World War Two
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World War Two






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World War Two World War Two Presentation Transcript

  • World War Two: Despair, Devastation and the “Brave New World”
    Mr. Shore
  • Gathering Storm
    Rise of the Nation-State
    Rise of Totalitarianism
    Fascism, National Shinto, National Socialism
    Mussolini becomes “Il Duce” in Italy and popular throughout Europe and among many Americans as the ideal of an effective leader
    Chaos, economic ruin and bitterness lead to the slow but steady rise of National Socialists Workers Party (NSDAP) or Nazi Party with Adolf Hitler as leader
  • Gathering Storm (cont)
    Militarists and National Shintoists lead to the rise of General Tojo as head of the Japanese government under Emperor Hirohito
    General Francisco Franco establishes a right-wing military dictatorship in Spain
    Stalin becomes the leader of a totalitarian Communist regime in the Soviet Union
    The Western powers largely demilitarized after the First World War
  • Japan Goes Unchecked
    Japan attacks and occupies Manchuria in 1931 and establishes the puppet state of Manchukuo
    Japan declares a sphere of influence it calls the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
    League of Nations passed a resolution of condemnation of Japanese aggression but took no action.
    League became irrelevant
    The U.S. passed the Stimson Doctrine which refused to recognize Manchukuo and the League followed
  • Aggression and Appeasement
    Italy invades Ethiopia in 1935
    Germany rearms and takes the Rhineland in 1936
    Japan invades the rest of China in 1937
    Germany demands and is allowed to take over the Sudetenland in Czechoslavakia
    The infamous “Munich” agreement under Chamberlain brings “Peace in our time.”
  • American Isolationism
    American sentiment opposed to a second war in Europe
    Isolationists—some felt they were in the tradition of Washington’s Farewell Address
    Other isolationists felt the war served only the “merchants of death” such as the arms manufacturers and bankers
    Some isolationists harbored pro-German or anti-British feelings
  • Nazi Offensive: 1939-1941
    German invasion of Poland—Sept. 1, 1939
    Hitler-Stalin Pact
    German invasion of Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium and France
    By June 1940, only UK still free
  • Arsenal of Democracy
    U. S. increases military budget
    “Cash and Carry”
    Selective Service Act of 1940
    Jan. 1941 FDR justifies lending money to UK based on “Four Freedoms”—freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, freedom from fear
    Lend-Lease Act—U.S. lends arms to UK on credit
    Atlantic Charter
  • America Tries Neutrality…again!
    Neutrality Act of 1935—prohibit arms shipments to belligerent nations and travel on ships of belligerents
    Neutrality Act of 1936—no loans or credits to belligerents
    Neutrality Act of 1937—no arms to opposing sides of the civil war in Spain
    American First Committee—Charles Lindbergh wanted US out of war after in 1940 after total war in Europe began
  • Action in the Pacific
    Japan joins Germany and Italy as the Axis alliance
    Japan expands into Dutch East Indies, British Burma and French Indochina
    FDR prohibits the export of steel and scrap iron to Japan
    In July, 1941 FDR cuts off Japanese access to U. S. oil
  • Pearl Harbor: Day of Infamy
    Japan attacks U. S. naval base in Hawaii on 12/7/1941
    December 8, U. S. declares war on Japan
    December 11, Germany and Italy declare war on U. S.
  • The War in Europe
    United Allied Command under Gen. Eisenhower
    North African campaign in 11/42
    U.S.-British attach on Sicily and Italy in 1943
    D-Day Invasion on June 6, 1944 on beaches of Normandy and from Southern France
    German last attempt at the Battle of the Bulge in 12/44
  • The War in Europe
    On D-Day allies land on the beaches of Normandy in Northern France
    Allied troops parachute behind enemy lines
    Patton leads US forces from southern France
    Allied troops from North and South meet and liberate Paris and then move eastward toward Germany
    Soviet troops advance from the East moving westward
  • Hitler, the Holocaust and Nazi Self-Destruction
    Hitler uses scarce military and logistic resources to transport Jews of Hungary to Auschwitz at the expense of military strategy
    Enormous German manpower required to maintain concentration camps
    Hitler views the elimination of Jews as a worthy cause even at the cost of losing the War
  • Key Political Leaders (Allies)
    Franklin Roosevelt—U.S. President
    Harry Truman—U. S. President
    Winston Churchill—British Prime Minister
    Josef Stalin—Chairman of Communist Party of the Soviet Union
    General De Gaulle—head of the French Resistance
  • Selected Military Leaders (Allied)
    General George Marshall (US- chief of all US forces)
    General Dwight Eisenhower (US-Supreme Allied Commander)
    General Bradley (US)
    General MacArthur (US)
    General Montgomery (UK)
  • Leadership of the Axis
    Adolf Hitler
    Goering, Goebbels, Hess (Germany)
    Benito Mussolini
    Emperor Hirohito
    General Tojo
  • The War in Asia: Island Hopping
    After countering Japanese advance, allied troops need airstrips from which to launch bombing raids on the Japanese mainland
    Major allied landings and eventual recapture of Philippines, Indonesia, Burma
    Critical role of the aircraft carrier
    Carpet bombing of Japan
    Japanese resort to “kamikaze” missions
  • The End
    Allied troops move eastward (US, UK) and westward (Soviet Union) until Germany’s final defeat
    The U. S. develops the atom bomb (Manhattan Project)
    FDR dies, Truman is left to finish the war
    U. S. calculates enormous casualties to conquer Japan by conventional warfare
    Truman authorizes atom bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    Japan surrenders