Energy Transfer: In Atmosphere and In Oceans By: OwaisFarooq Hovo Khachikyan Halim Hakimi 1
Table of Content
What is energy transfer
Absorption if the Sun’s energy
Energy Transfer in Atmosphere
Energy Transfer within the Climate System Diagram
Energy transfer in Oceans
Ocean Currents around the World
Introduction Most of the Energy on Earth comes from our sun which releases number of different types of radiation. For example Ultraviolet radiation which is a form of invisible high-energy radiation and Infrared radiation which is a form of a invisible lower-energy radiation. … 3
What is Energy Transfer You have seen how the weather changes from hot to cold or cold to hot, it gets warmer in summer and etc. The climate transports thermal energy from regions that receive a lot of radiation to regions that receive less radiation, that is transferring energy from place to place. If the Sun’s light worms you in summer, its also energy transfer but in deferent shape. Energy transfer is the transfer of energy from one body into another. 4 There are two main ways of transferring the suns Energy around the Earth. One way is in the Atmosphere and the other is in then oceans. The energy coming from the sun is transferred by convection, conduction and lastly by radiation taking place in the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth.
Absorption of the Sun’s Energy 5 In this following diagram 6% of the energy is reflected by the atmosphere while 20% is reflected by the clouds and 4% is reflected from the Earth’s surface. While 16% is absorbed by the atmosphere and 3% is absorbed by the clouds and 51% is absorbed by land and oceans.
Energy Transfer: Atmosphere 6
Energy Transfer In Atmosphere Almost all the energy comes from Sun. The sun sends to earth 2 kind of radiation, ultraviolet radiation which is invisible short wavelength, and infrared radiation that is invisible with long wavelength. Air at the equator heats up and becomes less dense. Colder denser air drops, pushing the warm air into the atmosphere. The warm air creates an area of low pressure. When the warm air reaches the troposphere, it cools down and drops back down to Earths surface. This movement of warm and cold air is called convection currents. 7
Energy Transfer within the Climate System Diagram 8 Bends of High and Low pressure around the globe creates air currents (winds) that blow from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. Winds are named based on the direction they originate from.
Energy Transfer:Oceans 9
Energy Transfer in the Ocean… As you know from before, the colder the air is, the more dense it is. This is how the Ocean works too. The water traveling to the North and South poles gets colder and saltier because when the ice is frozen over, it rejects the salt. The low temperatures and the saltiness make the water at the poles more dense. Also, it works the way the air in atmosphere system. Worm water travels to South or North pole, when it gets cold, it comes back to the center of the earth. 10
Ocean currents around the World 11 In this following diagrams the Red lines represent the warm ocean currents while the blue lines represent the cold ones.
Gulf Stream 12 In this following diagram we can see the Gulf Stream which is in bright red colour representing the warm currents while the blue one represents the cold current. The Gulf Stream Is one of the Warm ocean currents and it transports and carries energy from the from the equator to the higher latitudes.
Summary - Overview Two types of Energy Transfer:In the oceans and In the Atmosphere Air and Ocean currents are the main ways that energy is transported around the earth Different kind of Ocean Currents Video:http://www.brightstorm.com/science/physics/heat-transfer-and-change-of-phase/thermal-energy-transfer 13
Citations "All About Frozen Ground: How Does It Form?" National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Web. 10 Jan. 2011. <http://nsidc.org/frozenground/how_fg_forms.html>. "Introduction to the Atmosphere: Background Material." UCAR | Understanding Atmosphere, Earth, and Sun | Home. Web. 9 Jan. 2011. <http://www.ucar.edu/learn/1_1_1.htm>. Adam-Carr, Christine, and Martin Gabber. "Energy Transfer: Oceans and Atmosphere." Science Perspectives 10. Toronto: Nelson Education, 2010. 326+. Print. "Temperature of the Gulf Stream : Image of the Day." NASA Earth Observatory : Home. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=681>. 14