sharing
    • Socialization:
    • Promotes sharing of tacit knowledge and exchange or sharing of explicit knowledge
    • Technologies which help facilitate Socialization include:
    • Instant messaging
    • Social chat groups
    • VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)
    • Video-conferencing
    • Electronic support for communities of practice (COPs)
    • Discovery
    • Combination
    • Socialization
    • Capture
    • Externalization
    • Internalization
    • Sharing
    • Socialization
    • Exchange
    • Application
    • Direction
    • Routines
  • 30. Sharing
    • Mechanisms and Technologies that facilitate socialization:
    • May play an equally important role for knowledge sharing as in knowledge discovery
    • Example:
    • Topically focused discussion groups (or technology-enabled chat groups) facilitate knowledge sharing by enabling individuals to explain their knowledge to the rest of the group.
    • Discovery
    • Combination
    • Socialization
    • Capture
    • Externalization
    • Internalization
    • Sharing
    • Socialization
    • Exchange
    • Application
    • Direction
    • Routines
  • 31. Sharing
    • Exchange:
    • Mechanisms facilitating exchange:
    • memos & letters
    • manuals
    • progress reports
    • presentations
    • Technologies facilitating exchange:
    • Groupware & other team collaboration mechanisms
    • web-based access to data and databases
    • repositories of information including best practice databases, lessons learned systems and expertise locator systems
    • Discovery
    • Combination
    • Socialization
    • Capture
    • Externalization
    • Internalization
    • Sharing
    • Socialization
    • Exchange
    • Application
    • Direction
    • Routines
  • 32. Knowledge Application
    • Knowledge Applications systems support the process through which some individuals utilize knowledge possessed by other individuals without actually acquiring, or learning that knowledge
    • Mechanisms and technologies support knowledge application systems by facilitating routines and direction
  • 33. Example: Merck Yellow Pages
    • Yellow pages aim at personal skills of Merck staff
    • Basic information (no details) comes from HR data bases
    • Staff may enhance personal information on education and professional experience
  • 34. Merck’Blue Pages
    • Collects and structures information and experience with third party companies
    • Supported by incentive system
  • 35. Application
    • Mechanisms that facilitate direction include:
    • traditional hierarchical relationships in organizations
    • help desks
    • support centers
    • Technologies that support direction include:
    • Experts’ knowledge embedded in expert systems and decision support systems
    • Troubleshooting systems based on the use of technologies like case based reasoning
    • Discovery
    • Combination
    • Socialization
    • Capture
    • Externalization
    • Internalization
    • Sharing
    • Socialization
    • Exchange
    • Application
    • Direction
    • Routines
  • 36. Application
    • Mechanisms that facilitate routines include:
    • organizational policies
    • work practices
    • standards
    • Technologies that support routines include:
    • expert systems
    • enterprise resource planning systems
    • traditional management information systems
    • Discovery
    • Combination
    • Socialization
    • Capture
    • Externalization
    • Internalization
    • Sharing
    • Socialization
    • Exchange
    • Application
    • Direction
    • Routines