America and the Soviet Union<br />Wartime alliance a matter of strategic convenience<br />Soviet Union supports a global Communist policy<br />Communism is considered both an alien and “evil” doctrine that is opposed to American values of liberty, economic freedom, religion and traditional freedoms<br />
Broken Soviet Promises<br />Based on the Yalta Agreement the countries of Eastern Europe (under Soviet occupation) were to have open and free elections<br />In 1946, the Soviets allowed only “mock” elections in Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Hungary and Czechoslovakia establishing “puppet” Communist regimes<br />The Soviet Union establishes a Communist regime in East Germany and East Berlin<br />
The “Iron Curtain” & Containment<br />Churchill famously declares, “An iron curtain has descended across the (European) continent”<br />Truman’s foreign policy advisor, George Kennan establishes the doctrine of containment: “A long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies” would end Communist dreams of world domination<br />
Truman Doctrine<br />Stop Communist takeover of Greece<br />Resist Soviet plans for access to the Dardanelles in Turkey<br />$400 million to help free people in Turkey and Greece resist Soviet expansionism<br />
The Marshall Plan<br />Massive US foreign assistance to Western Europe to ensure stable economies and democratic governments<br />$17 billion for European Recovery Program (official name of the Marshall Plan)<br />$12 billion additionally over a 4 year period<br />Successfully kept Western Europe in the pro-democracy, anti-Communist alliance<br />
The Birth of NATO<br />US establishes a collective security agreement with Canada and Western Europe –the North Atlantic Treaty Organization<br />General Eisenhower becomes first Supreme Commander of NATO<br />The Soviet Union creates an opposing collective security pact—the Warsaw Pact<br />
National Security Act--1947<br />Centralized Department of Defense to coordinate Army, Navy and Air Force<br />Creation of the National Security Council<br />Creation of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)<br />
Atomic Weapons<br />US develops the Hydrogen bomb in 1952<br />Soviets test their first A-Bomb in 1949<br />NSC-68: Quadruple defense spending to 20% of GNP, form anti-Communist alliances, educate American public<br />
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