Heat Treating — Choosing & Using Polymer Quenchants


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Quenching is a vital part of the heat treating process in manufacturing. Polymer quenchants are one option for quenching operations, and knowing which one to choose is key to successful heat treating applications. Scott Mackenzie, PhD, FASM, from Houghton International shares what you need to know when selecting quenching oils for your heat treating operations.

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  • Heat Treating — Choosing & Using Polymer Quenchants

    1. 1. Quenching – Mastering the Process D. Scott MacKenzie, PhD, FASM December m 2011 Choosing and Using Polymer Quenchants
    2. 2. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Real loads are complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to meet properties and reduce distortion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No quantitative method to understand interaction of fluid flow and part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often understanding is “Trial and Error” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience trims the Heuristic tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat transfer mechanism is complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple heat transfer regimes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time and Temperature dependent phase transformations </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Mechanism of Quenching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quenching occurs in three stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vapor Phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of vapor film around the part </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat transfer is slow </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat transfer occurs primarily through radiation and conduction through vapor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleate Boiling Phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High heat extraction rates </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat removal by bubble formation and contact of cool quenchant on part surface </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convection Phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starts at below boiling temperature of quenchant </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slow heat transfer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governs Properties and Distortion </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Factors Affecting Cooling Rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to diffuse heat out of the part (thermal diffusivity) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability of the quenching medium to remove heat. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal Diffusivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability of steel to transfer heat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes as a function of temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very little change as a function of composition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quenchant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most important control over cooling rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on radiation, boiling and forced and unforced convection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agitation, quenchant temperature and concentration (if polymer quenchant) primary factors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important practical considerations </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Quenching Mediums </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many different types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caustic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polymer (Aqueous) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molten Salts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gases </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Different types of Polymer (Aqueous) Quenchants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyalkylene Glycol (PAG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium Polyacrylate (ACR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyethyl Oxazoline (PEO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid Polymer Quenchants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ability to tailor quench rates to specific applications </li></ul><ul><li>Quench rate affected by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination and Degradation </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Polymer Quenchants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various types of polymer quenchant have widely differing properties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility of quenching characteristics is possible through selection of polymer type, concentration, temperature, agitation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Success Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardenability of steel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Section thickness of component </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of furnace </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quench tank </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required physical properties </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Advantages of Polymer Quenchants </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elimination of fire hazard and the need for protection equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced fire suppression equipment required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower fire insurance premiums </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaner, safer working environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility of quenching speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled by Concentration, Agitation and Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Component entry into quenchant is less critical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reductions of stresses and distortion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced cost because diluted polymer quenchants have lower viscosities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower drag-out and replenishment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier cleaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced temperature rise during quenching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polymer quenchant solutions have almost twice the specific heat capacity of quenching oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced distortion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less straightening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement in fatigue and service life </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Quenching – Mastering the Process
    10. 10. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Polyalkylene Glycol (PAG) </li></ul><ul><li>PAG Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immersion quenching of steel components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applicable to low, medium and high alloy steels, including carburizing grades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Martensitic stainless steels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Induction hardening and spray quenching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replaces water, soluble oil, or mineral oil. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used at 5-15% to eliminate spotty hardening, control distortion, and provide corrosion protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Applicable to all types of components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasteners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bolts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bearings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crankshafts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miscellaneous agricultural parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Springs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steel bars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steel coils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forgings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miscellaneous automotive parts </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Quenching – Mastering the Process
    12. 12. Quenching – Mastering the Process Polyalkylene Glycol (PAG) Concentration Temperature Agitation
    13. 13. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Sodium Polyacrylate (ACR) </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil-like quenching characteristics similar to normal speed quenching oils. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally used at concentrations of 15-25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not exhibit inverse solubility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce high viscosity, polymer-rich layer around part </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces cooling rate during convection phase, reducing distortion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seamless tube - oil industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forgings and castings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin-section alloy steel crankshafts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High carbon-chromium grinding balls </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Quenching – Mastering the Process
    15. 15. Quenching – Mastering the Process Temperature Sodium Polyacrylate (ACR) Concentration Agitation
    16. 16. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Polyethyl Oxazoline (PEO) </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Houghton International </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil-like quenching characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide application range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Induction hardening of steel and cast iron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immersion of high hardenability steel castings and forgings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Induction and flame hardening at 5-10% concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally used at 5-25% concentration for immersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical applications include camshafts, crankshafts and gears in the automotive industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drill pipe for the oil industry </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Quenching – Mastering the Process
    18. 18. Quenching – Mastering the Process Concentration Temperature Agitation Polyethyl Oxazoline (PEO)
    19. 19. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) </li></ul><ul><li>Oil-like quenching characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Used at concentrations of 15-25% </li></ul><ul><li>Typical applications include heat treatment of high hardenability materials and alloys. </li></ul><ul><li>Used widely in the steel industry for quenching of bars, rolled sections, and forgings. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Quenching – Mastering the Process
    21. 21. Quenching – Mastering the Process Agitation Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) Concentration Temperature
    22. 22. Quenching – Mastering the Process <ul><li>Hybrid Polymer Quenchants </li></ul><ul><li>Third Generation of Polymer Quenchants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applicable to wide variety of steels and hardenabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low residue, low concentration and slow quench rates compared to earlier quenchants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable and easy to control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10-12% equal to medium speed quenchant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for forgings, gears, cannon barrels, large crankshafts, camshafts </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Quenching Products from Houghton Cold Quenching Oils Houghto-Quench K Houghto-Quench G Houghto-Quench 3440 Houghto-Quench 3430 Dasco Quench LPA 15 Dasco Quench LBA 15 Polymer (Aqueous) Quenchants Aqua-Quench 140 Aqua-Quench 145 Aqua-Quench 245 Aqua-Quench 251 Aqua-Quench 260 Aqua-Quench 3699 Aqua-Quench C Email cfaulkner@ houghtonintl.com or [email_address] for more information. Hot Quenching Oils Mar-Temp 355 Dasco Quench MPA 60 Below is a sampling of Houghton quenchants. However, you should consult a Houghton expert for the right product for your application.
    24. 24. Your Global Fluid Technology Partner <ul><li>We offer your operation a global network of fluids experts delivering innovative technologies, chemistries, products and services with a single focus on solving your toughest challenges. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Worldwide Coverage… One Company Over 2,000 employees in 31 countries with manufacturing and research facilities in 21 locations. Houghton helps customers around the world save on overall process chemical and disposal costs while improving production and part quality.
    26. 26. Thank You
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