World War Two


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World War Two

  1. 1. World War Two: Despair, Devastation and the “Brave New World”<br />Mr. Shore<br />
  2. 2. Gathering Storm<br />Rise of the Nation-State <br />Rise of Totalitarianism<br />Fascism, National Shinto, National Socialism<br />Mussolini becomes “Il Duce” in Italy and popular throughout Europe and among many Americans as the ideal of an effective leader<br />Chaos, economic ruin and bitterness lead to the slow but steady rise of National Socialists Workers Party (NSDAP) or Nazi Party with Adolf Hitler as leader<br />
  3. 3. Gathering Storm (cont)<br />Militarists and National Shintoists lead to the rise of General Tojo as head of the Japanese government under Emperor Hirohito<br />General Francisco Franco establishes a right-wing military dictatorship in Spain<br />Stalin becomes the leader of a totalitarian Communist regime in the Soviet Union<br />The Western powers largely demilitarized after the First World War<br />
  4. 4. Japan Goes Unchecked<br />Japan attacks and occupies Manchuria in 1931 and establishes the puppet state of Manchukuo<br />Japan declares a sphere of influence it calls the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere<br />League of Nations passed a resolution of condemnation of Japanese aggression but took no action. <br />League became irrelevant<br />The U.S. passed the Stimson Doctrine which refused to recognize Manchukuo and the League followed<br />
  5. 5. Aggression and Appeasement<br />Italy invades Ethiopia in 1935<br />Germany rearms and takes the Rhineland in 1936<br />Japan invades the rest of China in 1937<br />Germany demands and is allowed to take over the Sudetenland in Czechoslavakia<br />The infamous “Munich” agreement under Chamberlain brings “Peace in our time.”<br />
  6. 6. American Isolationism<br />American sentiment opposed to a second war in Europe<br />Isolationists—some felt they were in the tradition of Washington’s Farewell Address<br />Other isolationists felt the war served only the “merchants of death” such as the arms manufacturers and bankers<br />Some isolationists harbored pro-German or anti-British feelings<br />
  7. 7. Nazi Offensive: 1939-1941<br />German invasion of Poland—Sept. 1, 1939<br />Hitler-Stalin Pact<br />German invasion of Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium and France<br />By June 1940, only UK still free<br />
  8. 8. Arsenal of Democracy<br />U. S. increases military budget<br />“Cash and Carry”<br />Selective Service Act of 1940<br />Destroyers-for-bases<br />Jan. 1941 FDR justifies lending money to UK based on “Four Freedoms”—freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, freedom from fear<br />Lend-Lease Act—U.S. lends arms to UK on credit<br />Atlantic Charter<br />
  9. 9. America Tries Neutrality…again!<br />Neutrality Act of 1935—prohibit arms shipments to belligerent nations and travel on ships of belligerents<br />Neutrality Act of 1936—no loans or credits to belligerents<br />Neutrality Act of 1937—no arms to opposing sides of the civil war in Spain<br />American First Committee—Charles Lindbergh wanted US out of war after in 1940 after total war in Europe began<br />
  10. 10. Action in the Pacific<br />Japan joins Germany and Italy as the Axis alliance<br />Japan expands into Dutch East Indies, British Burma and French Indochina<br />FDR prohibits the export of steel and scrap iron to Japan<br />In July, 1941 FDR cuts off Japanese access to U. S. oil<br />
  11. 11. Pearl Harbor: Day of Infamy<br />Japan attacks U. S. naval base in Hawaii on 12/7/1941<br />December 8, U. S. declares war on Japan<br />December 11, Germany and Italy declare war on U. S.<br />
  12. 12. The War in Europe<br />United Allied Command under Gen. Eisenhower<br />North African campaign in 11/42<br />U.S.-British attach on Sicily and Italy in 1943<br />D-Day Invasion on June 6, 1944 on beaches of Normandy and from Southern France<br />German last attempt at the Battle of the Bulge in 12/44<br />
  13. 13. The War in Europe<br />On D-Day allies land on the beaches of Normandy in Northern France<br />Allied troops parachute behind enemy lines<br />Patton leads US forces from southern France<br />Allied troops from North and South meet and liberate Paris and then move eastward toward Germany<br />Soviet troops advance from the East moving westward<br />
  14. 14. Hitler, the Holocaust and Nazi Self-Destruction<br />Hitler uses scarce military and logistic resources to transport Jews of Hungary to Auschwitz at the expense of military strategy<br />Enormous German manpower required to maintain concentration camps<br />Hitler views the elimination of Jews as a worthy cause even at the cost of losing the War<br />
  15. 15. Key Political Leaders (Allies)<br />Franklin Roosevelt—U.S. President<br />Harry Truman—U. S. President<br />Winston Churchill—British Prime Minister<br />Josef Stalin—Chairman of Communist Party of the Soviet Union<br />General De Gaulle—head of the French Resistance<br />
  16. 16. Selected Military Leaders (Allied)<br />General George Marshall (US- chief of all US forces)<br />General Dwight Eisenhower (US-Supreme Allied Commander) <br />General Bradley (US)<br />General MacArthur (US)<br />General Montgomery (UK)<br />
  17. 17. Leadership of the Axis<br />Adolf Hitler<br />Goering, Goebbels, Hess (Germany)<br />Benito Mussolini <br />Emperor Hirohito<br />General Tojo<br />
  18. 18. The War in Asia: Island Hopping<br />After countering Japanese advance, allied troops need airstrips from which to launch bombing raids on the Japanese mainland<br />Major allied landings and eventual recapture of Philippines, Indonesia, Burma<br />Critical role of the aircraft carrier<br />Carpet bombing of Japan<br />Japanese resort to “kamikaze” missions<br />
  19. 19. The End<br />Allied troops move eastward (US, UK) and westward (Soviet Union) until Germany’s final defeat<br />The U. S. develops the atom bomb (Manhattan Project)<br />FDR dies, Truman is left to finish the war<br />U. S. calculates enormous casualties to conquer Japan by conventional warfare<br />Truman authorizes atom bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki<br />Japan surrenders<br />